Findings on happiness in Ryff (1989): study US 1984

Author(s)Ryff, C.D.
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
 a: young adult (mean age=19.53, SD=1.57) b: middle aged adults (mean age=49.85, SD=9.35 c: older adults (mean age=74.96, SD=7.11)
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 The young adults were contacted through and educational institution, the middle and older adults through community and civic organizations
Respondents N =321
 a=133, b=108, c= 80 Women=191, Men=129
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
General remarksRelatively healthy, well-educated, finacially comfortable respondents
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly exited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelAffect Balance Scale
Page in publication1073
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04aa02Stage of life
Environmental masteryP05bpInner locus of control
FinanceI01acSufficiency of current income
GenderG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital statusM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Personal growthP05crSelf-actualization (need for)
Personal growthS02ab06Self-perceived maturity, also classified as above ↑
Positive relations with othersI07afAttitudes to intimates
Positive relations with othersI07abCurrent intimate relationships, also classified as above ↑
Positive relations with othersP05cySociable, also classified as above ↑
Purpose in lifeL07ab03Clarity of life-goals
Purpose in lifeM05ab01Perceived usefullness of one's life, also classified as above ↑
Self-acceptanceS02aeCurrent satisfaction with self
Self-acceptanceS02adCurrent self-evaluation, also classified as above ↑