Findings on Happiness and AGGRESSION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and AGGRESSION
Subject Code: A05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A05AGGRESSION0
A05aaAggression career0
A05aa01Earlier aggression5
A05aa02Change in aggression0
A05aa03Later aggression3
A05abCurrent aggression0
A05ab02Aggressive behavior6
A05acAttitudes to aggression0
A05ac01Attitudes to own aggressive behavior0
A05ac02Attitude to aggression in general0
A05ab01Victim of aggression0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and AGGRESSION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier aggression
Subject code: A05aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelGood conduct at adulthood
Page in Source 5,14,15,5,16,19,24,25,29,31,52
Our classificationEarlier aggression, code A05aa01
Operationalization
Number of crimes - Minus total times found guilty by a 
criminal court or formally cautioned at police station.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- Income
- Education
- Employed
- Has partner
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health(at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.06
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Intellectual performance(at age 5,10,16)
- Emotional health(at age 5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender(female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier aggression
Subject code: A05aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelGood conduct in childhood
Page in Source 5,14,15,5,16,19,24,25,29,31,52
Our classificationEarlier aggression, code A05aa01
Operationalization
Childhood: Sum of mother's replies to 10 questions on 
aggression, obedience, restlessness and other 
behavioral characteristics at age 5, 10 and 16.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=
Good conduct assessed at:
- Age 5:   r=+.10
- Age 10:  r=+.13
- Age 16:  r=+.17
- Average: r=+.14
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.09
beta=+.085

When limiting good conduct up to:
- age 5:  beta=+.05
- age10:  beta=+.06

Indirect effect of childhood conduct:
Simulated:
beta= +.05

Subtraction of total variance in good conduct from 
childhood conduct:
beta= +.03
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance
- Emotional health
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Female

When limited to good conduct at age 5:
beta= +.04
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 10 and 16
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Both parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
10:
beta= +.036
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5 and 16
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
16:
beta= +.062
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5 and 10
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.05
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Income
- Employed
- Education
- Good conduct at age 16 and 34
- Self-perceived health
- Emotional health at age 26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier aggression
Subject code: A05aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelSerious delinquent behaviors
Our classificationEarlier aggression, code A05aa01
Operationalization
A mean of 10 items asking the respondent how often he 
had done such things as 'set fire to someone else's 
property on purpose', 'hurt someone badly enough to 
need bandages or a doctor', 'taken something not 
belonging to you wort over $50' etc. Scale: 1.00
= never to 5.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Serious delinquent behavior
Happiness T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1      -.18    -.14    -.12    -.04 ns -.10
T2      -.09    -.11    -.09    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3      -.04 ns -.07 ns -.11    -.05 ns -.04 ns
T4      -.03 ns -.02 ns -.05 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier aggression
Subject code: A05aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelTheft and vandalism
Our classificationEarlier aggression, code A05aa01
Operationalization
A mean of nine items which measure the number of times 
respondent has commited acts of theft or vandalism. 
Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Theft and vandalism
Happiness T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1      -.19    -.14    -.13    -.03    -.11
T2      -.10    -.13    -.10    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3      -.06 ns -.09    -.11    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4      -.04 ns -.04 ns -.06 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier aggression
Subject code: A05aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelDelinquent behavior in school
Our classificationEarlier aggression, code A05aa01
Operationalization
At T1, T2 and T3: a mean of seven items measuring the 
amount of school-oriented delinquent behavior. Included 
are questions on how often respondent has been 
suspended, damaged school property, and gotten into a 
serious fight at school. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Delinquent behavior at school
Happiness     T1         T2         T3
T1      tau = -.19 (001) -.14 (001) -.12 (001)
T2      tau = -.10 (01)  -.15 (001) -.11 (01)
T3      tau = -.07 (ns)  -.10 (01)  -.08 (05)
T4      tau = -.06 (ns)  -.04 (ns)  -.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later aggression
Subject code: A05aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelSerious delinquent behaviors
Our classificationLater aggression, code A05aa03
Operationalization
A mean of 10 items asking the respondent how often he 
had done such things as 'set fire to someone else's 
property on purpose', 'hurt someone badly enough to 
need bandages or a doctor', 'taken something not 
belonging to you wort over $50' etc. Scale: 1.00
= never to 5.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Serious delinquent behavior
Happiness T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1      -.18    -.14    -.12    -.04 ns -.10
T2      -.09    -.11    -.09    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3      -.04 ns -.07 ns -.11    -.05 ns -.04 ns
T4      -.03 ns -.02 ns -.05 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later aggression
Subject code: A05aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelTheft and vandalism
Our classificationLater aggression, code A05aa03
Operationalization
A mean of nine items which measure the number of times 
respondent has commited acts of theft or vandalism. 
Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Theft and vandalism
Happiness T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1      -.19    -.14    -.13    -.03    -.11
T2      -.10    -.13    -.10    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3      -.06 ns -.09    -.11    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4      -.04 ns -.04 ns -.06 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later aggression
Subject code: A05aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelDelinquent behavior in school
Our classificationLater aggression, code A05aa03
Operationalization
At T1, T2 and T3: a mean of seven items measuring the 
amount of school-oriented delinquent behavior. Included 
are questions on how often respondent has been 
suspended, damaged school property, and gotten into a 
serious fight at school. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Delinquent behavior at school
Happiness     T1         T2         T3
T1      tau = -.19 (001) -.14 (001) -.12 (001)
T2      tau = -.10 (01)  -.15 (001) -.11 (01)
T3      tau = -.07 (ns)  -.10 (01)  -.08 (05)
T4      tau = -.06 (ns)  -.04 (ns)  -.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive behavior
Subject code: A05ab02

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelBullying
Page in Source 192
Our classificationAggressive behavior, code A05ab02
Operationalization
Self report of Bullying others more than twice a month
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N =50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ers=-
Girls: rs = -.08
Boys : rs = -.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive behavior
Subject code: A05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelTheft and vandalism
Our classificationAggressive behavior, code A05ab02
Operationalization
A mean of nine items which measure the number of times 
respondent has commited acts of theft or vandalism. 
Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Theft and vandalism
Happiness T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1      -.19    -.14    -.13    -.03    -.11
T2      -.10    -.13    -.10    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3      -.06 ns -.09    -.11    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4      -.04 ns -.04 ns -.06 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive behavior
Subject code: A05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal aggression
Our classificationAggressive behavior, code A05ab02
Operationalization
A mean of six (at T1, T2, T3 and T4) or eight (at T5) 
items which ascertains how often respondent hit, 
fought, or hurt other people, including relatives, 
teachters, and students. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
fibe or more times.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Interpersonal aggression
      T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T1   -.18    -.09    -.09    -.06 ns -.05 ns
T2   -.10    -.10    -.08    -.02 ns -.01 ns
T3   -.07 ns -.08    -.08    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4   -.08 ns -.02 ns -.06 ns -.03 ns -.05 ns
All tau's significant, unless indicated otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive behavior
Subject code: A05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal aggression
Our classificationAggressive behavior, code A05ab02
Operationalization
A mean of six (at T1, T2, T3 and T4) or
eight (at T5) items which ascertains how often 
respondent hit, fought, or hurt other people, including 
relatives, teachers, and students. Scale: 0.00 = never 
to 4.00 = five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Interpersonal aggression
        T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T2    -.18    -.09    -.09    -.06 ns -.05 ns
T2    -.10    -.10    -.08    -.02 ns -.01 ns
T3    -.07 ns -.08    -.08    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4    -.08 ns -.02 ns -.06 ns -.03 ns -.05 ns
All tau's significant, unless indicated otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive behavior
Subject code: A05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelDelinquent behavior in school
Our classificationAggressive behavior, code A05ab02
Operationalization
At T1, T2 and T3: a mean of seven items measuring the 
amount of school-oriented delinquent behavior. Included 
are questions on how often respondent has been 
suspended, damaged school property, and gotten into a 
serious fight at school. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Delinquent behavior at school
Happiness     T1         T2         T3
T1      tau = -.19 (001) -.14 (001) -.12 (001)
T2      tau = -.10 (01)  -.15 (001) -.11 (01)
T3      tau = -.07 (ns)  -.10 (01)  -.08 (05)
T4      tau = -.06 (ns)  -.04 (ns)  -.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive behavior
Subject code: A05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelSerious delinquent behaviors
Our classificationAggressive behavior, code A05ab02
Operationalization
A mean of 10 items asking the respondent how often he 
had done such things as 'set fire to someone else's 
property on purpose', 'hurt someone badly enough to 
need bandages or a doctor', 'taken something not 
belonging to you wort over $50' etc. Scale: 1.00
= never to 5.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Serious delinquent behavior
Happiness T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
T1      -.18    -.14    -.12    -.04 ns -.10
T2      -.09    -.11    -.09    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3      -.04 ns -.07 ns -.11    -.05 ns -.04 ns
T4      -.03 ns -.02 ns -.05 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a scale from 0 to 10. om it, "0" means that you are completely dissatisfied and "10 " means that you are completely satisfied. Please ring ONE number to show just how dissatisfied or satisfied you are about the way your life has turned out so far
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A05AGGRESSIONC12CRIME
A05ab01Victim of aggressionV06abCurrent victim status
A05ac01Attitudes to own aggressive behaviorS02SELF-IMAGE
A05ac02Attitude to aggression in generalV02ab01c(post)-materialism

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings