Correlational finding on Happiness and Full-time home maker
Subject code: E02ab01

StudyBerger (2013): study DE 1994
TitleHappy Working Mothers? Investigating the Effect of Maternal Employment on Life Satisfaction.
SourceEconomica, 2013, Vol. 80, 23 - 43
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00932.x/abstract
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00932.x
PublicMothers, Germany, followed 15 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5150

Correlate
Author's labelMaternal employment
Page in Source table 2
Our classificationFull-time home maker, code E02ab01
Operationalization
3: full-time employed (reference)
2: part-time employed
    a: on a long-term basis
    b: on a short-term basis
1: unemployed
0: not in labourforce
    a: for family reasons
    b: for labour market reasons
    c: no intention to work
Observed distribution3:187%. 2a: 22%,, 2b:15%. 1: 7%, 0a: 22%, 0b:7%, 0c:9%
Remarks
Reasons for not working assessed using questions  on 
intentions to engage in paid employment and reasons for 
no doing that
32364 person/yesr observations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.10 p < .05
Not employed                  (vs full-time)
- for family reasons       b = -.10(05)
  similar for:
  - high/low income
  - education levels
  - earlier unmployment
  stronger for:
  - poor job opportunities
- for labourmarket reasons b = -.15(01)
- does not want            b = -.02(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.11 p < .05
Part-time employed,short-term  (vs full-time)
  similar for:
  - education levels
  stronger for:
  - low income
  reversed for:
  - child below age 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
Part-time employed, long-term (vs full-time)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.43 p < .01
Unemployed                     (vs full-time)

b-fix's controled for:
- total household income

b-fix's stronger when controled for residual 
income (household income minus mother's income)

All b's further controled for:
- age
- education
- family situation
  - partnered
  - age of children
  - pregnant
  - person needing care in household
- health
  - disabled
  - self rated
- self-employed (if employed)
- region
- municipality size
- year dummies


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl