Findings on Happiness and WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)
Subject Code: W06

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)0
W06aaWork-performance career0
W06aa01Earlier work-performance2
W06aa02Change in work-performance4
W06aa03Later work-performance21
W06abCurrent work-performance1
W06ab01Actual work-performance2
W06ab01aAbsenteeism at work2
W06ab01bProductivity at work0
W06ab02Self-perceived work-performance5
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=W06
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier work-performance
Subject code: W06aa01

StudyWright et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleWhen a Happy Worker is a Productive Worker: A Preliminary Examination of Three Models.
SourceCanadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 2002, Vol. 34, 146 - 150
PublicPublic-sector managers, USA, 2002, followed 2 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response17
Respondents N =59

Correlate
Author's labelComposite job performance
Page in Source 148-149
Our classificationEarlier work-performance, code W06aa01
Operationalization
Rating by top-ranking administrative officer on 3 
dimensions of work performance: 
- work facilitation
- goal emphasis
- team building
Rated from 1(never) to 5(always)
These 3 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.

Rated at T1 and T2 for the past year
Observed distributionT1: M= 3,3 SD=0,7 T2: 3,2 SD=0,6
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha T1: .81, T2: .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.45 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.77 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in performance.
Beta controlled for:
- T1 negative affectivity
- T1 positive affectivity
- T1 job satisfaction
- T1 workperformance (this control indicates 
change)

Addition of T1 happiness in a hierarchical 
regression increases R2 from .15 to .31 

Happiness predicts performance much better than 
job satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier work-performance
Subject code: W06aa01

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal rated performance
Our classificationEarlier work-performance, code W06aa01
Operationalization
Rating by supervisory at T1 using the question: 
'Overall, how would you rate this employee's 
performance over the past week?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from poor to 
excellent.
Observed distributionM= 3,8 SD=0,7 N= 64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.32 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.27 p < .05
T2 happiness by T1 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-performance
Subject code: W06aa02

StudyWright et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleWhen a Happy Worker is a Productive Worker: A Preliminary Examination of Three Models.
SourceCanadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 2002, Vol. 34, 146 - 150
PublicPublic-sector managers, USA, 2002, followed 2 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response17
Respondents N =59

Correlate
Author's labelComposite job performance
Page in Source 148-149
Our classificationChange in work-performance, code W06aa02
Operationalization
Rating by top-ranking administrative officer on 3 
dimensions of work performance: 
- work facilitation
- goal emphasis
- team building
Rated from 1(never) to 5(always)
These 3 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.

Rated at T1 and T2 for the past year
Observed distributionT1: M= 3,3 SD=0,7 T2: 3,2 SD=0,6
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha T1: .81, T2: .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.45 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.77 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in performance.
Beta controlled for:
- T1 negative affectivity
- T1 positive affectivity
- T1 job satisfaction
- T1 workperformance (this control indicates 
change)

Addition of T1 happiness in a hierarchical 
regression increases R2 from .15 to .31 

Happiness predicts performance much better than 
job satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-performance
Subject code: W06aa02

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelComposite rated performance
Page in Source 8-11
Our classificationChange in work-performance, code W06aa02
Operationalization
Rating by department manager on 4 dimensions of work 
performance:
- goal emphasis
- work facilitation
- support
- team building
Rated from 1(never) to 5 (always)
These 4 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.

Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months.
Observed distributionT2: N=50 M= 3,6 SD = 0,6 T3: N=51 M= 3,4 SD = 0,6 T4: N=53 M= 3,5 SD = 0,6
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: T2: 0.76, T3: 0.81, T4: 0.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.45 p < .01
T1 Happiness by T2 work performance (3 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.39 p < .01
T1 Happiness by T3 work performance (4 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.47 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T4 work performance (4,5 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.33 p < .05
T2 Happiness by T2 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.35 p < .05
T2 Happiness by T3 work performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .001
T2 Happiness by T4 work performance (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 p < .01
T1+2 happiness by T2 work performance (1,5 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.40 p < .01
T1+2 happiness by T3 work performance (2 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.51 p < .001
T1+2 happiness by T4 work performance (2,25 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.42 p < .01
T1+2 happiness by T2+3 work performance 
(N= 51)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.52 p < .001
T1+2 happiness by T3+4 work performance (N=53)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.49 p < .01
Earlier happiness by later CHANGE in performance: 
T1+2 happiness by T3+4 performance controlled for 
T2 performance performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-performance
Subject code: W06aa02

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelComposite rated performance
Page in Source 14-17
Our classificationChange in work-performance, code W06aa02
Operationalization
Rating by two top administrative officers on 4 
dimensions of work performance using a 5 point scale 
ranging from never to always:
- goal emphasis
- work facilitation
- support
- team building
These 4 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.

Rated at T1 and T2.
Error EstimatesCoefficient alpha T1: 0.79; T2: 0.86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.25 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.46 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 work performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.18 ns
T2 happiness by work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.43 p < .001
T2 happiness by T2 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .0001
T1+T2 Happiness by T2 work performance (0,5 year 
lag) (N=56)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.48 p < .05
Earlier happiness by later CHANGE in performance:  

T1+2 happiness by T2 performance controlled for:
- T1 performance (to measure change)
- age
- gender
- years job tenure
- education
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.85 p < .05
Earlier happiness by later CHANGE in performance: 
T1+2 happiness by T2 performance controlled for:
- T1 performance (to measure change)
- positive mood disposition 
- negative mood disposition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-performance
Subject code: W06aa02

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal rated performance
Our classificationChange in work-performance, code W06aa02
Operationalization
Rating by supervisory at T1 using the question: 
'Overall, how would you rate this employee's 
performance over the past week?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from poor to 
excellent.
Observed distributionM= 3,8 SD=0,7 N= 64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.32 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.27 p < .05
T2 happiness by T1 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright et al. (2004): study US 1999
TitleState and Trait Correlates of Job Performance: A Tale of Two Perspectives.
SourceJournal of Business and Psychology, 2004, Vol. 18, 365 - 3883
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOBU.0000016708.22925.72
PublicPublic sector supervisory personel; USA; 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelJob performance
Page in Source 372-373
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by supervisor:
Overall, how would you rate this employee's performance 
over the past year. Answer rated from 1(poor) to 
5(excellent)
Observed distributionM=3,9 SD=0,6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .01
Happiness by job performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.20 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
-positive mood of that day
-negative mood of that day

Addition of happiness in a hierarchical regression 
increases R2 from .08 to .21 Happiness predicts 
performance much better than mood of the day.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelComposite work performance
Page in Source 214/5
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating of performance over last 6 months by manager.4 
dimensions of work performance were measured using a 5 
point scale ranging from never to always:
- Goal emphasis
- Work facilitation
- Support
- Team building
These 3 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.
Observed distributionN= 62 M = 3,4 SD = 0.7
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha : .80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .001
T1 happiness by T3 work performance(2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.40 p < .001
T2 happiness by T3 work performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .0001
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eb=+ p < .05
B controlled for:
- T3 activation based well-being 
- T3 activation-based well-being squared squared
Activation based well=being measured  with 
Maslach's nine-item 'Emotional Exhaustion scale'


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelWork facilitation
Page in Source 214
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating of performance over last 6 months by manager 
using the
question: to what extend does this employee offer 
useful ideas for solving technical/administrative 
problems?
Answer rated on a a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Observed distributionM= 3,4 SD = 1,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.45 p < .001
T1 happiness by T3 work performance(2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.35 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 work performance(1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.44 ns
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelSupport
Page in Source 214
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating of performance over last 6 months by manager 
using the question: 'To what extent does this employee 
pay attention to what you are saying when talking to 
them?
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Observed distributionM = 3,8 SD = 0,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.19 ns
T1 happiness by T3 work performance(2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.23 ns
T2 happiness by T3 work performance(1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.21 ns
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelTeam building
Page in Source 214
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating of performance over last 6 months by manager 
using the question: To what extent does this employee 
work harmoniously with his/her co-worker(s) as a team 
to achieve group/ organizational goals and purposes? 
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Observed distributionM = 3,2 SD = 0,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.52 p < .0001
T1 happiness by T3 work performance(2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.35 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 work performance(1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.47 p < .001
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelGoal emphasis
Page in Source 214
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating of performance over last 6 months by manager 
using the question: 'To what extent does this employee 
develop and maintain high performance goals?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Observed distributionM= 3,5 SD = 0,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 work performance(2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 work performance(1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.40 p < .01
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelComposite rated performance
Page in Source 8-11
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by department manager on 4 dimensions of work 
performance:
- goal emphasis
- work facilitation
- support
- team building
Rated from 1(never) to 5 (always)
These 4 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.

Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months.
Observed distributionT2: N=50 M= 3,6 SD = 0,6 T3: N=51 M= 3,4 SD = 0,6 T4: N=53 M= 3,5 SD = 0,6
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: T2: 0.76, T3: 0.81, T4: 0.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.45 p < .01
T1 Happiness by T2 work performance (3 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.39 p < .01
T1 Happiness by T3 work performance (4 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.47 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T4 work performance (4,5 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.33 p < .05
T2 Happiness by T2 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.35 p < .05
T2 Happiness by T3 work performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .001
T2 Happiness by T4 work performance (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 p < .01
T1+2 happiness by T2 work performance (1,5 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.40 p < .01
T1+2 happiness by T3 work performance (2 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.51 p < .001
T1+2 happiness by T4 work performance (2,25 years 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.42 p < .01
T1+2 happiness by T2+3 work performance 
(N= 51)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.52 p < .001
T1+2 happiness by T3+4 work performance (N=53)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.49 p < .01
Earlier happiness by later CHANGE in performance: 
T1+2 happiness by T3+4 performance controlled for 
T2 performance performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelSupport
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by department manager using the 'question: To 
what extent does this employee pay attention to what 
you are saying when talking to them?
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.

Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.35 p < .01
T1+T2 Happiness by T2 support (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.30 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 support (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.28 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T4 support (2,25 years lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelGoal emphasis
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by department manager using the question: 'to 
what extent does this employee develop and maintain 
high performance goals?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.

Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.41 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T2 goal emphasis (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.28 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 goal emphasis (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.47 p < .001
T1+T2 happiness by T4 goal emphasis (2,25 years 
lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelTeam building
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by department manager using the question: To 
what extent does this employee work harmoniously with 
his/her co-worker(s) as a team to achieve group/ 
organizational goals and purposes? 
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.17 ns
T1+T2 happiness by T2 team building (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.32 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 team building (2 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.46 p < .001
T1+T2 happiness by T4 team building (2,25 years 
lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelWork facilitation
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by department manager using the
question: to what extend does this employee offer 
useful ideas for solving technical/administrative 
problems?
Answer rated on a a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.

Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.24 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T2 work facilitation (1,5 year 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.36 ns
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work facilitation (2 year 
lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.42 p < .001
T1+T2 happiness by T4 work facilitation (2,25 
years lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal rated performance
Page in Source 8,9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by department manager using the 'question: 
'Overall, how would you rate this employee's 
performance at this time?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from poor to 
excellent.

Rated at T2 and T3 for the past year and at T4 for the 
past 6 months
Observed distributionT2: N=52 M= 3,9 SD = 0,6 T3: N=51 M= 4,0 SD = 0,7 T4: N=53 M= 4,1 SD = 0,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.36 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 performance (3 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.25 ns
T1 happiness by T3 performance (4 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .01
T1 happiness by T4 performance (4,5 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.32 p < .05
T2 happiness by T2 performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.32 p < .05
T2 happiness by T3 performance (3 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .01
T2 happiness by T4 performance (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.33 p < .01
T1+T2 happiness by T2 performance (1,5 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.29 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 performance (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 ns
T1+T2 happiness by T4 performance (2,5 years lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelComposite rated performance
Page in Source 14-17
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by two top administrative officers on 4 
dimensions of work performance using a 5 point scale 
ranging from never to always:
- goal emphasis
- work facilitation
- support
- team building
These 4 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.

