Findings on Happiness and AUTHORITARIANISM

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and AUTHORITARIANISM
Subject Code: A09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A09AUTHORITARIANISM0
A09aaCareer of authoritarianism0
A09abCurrent authoritarianism4
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and AUTHORITARIANISM
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyOgris (1994): study AT 1994
TitleKorrelate mit Lebenszufriedenheit: Glück und Wohlbefinden in Osterreich und Slowenien. (Correlates of Life-Satisfaction, Happiness and Well-Being in Austria and Slovenia).
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/ogris_g_1994.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Austria 1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelAutoritarismus
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
4questions:
1 One of the most important traits somebody can have, 
are discipline and obediance to authority
2 We should be thankful to leaders, who tell us 
exactly, what we must do and how to do it
3 In general it is useful for a child for his later 
life, when it is forced to adapt to the attitudes of 
his parents
4 A society cannot exist in the long run, if her 
members are permitted to have different attitudes

Each rated on a 7 step scale:
totally disagree........totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.06
question 1.....most important..discipline...
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.08
question 2....thankful to leader....
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.06
question 3...child forced  to adapt
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-c
question 4...different attitudes in society


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelLaw and order attitude
Page in Source 39
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
4-item index: Typical items are:
- children need law and order.     
- one should feel love and respect for one's parents
-there are merely strong and weak people
Remarks
Items taken from a shortened F-scale (Weima 1963)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelDissatisfaction with present socio- political order
Page in Source 40
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
5-item index indicating anomy and powerlessness: 
Typical items are
- we need less laws and intitutions and  more 
courageous leaders
- most politicians are incapabale. -people should talk 
less and live a  more natural and active way of life.
Remarks
Itemsd taken from a shortened F-scale (Weima 1963)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyOgris (1994): study SI 1994
TitleKorrelate mit Lebenszufriedenheit: Glück und Wohlbefinden in Osterreich und Slowenien. (Correlates of Life-Satisfaction, Happiness and Well-Being in Austria and Slovenia).
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/ogris_g_1994.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Slovenia, 1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelAutoritarismus
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
 
 4 questions:
 1 One of the most important traits
 somebody can have, are discipline
 and obediance to authority.
 2 We should be thankful to leaders,
 who tell us exactly, what we do and
 how to do it.
 3 In general it is useful for a child
 for his later life, when it is forced
 to adapt to the attitudes of his
 parents.
 4 A society cannot exist in the long 
 run, if her members are permitted to
 have different attitudes.
 Each rated on a 7 step scale:
 totally disagree......totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=ns
question 1….most important….discipline….
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=ns
question 2…..thankful to leader…
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=ns
question 3…child forced to adapt..
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.1
question 4…different attitudes in society..


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

How well do you feel these days? Is your current well-being....?
0 very low
1
2
3
4 very high
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole now, are you.....?
5 very happy
4 quite happy
3 more happy than unhappy
2 more unhappy than happy
1 quite unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A09abCurrent authoritarianismP04aaAggressive, angry
A09abCurrent authoritarianismP04ajBlaming
A09abCurrent authoritarianismV02aa01fEgalitarianism

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings