Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E04ab03t

StudyKivett (2000): study US 1976
TitleVery-Old Rural Adults: Functional Status and Social Support.
SourceJournal of Applied Gerontology, 2000, Vol. 19, 58 - 77
PublicVery old, rural area USA, followed 20 years, 1976-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response> 10%
Respondents N =49

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 12 (table 1)
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E04ab03t
Operationalization
1 white
2 black
Observed distributionN= 1:26, 2:23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM=-
1: white   M = 7,26
2: black   M = 6,33
difference   - 0,93

Remark WDH team:
The above mean values are not consistent with 
means of life-satisfaction mentioned in text on 
page 5 of webversion of this paper.
1: white   M = 5,31
2: black   M = 3,30
difference   - 2,01


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl