Findings on happiness in Bell (1974): study US 1973

Publication
Author(s)Bell, B.D.
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
Investigation
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
Last assesment1974
 T1: spring 1973 prior to retirement, T2: spring 1974 after retirement
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 Respondents near retirement age were selected from lists supplied by 1) local labour organizations, 2) area churches, 3) local office of aging, 4) an elderly transportation service, 5) the Social Security administration, 6, a recreational agency for older persons, 7) interested individuals
Respondents N =114
Non Response21%
 15 not retired at T2, 6 moved, 10 drop-out
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksSame study also reported in Bell, B.D. 'Role set orientations and life satisfaction: a new look at an old theory', in Gubrium J.F. (ed) 'Time, roles and self in old age, Human Sciences press 1976, New York, pp. 148-164. In that report, change in life satisfaction is measured in a different way, not using T1-T2 difference in satisfaction with one way of life today, but using the diffeerence between T2 satisfaction and T2 recall of pree-retirement satisfaction
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: 'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?' 1 not satisfied at all 2 3 4 5 very satisfied (labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
ClassificationO-SLL-c-sq-v-5-e
Author's labellife satisfaction
RemarksAssessed in spring 1973 prior to retirement and in spring 1974 after retirement
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in community areaL07ac01Actual realization of lifegoals
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in community areaR12aa01aEarlier attitudes to retirement, also classified as above ↑
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in community areaT01af01Fit between actual and desired time-use, also classified as above ↑
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in family areaL07ac01Actual realization of lifegoals
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in family areaR12agAttitudes to retirement, also classified as above ↑
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in family areaT01af01Fit between actual and desired time-use, also classified as above ↑
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations: associationsL07ac01Actual realization of lifegoals
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations: associationsR12aa01aEarlier attitudes to retirement, also classified as above ↑
Disconfirmation of retirement expectations: associationsT01af01Fit between actual and desired time-use, also classified as above ↑
No concern about healthH14af02Denial of illness
Perceived usefulnessM05ab01Perceived usefullness of one's life