Correlational finding on Happiness and Positive thinking training
Subject code: H16ad03k

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1976
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
PublicPsychology students, followed 2 weeks, University of Otago New Zealand, 1976
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =48

Author's labelHappiness induction
Page in Source 63
Our classificationPositive thinking training, code H16ad03k
1: Experimental group (N=25). Instructed
   to read every morning during the
   2-weeks testing period between T1
   and T2 a list of 18 positive  statements.
O: Control group (N=23). No reading

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bDM=+ p < .001
           Happiness LEVEL      CHANGE
              T1       T2        T2-T1
Treatment     0,4      1,5       +1,1      
Controls      1,0      1,1       +0,1
- difference -0,7     +0,05      +1,0
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bD%sr=+ p < .001
Treatment                        +13,7%      
Controls                         + 1,2%
- difference                     +12,5%
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bE=+.50 p < .01
CHange in happiness by induction (difference in 
change between experimentals and controls)
Happiness assessed at:
T1: start of a 2-week induction period
T2: end of a 2-week induction period

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

Over this period I have had the feeling: (Timeframe chosen by subjects: mostly past few weeks)
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version period unspecified

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Scale range = highest theoretical value minus lowest theoretical value
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.