Rated at T1 and T2.
Error EstimatesCoefficient alpha T1: 0.79; T2: 0.86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.25 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.46 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 work performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.18 ns
T2 happiness by work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.43 p < .001
T2 happiness by T2 work performance
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .0001
T1+T2 Happiness by T2 work performance (0,5 year 
lag) (N=56)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.48 p < .05
Earlier happiness by later CHANGE in performance:  

T1+2 happiness by T2 performance controlled for:
- T1 performance (to measure change)
- age
- gender
- years job tenure
- education
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.85 p < .05
Earlier happiness by later CHANGE in performance: 
T1+2 happiness by T2 performance controlled for:
- T1 performance (to measure change)
- positive mood disposition 
- negative mood disposition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelSupport
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by two top administrative officers using the 
'question: to what extent does this employee pay 
attention to what you are saying when talking to them?

Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.30 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T2 support(0,5 year lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelGoal emphasis
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by two top administrative officers using the 
question: 'to what extent does this employee develop 
and maintain high performance goals?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.

Assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.46 p < .0001
T1+T2 happiness by T2 goal emphasis (0,5 year lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelTeam Building
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by two top administrative officers. using the 
question: To what extent does this employee work 
harmoniously with his/her co-worker(s) as a team to 
achieve group/ organizational goals and purposes? 
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always. 

Assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.41 p < .0001
T1+T2 happiness by T2 team building (0,5 year lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial services staff personel; USA, 199?, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelWork facilitation
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by two top administrative officers. using the
question: to what extend does this employee offer 
useful ideas for solving technical/administrative 
problems?
Answer rated on a a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.

Assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.44 p < .0001
T1+T2 happiness by T2 work facilitation (0,5 year)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1993): study US 1988
TitleMental Health and Work Performance: Results of a Longitudinal Field Study.
SourceJournal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 1993, Vol. 66, 277 - 284
PublicHuman services personel; USA; followed for 2 years, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's labelComposite work performance
Page in Source 279
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by head of department of performance in the last 
year at T3.

3 dimensions of work performance were measured using a 
5 point scale ranging from never to always:

- goal emphasis
- work facilitation
- team building

These 3 dimensions were summed to form a composite 
measure of performance.
Observed distributionM = 10.21 SD = 2,50
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha = .86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.23 ns
T1 happiness by T3 performance (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.48 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 p < .05
T1 + T2 happiness by T3 performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1993): study US 1988
TitleMental Health and Work Performance: Results of a Longitudinal Field Study.
SourceJournal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 1993, Vol. 66, 277 - 284
PublicHuman services personel; USA; followed for 2 years, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's labelGoal emphasis
Page in Source 280
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by head of department of performance in the last 
year at T3.
Goal emphasis was measured using a 5 point scale 
ranging from never to always.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.22 ns
T1 happiness by T3 performance (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 p < .05
T2 happiness by T3 performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.33 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1993): study US 1988
TitleMental Health and Work Performance: Results of a Longitudinal Field Study.
SourceJournal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 1993, Vol. 66, 277 - 284
PublicHuman services personel; USA; followed for 2 years, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's labelWork facilitation
Page in Source 280
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by head of department of performance in the last 
year at T3.
Work facilitation was measured using a 5 point scale 
ranging from never to always.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.16 ns
T1 happiness by T3 performance (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.47 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.34 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later work-performance
Subject code: W06aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1993): study US 1988
TitleMental Health and Work Performance: Results of a Longitudinal Field Study.
SourceJournal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 1993, Vol. 66, 277 - 284
PublicHuman services personel; USA; followed for 2 years, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's labelTeam building
Page in Source 280
Our classificationLater work-performance, code W06aa03
Operationalization
Rating by head of department of performance in the last 
year at T3.
Team building was measured using a 5 point scale 
ranging from never to always.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.24 ns
T1 happiness by T3 performance (2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.42 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 performance (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.36 p < .05
T1+T2 happiness by T3 performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-performance
Subject code: W06ab

StudyWright et al. (2004): study US 1998
TitleState and Trait Correlates of Job Performance: A Tale of Two Perspectives.
SourceJournal of Business and Psychology, 2004, Vol. 18, 365 - 3883
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOBU.0000016708.22925.72
PublicSocial welfare counselors, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response33
Respondents N =48

Correlate
Author's labelJob performance
Page in Source 376-378
Our classificationCurrent work-performance, code W06ab
Operationalization
Rating by senior level management
3 items regarding the present time were summed to form 
a composite measure of performance.
- goal emphasis
- work facilitation
- global rating of performance
Rated 1(never) to 5 (always)
Observed distributionM= 3,6 SD = 0,6
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: .85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.40 p < .01
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eBeta=+.17 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- positive mood today
- negative mood today

Addition of happiness in a hierarchical regression 
increases R2 from .24 to .31 when entered after 
mood of the day. While entering mood of the day 
after happiness R2 increases from .21 to .31
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-erpc=+.33 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- positive today 
- negative mood today


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual work-performance
Subject code: W06ab01

StudyLam et al. (1998): study HK 1995
TitleTests of Scaling Assumptions and Construct Validity of the Chinese (HK) Version of the SF - 36 Health Survey.
SourceJournal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1998, Vol. 51, 1139 - 1147
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00105-X
Public14+aged patients and students, Hong Kong 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelRole physical (Limitations due to physical health problems)
Page in Source 1142-1145
Our classificationActual work-performance, code W06ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions on  work related activities 
in last month.
a. Accomplished less
b. Cut down time on work
c. Limited in kind of work
d. Difficulty performing work
RP Subscale of SF-36 Health Survey (Ware et al. 1993)
Observed distributionM=57,97 SD=39,54 (transformed score on range 1-100)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ar=+.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual work-performance
Subject code: W06ab01

StudyLam et al. (1998): study HK 1995
TitleTests of Scaling Assumptions and Construct Validity of the Chinese (HK) Version of the SF - 36 Health Survey.
SourceJournal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1998, Vol. 51, 1139 - 1147
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00105-X
Public14+aged patients and students, Hong Kong 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelRole Emotional (Limitations due to emotional health problems)
Page in Source 1142-1145
Our classificationActual work-performance, code W06ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions on work performance during 
the last month.
a. Accomplish less
b. Cut down amount of time of work
c. Didn't do work as carefully
RE Subscale of SF-36 Health Survey (Ware et al. 1993)
Observed distributionM=52,79 SD=40,75 (transformed score on range 0-100)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ar=+.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Absenteeism at work
Subject code: W06ab01a

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsick days last year
Page in Source 200
Our classificationAbsenteeism at work, code W06ab01a
Operationalization
Single question:
"How many workdays did you call sick last year ?"
number of days:
1: 0-3
2: 4-10
3: 11-30
4: 31-100
5: 101-300
6: 301-365
Observed distributionN: 1:803, 2:320, 3:157, 4:36, 5:10, 6:11
Remarks
employed Ss only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.23 p < .00
 1: Mt=8.14
 2: Mt=7.61
 3: Mt=7.34
 4: Mt=6.74
 5: Mt=5.75
 6: Mt=5.23
All Mt=7.84
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.20 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.73
 2: Mt=7.20
 3: Mt=7.11
 4: Mt=6.46
 5: Mt=5.50
 6: Mt=4.48
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.20
 2: Mt=6.78
 3: Mt=6.75
 4: Mt=6.39
 5: Mt=5.50
 6: Mt=5.00
All Mt=6.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Absenteeism at work
Subject code: W06ab01a

StudyAdler & Golan (1981): study IL 1978
TitleLateness as Withdrawal Behavior.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1981, Vol. 66, 544 - 554
URLhttp://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com
PublicFemale telephone operators, working in metropolitan offices, Israel, 1977-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =131

Correlate
Author's labelAbsence from work
Page in Source 551
Our classificationAbsenteeism at work, code W06ab01a
Operationalization
Monthly attendance records, kept by the
company, for each employee for the 12  months of 1978.
Attendance between T1 and T2 (1978) 
Happiness assessed at T1 (december 1977);
1. Lateness: sumscore of:
   a.Number of days late.
   b.Average minutes late per month.
     'Late' is defined as arriving more      than 7 
minutes after start of 
     scheduled shift. 

2. Time late

3. Unexcused absence
   The number of days absent without a    medical 
excuse. 

4. Medical absence
   The number of days the employee was 
   absent with a certified medical    excuse.

5. Total absence
   The total number of scheduled work 
   days (excluding vacations or    holidays) that the 
employee did not 
   appear.
Remarks






Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.06 ns
T1 happiness by T1 to T2 absence (12 months)
The correlations between T1 happiness and absence 
in the last half year of 1978 (6 months) are 
identical.
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.07 ns

M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.03 ns



M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.07 ns




M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived work-performance
Subject code: W06ab02

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975): study IL 1973 /1
TitleOn the Multivariate Structure of Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1975, Vol. 2, 361 - 388
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00293253
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1830

Correlate
Author's labelSuccess in performing
Page in Source 373
Our classificationSelf-perceived work-performance, code W06ab02
Operationalization
Direct closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-amc=+.29
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=+.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived work-performance
Subject code: W06ab02

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelVocational skills
Page in Source 305,312
Our classificationSelf-perceived work-performance, code W06ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions related to: 
- dealing with people at work
- work responsabilities
- work expectations
- work skills
- interference of personal problems with work
Rated on an 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=1.66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived work-performance
Subject code: W06ab02

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelPreparation for job
Page in Source 41
Our classificationSelf-perceived work-performance, code W06ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: How well do you feel you are 
prepared for your present work by education or natural 
talent?
3: very well prepared
2: sufficiently well prepared
1: not too well prepared.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived work-performance
Subject code: W06ab02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of inadequate job performance
Page in Source 207
Our classificationSelf-perceived work-performance, code W06ab02
Operationalization
2 item index:
- feeling one is not doing as good a 
  job as one would like to (ever/never)
- frequency of such feeling (often/
  only once or twice) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=-
Data T1. Results T3 similar.
Computed for chief wage earners only.

Not computed for full ABS, but for positive and 
negative affect separately.

- Unrelated to positive affect.
- Strongly related to negative affect, in
  particular among males.

Affect level expressed in average ridits.
Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived work-performance
Subject code: W06ab02

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived adequacy in performing job
Page in Source 196
Our classificationSelf-perceived work-performance, code W06ab02
Operationalization
Closed question: not very good / average / little 
better than average / very good.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb=-.09 p < . 05
Computed for males only.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single closed question:

"How is your mood these days....?"
4 very good all the time
3
2
1 not good almost all the time
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eSelfreport on 8 questions:

Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?
A On top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Pleased about having accomplished something
E Bored
F Depressed or very unhappy
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Reponse options:
0 never
1 sometimes
3 often

Scoring:
PA = A+C+D (range 0-9)
NA = B+E+F+G+H (range 0-15)
ABS = PA-NA (range 1-7)

Name: Index of Psychological Wellbeing
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1 completely unhappy
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, are you happy these days......?"
6 very happy
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
(Response options not fully reported)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
mcGuttman's monotonicy coefficient.
Range: [-1, +1].
Measurement level: Both correlate and happiness ordinal or interval
Based on the multiplication of signed differences within one variable with the corresponding difference in the second variable and summation over all possible differences.
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)A02ac11Working
W06ab01aAbsenteeism at workS01ab01bAbsenteeism
W06ab02Self-perceived work-performanceS02SELF-IMAGE

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings