Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with later marriage-relationship(s)
Subject code: M03aa04b

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Respondents N =1150

Author's labelUnhappily married
Page in Source 458
Our classificationSatisfaction with later marriage-relationship(s), code M03aa04b
An 11-item, Likert-type scale was used to assess level 
of marital happiness. Seven items ask about happiness 
with specific aspects of marriage such as 
understanding, agreement and faithfulness. Four items 
are concerned with the global satisfaction of the 
marriage, such as overall happiness and whether the 
marriage is getting better or worse.

Ss were classified as "Unhappily married" when Ss were 
married continuously and score below the mean marital 
happiness in all four times.

1 unhappily married
0 other
Observed distributionM=.14, SD=.35, Range 0-1
Error EstimatesAlpha=.87
Assessed at T1(1980), T2(1983), T3(1988) and T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.25 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T1-T4 unhappily married
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.21 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T1-T4 unhappily married

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.