Findings on happiness in Adams (1988): study US 1981

Author(s)Adams, R.G.
TitleWhich comes First: Poor Psychological Well-Being or Decreased Friendship Activity?
SourceActivities, Adaptation and Aging, 1988, Vol. 12, 27 - 41
Public62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
Last assesment1984
 T1:1981 T2:1984
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability purposive sample of white, unmarried, elderly women in a middle-class suburb in Chicago. Half of them lived in age-segregated housing, half of them lived elsewhere in the community.
Respondents N =70
 T1: 70, T2: 40
Non ResponseDropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly exited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Earlier affectH05ab01bPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Interaction with friendsF06acCurrent contacts with friends
Number of emotionally close friendsF06aa01Earlier friendships
Number of emotionally close friendsF06ab01Number of close friends, also classified as above ↑
Number of friendsF06abCurrent number of friends
Number of local friendsL10af02Local social contacts
Number of local friendsF06abCurrent number of friends
Number of local friendsL10af02Local social contacts, also classified as above ↑