Correlational finding on Happiness and Later retirement
Subject code: R12aa03

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelStage of life
Page in Source 87
Our classificationLater retirement, code R12aa03
Operationalization
Four groups facing major life-change: 
a: high school seniors (facing work, marriage)
b: newly-married (facing parenthood)
c: middle aged (facing empty nest) 
d: preretired (facing retirement)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 5.3  females: Ms'= 5.3
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 5.9  females: Ms'= 6.1
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 5.7  females: Ms'= 5.9
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 6.0  females: Ms'= 6.2
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 6.2  females: Ms'= 7.1
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 8.0  females: Ms'= 7.8
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 7.5  females: Ms'= 7.0
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 7.9  females: Ms'= 7.6
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% very happy:                        
a: hs seniors  males: = 25%  females: = 26 %
b: newly weds  males: = 48%  females: = 52 %
c: middle aged males: = 37%  females: = 33 %
d: preretired  males: = 52%  females: = 37 %
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMt=+
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 5.6  females Mt'= 5.7
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 5.9  females Mt'= 6.1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
youngest (a+b) males = 37%   females = 39%
oldest   (c+d) males = 45%   females = 35%
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.01 ns
men only 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.00 ns
women only
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMt=
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 7.1  females Mt'= 7.5
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 7.7  females Mt'= 7.3


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMsSTANDARDIZED DIFFERENCE of MEANS (CRITICAL RATIO)
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning: DMs is the ratio of the difference of the, either untransformed or transformed, means and its standard error.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl