Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelAge at end of formal education
Page in Source nn
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Age at end of formal education
1: 14 or less
2: 15-18
3: 19 or older
Observed distributionN= 1:294, 2:301, 3:273

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,57 [CI95 3,32-3,83]
2: M = 5,17 [CI95 4,96-5,37]
3: M = 5,59 [CI95 5,38-5,80]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.40 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=+
1: M = 1,45 [CI95 1,38-1,52]
2: M = 1,87 [CI95 1,81-1,94]
3: M = 2,02 [CI95 1,95-2,10]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.32 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,84 [CI95 3,58-4,11]
2: M = 5,47 [CI95 5,27-5,67]
3: M = 5,85 [CI95 5,65-6,05]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.38 p < .00


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Now taking everything about your life into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life today?"
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6

5
4

3
2
1
0 dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 no rank correlation
tc = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl