Findings on happiness in Lepper (1998): study US California 1993

Publication
Author(s)Lepper, H.S.
TitleUse of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006872027638
Investigation
PublicRetirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
 average age at baseline =70 years, 80% males, 80% married, 95% caucasian, 55% had at least come college education, retired for an average of 10 years.
 Year of data gathering not reported. 2 waves separated by a 9-month time lag
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Reitrees of a major electrical company and a significant other (spouse or close friend/relative) choosen by them
Respondents N =971
 Wave 1 N=971 Wave 2 N= 528
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Mailed questionnaire
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
ClassificationO-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
Author's labelGlobal happiness
Page in publication371
RemarksT1 M= 1,22 SD= 0,58 , T2 M= 1,29 SD= 0,60 Rating by significant other using he same question yields almost identical means (T1 M = 1,24, T2 M= 1,28)
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Mean1.22
Standard deviation0.58


Full textSelfreport on single question: During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person? 6 all of the time 5 most of the time 4 a good bit of the time 3 some of the time 2 a little of the time 1 none of the time Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
ClassificationM-TH-cm-sq-v-6-a
Author's labelRecent Happiness
Page in publication371-3
RemarksT1: M = 3,54 , SD = 0,89 ,T2 M= 3,54 SD= 0,90
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean3.54
Standard deviation0.89


Full textSelfreport on single question: Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…? 1 very unhappy 2 unhappy 3 unhappy 4 mixed 5 happy 6 happy 7 very happy lVerbal abel 'unhappy' used for numerical options 2 and 3 together. Likewise verbal label 'happy'used for both numerical options 5 and 6.
ClassificationO-HL-u-sq-v-7-e
Author's labelGeneral Happiness
Page in publication371
RemarksT1 M= 5,24 SD= 0,97 , T2 M= 5,47 SD= 0,91 Rating by significant other using the same question yields almost identical (T1 M=5,28 T2 M= 5,41
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.24
Standard deviation0.97


Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly exited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
ClassificationA-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's labelAffect Balance Scale
Page in publication371-3
Remarks T1 T2 Mean SD Mean SD Positive Affect 0,74 0,27 0,78 0,26 Negative Affect 0,15 0,23 0,13 0,21 Affect Balance 0,59 0,65
Error estimatesReliability coefficient: positive affect = 0.69, negative affect = 0,65 Rating by significant other almost identical (ABS = 0,64)
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -5 - 5On range 0 - 10
Mean0.595.59
Standard deviation


Full textSelfreport on single question: 'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?' 4 completely satisfied 3 very satisfied 2 moderately satisfied 1 slightly satisfied 0 not satisfied at all
ClassificationO-SLW-u-sq-v-5-c
Author's labelSatisfaction with life scale
Page in publication371
RemarksT1 M = 4,15 SD= 5,36 T2 M= 4,26 SD= 1,01 Rating by significant other using the same question yields almost identical means (T1 = 4,29 T2 M= 4,12 )
Error estimatesreliability coefficient = 0,89,
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelf report on three questions: A During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person? 6 all of the time 5 most of the time 4 a good bit of the time 3 some of the time 2 a little of the time 1 none of the time B Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?" 1 very unhappy 2 unhappy 3 unhappy 4 mixed 5 happy 6 happy 7 very happy C Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
ClassificationO-HL---mq-v-16-a
Author's labelhappiness
Page in publication372
RemarksIndex of the measures for global happiness, recent happiness and general happiness Wave 1 SD = 0,65 Wave 2 SD = 0,03
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 3 - 16On range 0 - 10
Mean
Standard deviation0.65


Full textVarious self reports and informant rating A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester: a In most ways my life is close to ideal b The conditions of my life are excellent c I am satisfied with my life d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS) B Selfreport on 24 questions: How much of each mood did you experience in the last month? BA LOVE a Affection b love c caring d fondness BB JOY a joy b happiness c contentment d pride BC FEAR a fear b worry c anxiety d nervous BD ANGER a anger b irritation c disgust d rage BE SHAME a shame b guilt c regret d embarrassment BF SADNES a sadness b loneliness c unhappiness d depression Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4 C Rating of B by five informants D Selfreport of daily affect on B Summation: z-scores
ClassificationM-AO---mqr-*-0-a
Author's labelSWB index
Page in publication372
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textRating by intimate on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did X ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly exited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' ( other rating version)
ClassificationA-BB-cm-rdv-v-2-a
Author's labelAffect Balance
Page in publication371-3
Remarks T1 T2 Mean SD Mean SD Positive Affect 0,79 0,28 0,80 0,26 Negative Affect 0,15 0,24 0,13 0,22 Affect Balance 0,64 0,67
Error estimatesSelf rating using the same question almost identical (ABS = 0,59)
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -5 - 5On range 0 - 10
Mean0.64
Standard deviation


Full textRating by intimates on single question: During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person? 6 all of the time 5 most of the time 4 a good bit of the time 3 some of the time 2 a little of the time 1 none of the time Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form), other rating version
ClassificationM-TH-cm-rdv-v-6-a
Author's labelRecent happiness
RemarksT1: M= 3,54 , SD = 0,90 , T2: M= 3,55 SD= 0,90
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean3.54
Standard deviation0.90


Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
Other reports for SWB measuresH09abCurrent reputation of happiness
Over time correlation from wave 1 to wave 2 (9-month lag)H04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Sleep disturbancesS04ab01Amount of sleep
Sleep disturbancesS04ab02Quality of sleep, also classified as above ↑
Smoking habitsS13ab08Use of tobacco