Findings on happiness in Diener et al. (2012a): study ZZ World samples 2005

Author(s)Diener, E.; Oishi, S.; Tay, L.
TitleRising Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012, Vol. 104, 267 - 276
Public15+ aged general public, 135 nation followed at least 3 years, 2005-2011
Last assesment2011
Survey nameGallup World Poll combined waves
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
 Probibility samples wiithin nations; non-probability sample of nations. Sample covers about 95% of the world population
Respondents N =806526
 135 cuontries
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentMultiple methods
 telephone interviews in developed nations, face-toface in most developing nations
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time? 10 best possible 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 worst possible life This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
Page in publication269
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.09

Full textSelfreport on 6 questions A Did you smile and laugh a lot yesterday? Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT OF THE DAY yesterday? B How about enjoyment? C How about worry? D How about sadness? E How about depression? F How about anger? Rated: 1 yes 0 no - no answer, don't know Computation: - Average % positive affect = (A-B)/2 - Average % negative affect = (C-F)/4 - Affect Balance = Average % positive affect - Average % negative affect These questions do not measure hedonic level of affect of individual persons adequately, since yesterday's mood does not always correspond with typical average mood. Yet these questions can be used for measuring hedonic level in agregates, such as nations, since individual variations balance out in big samples.
Author's labelPositive/negative feelings
Page in publication269-270
RemarksABS computed by WDH tean from reported means of PA: 0,71; NA: 0,23
Error estimatesCronbach alpha: country level .67, individual level .80
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -100 - 100On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Average household income in nationN04ab01dAverage income in nation
Average household income in nationN04aa02aEconomic growth/decline in nation, also classified as above ↑
GDP/capitaN04aa02aEconomic growth/decline in nation
GDP/capitaN04ab01bPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), also classified as above ↑
Individual household incomeI01ab03Household income
Relative household incomeI01ae03Relative to nation