Findings on Happiness and ACTIVITY (how much one does)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and ACTIVITY (how much one does)
Subject Code: A01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)0
A01aaActivity career0
A01aa01Earlier activity level0
A01aa02Change in activity level0
A01aa03Later activity level0
A01abCurrent activity level5
A01ab01Physical activity31
A01ab02Mental activity16
A01acAttitudes to own activity level0
A01ac01Perceived over/under activity3
A01ac02Satisfaction with activity level1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and ACTIVITY (how much one does)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current activity level
Subject code: A01ab

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelActivity index
Page in Source 631
Our classificationCurrent activity level, code A01ab
Operationalization
Self report on open question:'Which of the following 
activities do you often,seldom, never?':
a Walk to places
b Visit friends
c Drink with friends
d Work on your land
e Do odd jobs
f Go to the shops/market
g Go to town
h Just sit and think about things
i Engage in religious activities/
  go to church meetings
j Attend community meetings
k Play games
l Do handcrafts
m Go to parties, feasts, weddings, funerals, etc.

Coded:
0: low
1: high
Remarks
The direction of this correlation is uncertain.
The table mentions a negative relationship, but the 
text refers to a postive relationship.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.30 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.35 p < .01
All
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.06 ns
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Voluntary retirement
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard income
- Community elder
- Satisfied with job while working
- Enjoys aspects of retirement
- Retired suddenly
- Is happy as grandparents were
- Agrees:planning is key to success
- Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
- Higher modernity score
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
All
ß controlled for: 
- Satisfied with health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- Has a confidant
- Keeps goats
- Higher monthly income
- Worked for many years in jobs
- Retired for many years
- No desire to return to work
- Agrees: Modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.29 p < .01
65+ years old
ß controlled for:
- Seldom restricted by poor health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- Keeps chicken
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Keeps goats  
- Larger size field
- Higher monthly income
- No desire to return to work


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current activity level
Subject code: A01ab

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelEase-contentment activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent activity level, code A01ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled ease-contentment activities (simple comforts, 
security, relaxation).  
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=-.60 (01)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current activity level
Subject code: A01ab

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelNon-goal directed activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent activity level, code A01ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled non-goal directed activities (routine 
maintenance such as getting up, eating, bathing, etc.). 

They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.43 (05)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r=-.41 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current activity level
Subject code: A01ab

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelActivity-scope
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent activity level, code A01ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to report their regular or 
scheduled total activities 
on a 33 point checklist

Rating from no participation (0) to frequent 
participation (3). 

Ratings were summed and divided by 33.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.52 (05)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.56 (05)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r=+.34 (ns)
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.18 p < .05
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current activity level
Subject code: A01ab

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelProductive hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationCurrent activity level, code A01ab
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
working or doing housework; doing volunteer work for 
church, relatives, yard, care, repairing and other such 
activities.
Observed distributionM = 41, 3 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.10 p < .05
T1 productive hours by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.05 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 productive hours by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.04 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.01 ns
Beta's controled for:
- selfrated health
- sexual enjoyment
- social activity hours
- organizational activity
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.03 ns
T1 productive hours by T3 life satisfaction.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 productive hours by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness, 
Change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=
T1 productive hours by T2-T3 CHANGE in happiness, 
change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyMujcica (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAJPH, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelExercise
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Exercise at least threetimes a week moderately or 
intensively
1  yes
0  no
Observed distributionM; 0,51, SD: 0,50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.09 p < .002
b-fix CI95[+.03, +.14] controled for:
- CHANGE daily consumption of fruitsd and 
vegetables
- CURRENT
  - socio-demographics
    - age
    - income
    - education
    - marital status
    - employment
  - number of young children in household
  - nutrition behavior
    - eat breakfast regularly
    - never eat red meat
    - never eat fish
    - avoid fatty foods
  - long-term health condition
  - BMI


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyStephens (1988): study CA 1981
TitlePhysical Activity and Mental Health in the United States and Canada: Evidence from Four Population Surveys.
SourcePreventive Medicine, 1988, Vol. 17, 35 - 47
Public15+ aged, Canada, 1981
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response29
Respondents N =22250

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical activity
Page in Source 42
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Kilocalories of energy expended per kilogram of body 
weight per day (KKD)
5= 5+ KKD
4= 3 - 3.9 KKD
3= 2 - 2.9 KKD
2= 1 - 1.9 KKD
1= 0 - 0.9 KKD
Remarks
Based on selfreport of 15 activities in the past two 
weeks in both frequency and minutes. A constant value 
for the energy expenditure for each activity was 
obtained from the physiology literature

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aDM=+
Males    <40    40+
5:       2.76   3.36
4:       2.51   3.54
3:       2.78   3.02
2:       2.63   3.06
1:       2.57   2.96

All      2.63   3.06
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aDM=+
Females  <40    40+
5:       2.56   3.58
4:       2.53   3.07
3:       2.57   3.36
2:       2.48   3.21
1:       2.35   2.83

All      2.43   2.99

ABS computed by WDH team, substracting NA from PA. 
Difference is in positive effect, not in negative 
effect.

DMa's adjusted for;
- self reported physical health
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyStephens (1988): study CA 1978
TitlePhysical Activity and Mental Health in the United States and Canada: Evidence from Four Population Surveys.
SourcePreventive Medicine, 1988, Vol. 17, 35 - 47
Public15+ aged, Canada, 1978-1979
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25
Respondents N =23791

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical activity
Page in Source 42
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Kilocalories of energy expended per kilogram of body 
weight per day (KKD)
5= 5+ KKD
4= 3 - 3.9 KKD
3= 2 - 2.9 KKD
2= 1 - 1.9 KKD
1= 0 - 0.9 KKD
Remarks
Based on selfreport of 15 activities in the past two 
weeks in both frequency and minutes. A constant value 
for the energy expenditure for each activity was 
obtained from the physiology literature

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aDMa=+
Males    <40      40+
5:       3.34     3.72
4:       3.09     3.45
3:       2.66     3.41
2:       2.72     3.14
1:       2.63     2.77

All      2.79     3.02
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aDMa=+
Females  <40      40+
5:       3.45     4.08
4:       3.48     3.44
3:       3.32     3.09
2:       2.85     3.55
1:       2.49     2.51

All      2.83     2.77

ABS computed by WDH team, substracting NA from PA. 
Difference is in positive effect, not in negative 
effect.

DMa's adjusted for;
- self reported physical health
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelphysical exercise and health
Page in Source 452
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"How many hours of exhausting exercise do you get every 
week (possibly during work)?"
1: 0 hours
2: about 30 minutes
3: about 1 hour
4: about 2 hours
5: about 4 hours or more
Observed distributionN: All:4553; %:1:21,3; 2:9,0; 3:17,1; 4:24,7; 5:28,0
Remarks
the correlations and M's do give only the relation 
between exercise and health

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1: Ms=7.24
2: Ms=7.30
3: Ms=7.51
4: Ms=7.89
5: Ms=8.06
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Ms=7.33
2: Ms=7.36
3: Ms=7.59
4: Ms=7.74
5: Ms=7.89
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Ms=7.35
2: Ms=7.35
3: Ms=7.61
4: Ms=7.94
5: Ms=8.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelhours of exercise
Page in Source 184
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"How many hours of exhausting exercise do you get every 
week(possibly during work)?
1: 0 hours
2: about 30 minutes
3: about 1 hour
4: about 2 hours
5: about 4 hours or more
Observed distributionN: All:4565; %:1:21,3; 2:9,0; 3:17,1; 4:24,7; 5:28,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.11 p < .00
1: Mt=7.40
2: Mt=7.53
3: Mt=7.68
4: Mt=7.86
5: Mt=8.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.09 p < .00
1: Mt=7.05
2: Mt=7.26
3: Mt=7.39
4: Mt=7.59
5: Mt=7.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.06 p < .00
1: Mt=6.85
2: Mt=6.85
3: Mt=6.96
4: Mt=7.15
5: Mt=7.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelhours of exausting (physical) exercise a week
Page in Source 176
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"How many hours of exhausting exercise do you get every 
week (possibly during work)"
1: 0 hours
2: about 30 minutes
3: about 1 hour
4: about 2 hours
5: about 4 hours or more
Observed distributionN: 1:271, 2:140, 3:235, 4:397, 5:407

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.05 ns
  1: Mt=7.56
  2: Mt=7.87
  3: Mt=7.79
  4: Mt=7.79
  5: Mt=7.90
All: Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.04 ns
  1: Mt=7.24
  2: Mt=7.61
  3: Mt=7.49
  4: Mt=7.43
  5: Mt=7.54
All: Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.05 p < .04
  1: Mt=6.76
  2: Mt=6.96
  3: Mt=6.94
  4: Mt=6.93
  5: Mt=7.10
All: Mt=6.95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelExercise
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on physical activity, (full question not 
reported)
1: no (reference)
2: sometimes 
3: regular

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.68 p < .001
Sometimes (vs no)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.11 p < .10
Regular   (vs no)

b's controled for:
- age
- orher physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - father job and education
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - daily vegetable and fruit consumption
  - being exp[osed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyKye & Park (2014): study KR 2009
TitleHealth-related determinants of Happiness in Korean Adults.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 59, 731-738
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00038-014-0588-0
Public30-69 aged, general population, South Korea 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1530

Correlate
Author's labelExercise
Page in Source 735
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on physical activity 
(exercise). Participants who exercised more than 5 
times a week for a 30minutes a day were considered 
regular exercisers.
Observed distribution1: 44.2%, 0: 55.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .001
Regular exercise % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            64.8     35.2       + 29.6
- no             55.3     44.7       + 18.3
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.40 p < .05
OR CI95[1,09-1,79] controled for:
- socio-demographic factors
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
- stress
- healthy behavior
  - smoking
  - healthy eating
- exercise environment
  - parks
  - fitness clubs
  - mountain trails


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyIannotti et al. (2009): study ZZ Developed nations 2008
TitleInterrelationships of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-based Sedentarry Behavior and Social and Psychological Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 54, 191 - 198
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00038-009-5410-z
Public11, 13 and 15 aged, 41 nations, 2008-2009
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =204534

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical Activity
Page in Source 191,192,194
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question on number of days Ss had 
engaged in physical movement or muscular extertion for 
at least 60 minutes during the last week
0 days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 days
Remarks
The question was preceded by a definition of 
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and examples

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.15 p < .0001
North America
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.10 p < .0001
Western Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.11 p < .0001
Eastern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.16 p < .0001
Northern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.16 p < .0001
Southern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in exercise
Page in Source 51
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
In the last 3 months, how often did you do vigorous 
exercise or sports?
1) Never
2) Occasionally (2-3 times a month)
3) Regularly (about once a week)
4) Often (a few times a week)
5) Every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=3.77 p < .05
Significant positive association between 
partcipation in exercise and happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelPerforming physical activity
Page in Source 44
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
1: None
2: Light
3: Moderate/regular
Observed distribution% None: Germany: 14% (N=1518) Italy: 14% (N=600) % Light: Germany: 52% (N=1518) Italy: 62% (N=600) % Moderate/regular: Germany: 34% (N=1518) Italy: 24% (N=600)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.34 p < .029
Germany: CI95 [1.0-1.7]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.86 p < .002
Italy: CI95 [1.3-2.8]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelcommuting
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
a active walking
b active cycling
c passive public transport
d passive car

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
active walking             M=8.1
active cycling             M=7.7
passive public transport   M=7.4
passive car                M=7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyDeJonge et al. (2009): study NL 2006
TitleLiving a Happy, Healthy and Satisfying Life.
SourceStatisics Netherlands, 2009, Netherlands
URLHTTP://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/3/43705841.pdf
Public12+ aged, The Netherlands, 2006-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labeltoo little physical exercise
Page in Source 2
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of physical excersice compared to Dutch norm 
for healthy excercise
1: To little physical excercise
0: Gets enough physical exercise
Remarks
Norm by Kemper (2000)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% happy:
1. 88.3%
2. 90.8%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=0.8 p < .01
OR controled for other life-style variables
- drinking
- smoking
- overweight

Additionally controled for:
- age                    OR = 0,8 (01)
- self perceived health  OR = 0,8 (01)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=-
1. 87.3%
2. 90.3%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dOR=0.7 p < .01
OR controled for other life-style variables
- drinking
- smoking
- overweight

Additionally controlled for:
- age                    OR = 0,7 (01)
- self perceived health  OR = 0,8 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical activity
Page in Source 28
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: none or very little /
little / neither much nor little / rather much / very 
much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1994
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of physical activity
Page in Source q jm114
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Which of the following corresponds your level of 
physical activity? 
1 no physical activity
2 light exercise, less than 3 times per week 
3 medium or intensive exercise, less than 3 times per 
week
4 intensive exercise at least 3 times per week for 15 
minutes
5 daily exercise, at least 30 minutes
- NR
Observed distributionN: 1: 65,4%; 2: 8,5%; 3: 4,0%; 4: 1,4%; 5: 4,5%; NR: 16,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hrs=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelExercise
Page in Source 19,24
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
1 = not at all
2 = light
3 = medium to high
Observed distributionM = 1.22 SD = 0.57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.23 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelRegular practice of healthy exercise
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: Do you regularly 
exercise?
1: No    
2: Yes 

Criteria: 3 or more times a week, 30 minutes or more 
per session, and mild intensity practice at least, in 
self-reports of type, frequency, duration and intensity 
of the activities performed.
Observed distributionCriteria-guided: 1= 54,1% 2= 45,9% Exercisers: Those responding "Yes" and reaching criteria Non-exercisers: Those responding "No" or not reaching criteria

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bDM=+ ns
1: M= 7,02 SD= 2,05
2: M= 7,33 SD= 1,55
Difference:   +0,31
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bd=.17
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cDM=+ p < .05
1: M= 7,23 SD= 1,55
2: M= 7,64 SD= 1,15
difference:   +0,41
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cd=.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelType of exercising activities
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What type of activities do you usually perform?
1: Mild impact (walk, yoga...)
2: Moderate impact (fast walk/jogging, pilates...)
3: High impact (football, aerobic/steps...)
4: Very high impact (spinning, weightlift...)
Observed distribution1: 13,8% 2: 47,9% 3: 29,8% 4: 8,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,23 SD= 1,09
2: M= 7,04 SD= 1,71
3: M= 7,86 SD= 1,51
4: M= 7,25 SD= 1,04
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1: M= 7,38 SD= 0,77
2: M= 7,58 SD= 1,18
3: M= 7,89 SD= 1,34
4: M= 7,50 SD= 0,76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of exercise practice
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How many days per week do you exercise?
1: 3 to 4
2: 5 to 6
3: 7
Observed distribution1: 71,3% 2: 25,5% 3: 3,2%
Remarks
Exercisers only (3 or more times a week)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,30 SD= 1,52
2: M= 7,25 SD= 1,54
3: M= 8,67 SD= 2,31
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1: M= 7,66 SD= 1,12
2: M= 7,46 SD= 1,07
3: M= 8,67 SD= 2,31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of the practice per session
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: During how much time 
per day do you exercise when you do it?
1: 30 to 45 minutes
2: 45 to 60 minutes
3: More than 60 minutes
Observed distribution1: 30,9% 2: 43,6% 3: 25,5%
Remarks
Exercisers only (30 minutes or more per session)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,17 SD= 1,85
2: M= 7,27 SD= 1,34
3: M= 7,63 SD= 1,50
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1: M= 7,52 SD= 1,27
2: M= 7,78 SD= 1,04
3: M= 7,54 SD= 1,22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of practice
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How intense is usually your practice?
1: Mild (it is a little hard but I don't get tired at 
any time)
2: High (I'm doing a hard work but I do not feel myself 
breathlessness nor I get too much tired)
3: Very high (I feel I am working very hard, almost 
reaching my limits)
4: Extremely high (I feel myself breathlessness and my 
heart is like exploding)
Observed distribution1: 48,9% 2: 43,6% 3: 7,4% 5: 0%
Remarks
Exercisers only (at least mild intensity practice)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,41 SD= 1,38
2: M= 7,34 SD= 1,71
3: M= 6,71 SD= 1,70
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= p < .07
1: M= 7,63 SD= 1,18
2: M= 7,80 SD= 1,08
3: M= 6,71 SD= 1,11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of days doing vigorous exercise
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on number of days doing vigorous exercise, 
including  running or aerobics.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.03 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelBodily activity during business hours
Page in Source 26
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelBodily activity in pursuit of pleasures(games, etc.)
Page in Source 26
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelBodily activity during school hours
Page in Source 27
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.59


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelBodily activity in pursuit of pleasures(games, etc.)
Page in Source 27
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyBrooks (2002): study US 2001
TitleRunning Down the Road to Happiness.
SourceGallup Newsletter 8 October 2002, The Gallup Organization, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/6943/running-down-road-happiness.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1005

Correlate
Author's labelfrequency of excercise
Page in Source 4
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Self report:
1 not at all
2 one or two times per week
3 at least three times per week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dD%=+
Happiness %           very  fairly   not too
- not at all           30     51        19  
- 1,2 x a week         31     61         8     
- at least 3 x a week  42     48        10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelActivity
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Gross motor activity, including movement of arms and 
legs, squirming and locomotor activity. (in total 15 
items like "When put into the bath water, how often did 
the baby splash or kick?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.14
boys:  r=+.18 p<.05
girls: r=+.09 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.22
boys:  r=+.30 p<.01
girls: r=+.13 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=-.04
boys:  r=-.01 ns
girls: r=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyRichards et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleThe Influence of Serious Personal Losses or Misfortunes on Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1984, Vol. 12, 67 - 73
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1520-6629(198401)12:1<67::AID-JCOP2290120109>3.0.CO;2-B
Public25-59 aged, general public, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical activity
Page in Source 69-71
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Single direct question: "None or little, occasional, 
regular."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-br=+.08 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-br=+.08 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-bBeta=+.05 ns
ß controled for: self-perceived health, social 
integration, marital status and reported serious 
loss or misfortune in the past year. Same for 
Blackes and Whites.  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelActivity Level
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's gross motor activity, 
including
-  movement of arms and legs
- squirming
- locomotor activity

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of situations not reported
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical activity
Subject code: A01ab01

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelActivity level
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationPhysical activity, code A01ab01
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's gross motor 
activity, including
-  movement of arms and legs
- squirming
- locomotor activity

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of situations not reported
Observed distributionpaternal data: N=128; maternal data: N=143
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.15
paternal report: r=+.25
maternal report: r=+.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelEncountered new stimulating ideas
Page in Source 17
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Closed question; during last few weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.22
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon usual studies
Page in Source 26
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon pleasures (games, etc.)
Page in Source 26
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon pleasures (games, etc.)
Page in Source 27
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon usual studies
Page in Source 27
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyOstir et al. (2006): study US 2001
TitleDoes Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 77, 79 - 93
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-5554-z
Public40+ orthopedic patients, 3 month after discharge, USA, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response228
Respondents N =3751

Correlate
Author's labelChange in motor functional status
Page in Source 83-86
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Subscale of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) 18 
item selfreport measure of basic daily living skills

Motor subscale contains items on:
- self-care
- sphincter control
- mobility
- locomotion

Scored 1 (complete dependence) to 7 (complete 
independence)
Remarks
Assessed at admission(T1) and after discharge(T2) with 
average 3 month interval.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.08
T2 happines by T1-T2 CHANGE in motor functional 
independance controled for:
-age(range 40-102)
-gender
-mental status
-race
-length of stay
CI95: (1.07-1.09)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelLow Pleasure
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to low stimulus 
intensity, rate, complexity, novelty and incongruity. 
(in total 13 items like "When playing quietly with one 
of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show 
pleasure?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.38
boys:  r=+.35 p<.01
girls: r=+.41 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.20
boys:  r=+.20 p<.01
girls: r=+.20 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of Orienting
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Attention to and/or interaction with a single object 
for extended periods of time. (in total 12 items like 
"How often during the last week did the baby stare at a 
mobile, crib bumper or picture for 5 min or longer?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.31
boys:  r=+.28 p<.01
girls: r=+.33 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.16
boys:  r=+.22 p<.01
girls: r=+.09 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=+.38
boys:  r=+.44 p<.01
girls: r=+.31 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelPerceptual Sensitivity
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Detection of slight, low intensity stimuli from the 
external environment. (in total 12 items like "How 
often did the baby notice fabrics with scratchy texture 
(e.g., wool)?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.28
boys:  r=+.32 p<.01
girls: r=+.24 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.28
boys:  r=+.25 p<.01
girls: r=+.31 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=+.20
boys:  r=+.21 p<.01
girls: r=+.18 p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelCuddliness
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Expression of enjoyment and molding of the body to 
being held by a caregiver. (in total 17 items like 
"When rocked or hugged, during the last week, how often 
did the baby seem to enjoy him/herself?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.18
boys:  r=+.11 ns
girls: r=+.24 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=-.05
boys:  r=-.04 ns
girls: r=-.06 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=+.38
boys:  r=+.42 p<.01
girls: r=+.33 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of Orienting
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's vocalization, looking at, 
and/or interaction with a single object for extended 
periods of time when there has been no sudden change in 
stimulation

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of stimuli not reported
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.19 ns
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.19 ns
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPhilosophical activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled philosophical activities (religious or 
spiritual, concern with the meaning of existence, 
adherence to an ethical or behavioral code).They were 
also asked what they did "yesterday"
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.37 p < .10
High School: men
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.39 p < .05
High School: women
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br= ns
High School: men
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.34 p < .10
High School: women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelGrowth activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled personal growth activities (new skills and 
new experiences). They were also asked what they did 
"yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br= ns
High School: men
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.38 p < .10
High School: women
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.20 p < .05
Younger: high school seniors + mewly weds
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br= ns
Older: middle aged parents + elderly planning to 
retire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPhilosophical activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled philosophical activities (religious or 
spiritual, concern with the meaning of existence, 
adherence to an ethical or behavioral code).
They were also asked what they did "yesterday"
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.34 (ns)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r=-.37 ns females: r=+.39 05
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelGrowth activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled personal growth activities (new skills and 
new experiences). 
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.38 (ns)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.20 p < .05
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental activity
Subject code: A01ab02

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of Orienting
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationMental activity, code A01ab02
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's vocalization, 
looking at, and/or interaction with a single object for 
extended periods of time when there has been no sudden 
change in stimulation

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of stimuli not reported
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.36
paternal report: r=+.41
maternal report: r=+.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived over/under activity
Subject code: A01ac01

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelActivity sufficiency
Page in Source 257-258
Our classificationPerceived over/under activity, code A01ac01
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 3-point scale with 
the choice statements: 'not enough', 'just right' and 
'too busy'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.17 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atb=+.14 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.22 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived over/under activity
Subject code: A01ac01

StudyCheng & Chan (2006): study HK 2000
TitleRelationship with Others and Life Satisfaction in Later Life: Do Gender and Widowhood make a Difference?
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 2006, Vol. 61b, 46 - 53
Public60+ aged, Hong Kong, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1616

Correlate
Author's labelFullfilling activities
Page in Source 49-50
Our classificationPerceived over/under activity, code A01ac01
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
a: How often do you have the opportunity to actualize 
your talents?
b: How often do you learn new things?
c: Do you think you have talents in many respects?

Response options not reported
Observed distributionM=2.79 SD=0.89
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is .71
Remarks
Reported in (Cheng, Chan & Phillips, 2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-ar=+.20 p < .001
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived over/under activity
Subject code: A01ac01

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived over-activity
Page in Source -
Our classificationPerceived over/under activity, code A01ac01
Operationalization
Single direct question: 
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.48 p < . 000
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.48 p < . 000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with activity level
Subject code: A01ac02

StudyJanz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996
TitleFactors Influencing Quality of Life in Older Women With Heart Disease.
SourceMEDICAL CARE, 2001, V ol. 39, 588 - 598 ,
URLhttp://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Abstract/2001/06000/Factors_Influencing_Quality_of_Life_in_Older_Women.7.aspx
PublicMedical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =570

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with mental activities
Page in Source 594-596
Our classificationSatisfaction with activity level, code A01ac02
Operationalization
Not reported

1 Same or better
0 Deteriorated
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (12 months difference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=2.59 p < .01
CI95[1.46,4.60]

T2 happiness by T1-T2 maintenance or improvement 
of satisfaction w. mental activities.

Chances for higher happiness level at T2 are >2.5 
times higher for those whose satisfaction w. 
mental activity level improved between T1 and T2.
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=1.27 ns
CI95[0.99,1.66]

T1 happiness by T1-T2 maintenance or improvement 
of satisfaction w. mental activities.

Chances for higher happiness level at T1 are 1.27 
times higher for those whose satisfaction w. 
mental activity level improved between T1 and T2.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often



Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abRating by parents of pleasure in different high stimulus intensity situations, such as:

During a peek-a-boo game, how often did the baby smile?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bRating by parents of smiling and laughter in different non-threatening or familiar situations, such as:

How often during the last week did your child smile or laugh when given a toy?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baRating by parents of pleasure in different low stimulus intensity situations, such as:

When playing quietly with one of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show pleasure?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how happy are you with your life these days?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- cannot choose
- skipped
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question

Ingeneral, how would you describe your happiness?
4 very happy
3 mostly happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not happy at all
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How have things been going for you during the past 4 weeks?
4 very well
3 pretty good
3 good and bad parts about equal
2 pretty bad
1 bad
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

"On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life.....?"
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?"
3 mostly satisfied
2 partly satisfied
1 mostly disappointed
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hSelf report on single question:

To what extend are you satisfied with your life in general at the present time?
1 not at all satisfied
2 less than satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 rather satisfied
5 fully satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please rate your satisfaction with your quality of life
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions

A Happiness
B Life-satisfaction

Texts not reported

Summation: A+B
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DyxSOMERS' ASYMMETRIC TEST STATISTIC
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
Dyx = 0 «no rank correlation
Dyx = +1 «strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness ratings.
Dyx = -1 «strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)L10ad01bLocal health care
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)P04aaAggressive, angry
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)P04acActive
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)P04dkZestful
A01aa01Earlier activity levelM07ac04aDepressive (f31-33)
A01aa01Earlier activity levelP04acActive
A01aa02Change in activity levelT02ab01Effects of activation therapy
A01abCurrent activity levelE02ad02Hours work
A01abCurrent activity levelH14ab01aTime spend on household-work
A01ab01Physical activityO01ac01cManual or non-manual
A01ab01Physical activityP06ac02fRestrictions to physical functioning
A01ab01Physical activityS12ab01Active involvement in sports
A01ab01Physical activityW04ab14Strain at work (physical)
A01ab02Mental activityC13abCurrent cultural participation
A01ab02Mental activityO01ac01cManual or non-manual
A01ab02Mental activityS01ab03Involvement in school-work

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings