Findings on Happiness and WORK: CONDITIONS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and WORK: CONDITIONS
Subject Code: W04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
W04WORK: CONDITIONS0
W04aa01Earlier work-conditions0
W04aa02Change in work-conditions3
W04aa03Later work-conditions0
W04abCurrent work-conditions6
W04ab01Size of work organization2
W04ab02Challenge of work4
W04ab04Demands in work22
W04ab05Distance to work4
W04ab06Load of work3
W04ab07Problems at work2
W04ab08Relations at work1
W04ab08aInteraction at work3
W04ab08bInformal relations at work0
W04ab08cLeadership of boss2
W04ab09Safety at work1
W04ab11Security of job5
W04ab12Self-direction at work13
W04ab13Shift work2
W04ab14Strain at work (physical)2
W04ab16Time-pressure at work7
W04ab18Variety of work2
W04ab19Private or public sector4
W04aaWork conditins career0
W04ab03Commuting to work6
W04ab10Works at home2
W04ab17Work hours16
W04ab20Hourly pay (vs salary)2
W04ab03aDistance to work1
W04ab03bTransport mode used2
W04ab21Opportunity for personal development1
W04ab17aIrregular work hours1
W04ab15Tasks at work1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and WORK: CONDITIONS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=W04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-conditions
Subject code: W04aa02

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelChanges at work due to technical development
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in work-conditions, code W04aa02
Operationalization
Have you experienced changes at work due to technical 
development
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 955 Ever in your life: N = 737
Remarks
It is at least debatable whether this experience can be 
labeled as 'negative' a priori.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.04
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=+.02
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM= ns
never:                   M = 3.82
ever in your life:       M = 3.86
95% CI for difference:   [-0.12 ; + 0.04]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-conditions
Subject code: W04aa02

StudyBray & Howard (1983): study US 1956
TitleThe AT & T Longitudinal Studies of Managers.
SourceSchaie, K.W.; Ed.: "Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development", Guilford Press, 1983, New York, USA, 266 - 312
Public40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-ResponsePanel loss at T5 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelCareer success
Page in Source 299
Our classificationChange in work-conditions, code W04aa02
Operationalization
Job level:
AT&T Management levels:
7. President
6. Vice-presidents
5.
4.
3. normative for graduates
2.
1. mostly non-college

Assessed at T5.
Observed distributionN=266 Level % 6 1,12 5 4,88 4 11,65 3 37,96 2 32,70 1 11,65

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.10 ns
T5 career success by T5 happiness. See also BRAY 
1980 p 276.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in work-conditions
Subject code: W04aa02

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier increase of workload
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationChange in work-conditions, code W04aa02
Operationalization
Selfrating of increase in responsibilities and 
workpressures. 

Assessed in 1960.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier perceived increase (1960) by present 
happiness (1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-conditions
Subject code: W04ab

StudyBurke (1982): study CA 1980
TitleImpact of Occupational Demands on Non- work Experiences of Senior Administrators.
SourceJournal of Psychology, 1982, Vol. 112, 195 - 211
URLhttp://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3514http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00223980.1982.9915375?journalCode=vjrl20
PublicSenior probation administrators Canada,198?
Sample
Non-Response25%
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational demands
Page in Source 202
Our classificationCurrent work-conditions, code W04ab
Operationalization
Direct questions scored on 5 point Likert scale. Each 
demand measured by multiple questions. .
Remarks
Most items drawn from Caplan e.a 1975

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Concentration
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Hours worked per week
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Job complexity
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Role ambiguity
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Quantitative overload
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Responsibility for people
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Underutilization of skills
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Lack of influence
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Ineguity in pay
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Job future ambiguity
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= p < .05
Role conflict
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta=-.38 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Responsibility for things
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Feeling locked in
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Rate or pace of change
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Stress in communicating
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Boundary spanning activities
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Quality pressure
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Unique stressors related to the corrections milieu

Betas controlled for other occupational demands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-conditions
Subject code: W04ab

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelJob condition bad
Page in Source 18
Our classificationCurrent work-conditions, code W04ab
Operationalization
Self-report on working conditions of job in the past 
year.
1: very poor
2: poor
3: about average
4: good
5: very good

Recoded as:
0: Very poor, poor, or about average.
1: Good or very good.
Observed distributionM = 0.74, SD = 0.43

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.99 ns
OR controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- sex
- feeling part of the community
- current drug use


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-conditions
Subject code: W04ab

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study ZZ East Asia 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
PublicProstitutes and prostitute's clients, Yunnan, China, 2003, Thailand, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =754

Correlate
Author's labelJob conditions bad
Page in Source 18
Our classificationCurrent work-conditions, code W04ab
Operationalization
Self-report on working conditions of job in the past 
year.
1: very poor
2: poor
3: about average
4: good
5: very good

Recoded as:
0: good or very good
1: very poor, poor, or about average
Observed distribution1) Yunnan female sex workers. M = 0.79, SD = 0.40 2) Yunnan male sex clients. M = 0.66, SD = 0.47 3) Thai female sex workers. M = 0.13 SD = 0.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.66 ns
Yunnan female sex workers (N = 188)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.72 ns
Yunnan male sex customers (N = 283)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.08 ns
Thai female sex workers (N = 283)

OLRC's controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- marital status
- current drug use
- age
- feeling part of the community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-conditions
Subject code: W04ab

StudyStaats et al. (1995a): study US 1989
TitleUplifts, Hassles, and Quality of Life in Older Workers.
SourceSirgy, M.J.;Samli, A.C.;Eds.: "New Dimensions in Marketing Quality-of-Life Research", Quorum, 1995, Westport, USA, 117 - 135
Public50+aged full time employees, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelWork conditions
Page in Source 123
Our classificationCurrent work-conditions, code W04ab
Operationalization
Self report on question about how much of a hassle or 
uplift each of the following events were today
a: Fellow workers
b: Clients/Customers
c: Supervisors
d: Nature of work 
e: Work load
f: Job security 
g: Meeting deadlines
h: Enough necessity money
i: Enough leisure money

Rated:
0: not at all
1
2
3: a great deal
Remarks
Questionnaire completed in the evening. Full text of 
questions is not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.13 ns
UPLIFTS
a: Fellow workers
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.09 ns
b: Clients/Customers
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.01 ns
c: Supervisors
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.22 p < .01
d: Nature of work
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.06 ns
e: Work load
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.24 p < .01
f: Job security
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.10 ns
g: Meeting deadlines
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.29 p < .001
h: Enough necessity money
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.32 p < .001
i: Enough leisure money
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.05 ns
HASSLES
a: Fellow workers
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.01 ns
b: Clients/Customers
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=-.06 ns
c: Supervisors
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=-.10 ns
d: Nature of work
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=-.12 ns
e: Work load
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=-.09 ns
f: Job security
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=+.03 ns
g: Meeting deadlines
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=-.30 p < .001
h: Enough necessity money
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-ar=-.26 p < .001
i: Enough leisure money


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-conditions
Subject code: W04ab

StudyRice et al. (1979): study US NewYork 1975
TitleUnique Variance in Job and Life Satisfaction associated with Work-Related and Extra-Workplace Variables.
SourceHuman Relations, 1979, Vol. 32, 605 - 623
PublicAdult, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1041

Correlate
Author's labelObjective job variables
Page in Source 316
Our classificationCurrent work-conditions, code W04ab
Operationalization
a: Job tenure, the number of years the respondent had 
spent on his current job
b: Occupational prestige, occupations were coded 
according to Duncan's scale of socio-economic status.
Remarks
Unemployed respondents, including housewives, received 
no scores on job tenure and occupational prestige

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aR²=.10 p < .01
a+b

When entered after "satisfaction other than life 
satisfaction", "demographic variables", 
"geographic variables" and "job satisfaction" the 
increment in R²= .10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current work-conditions
Subject code: W04ab

StudyGavin & Kelley (1978): study US 1973
TitleThe Psychological Climate and Reported Well-Being of Underground Miners: An Exploratory Study.
SourceHuman Relations, 1978, Vol. 31, 567 - 581
PublicMiners, non-management, company, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived work environment
Page in Source 574
Our classificationCurrent work-conditions, code W04ab
Operationalization
Clusters appearing in responses to 65-item 
questionnaire: 
A: Supervisory consideration (6-item index): the degree 
to which the immediate supervisor is viewed as being 
fair, considerate, and affective in human relations.
B: Intercrew communications (4-item index): the extent 
of individual worker satisfaction with communications 
between his and other crews. 
C: Promotion practices (4-item index): the extent to 
which the employee feels there are ample and equitable 
advancement opportunities.
D: Participation and feedback (3-item index): the 
degree to which thesupervisor includes the employee in  
decision-making and gives feedback concerning 
performance. 
E: Training (2-item index): the perceived adequacy of 
training for present job and future work assignments. 
F: Quality of task information (3-item  index): the 
extent to which the employee perceives clearly 
expressed and accurate information being exchanged 
between his supervisor and co-workers. 
G: Interdepartment relations (2-item index): the amount 
of cooperation believed to exist between the  
employee's department and other departments. 
H: Equipment (2-item index): the perceived quality and 
availability of equipment for woker use. 
I: Task pressure (3-item index): the extent to which 
the employee feels his supervisor pressures employees 
for greater production with threats and punishments.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=-.01 ns
A: Supervisosry consideration.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=+.13 p < .01
B: Intercrew communications.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=+.04 ns
C: Promotion practices.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=+.00 ns
D: Participation and feedback.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=-.07 ns
E: Training.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=-.02 ns
F: Quality of task information.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=-.04 ns
G Interdepartment relations.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=-.02 ns
H: Equipment.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=+.12 p < .01
I: Task pressure.
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-aR²=.20 p < .001
A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+I


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of work organization
Subject code: W04ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmanagement position
Page in Source 114
Our classificationSize of work organization, code W04ab01
Operationalization
1: managers in small business
2: managers in large or medium-sized
   business
Observed distributionN: 1:39, 2:48
Remarks
Managers only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
 1: Mt=7.11
 2: Mt=8.03
All Mt=7.61
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
 1: Mt=6.99
 2: Mt=7.71
All Mt=7.41
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
 1: Mt=6.48
 2: Mt=7.09
All Mt=6.85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of work organization
Subject code: W04ab01

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelFirmsize
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationSize of work organization, code W04ab01
Operationalization
Firmsize 1 < 10 employees 
Firmsize 2 10<25
Firmsize 3 26<100
Firmsize 4 101<499
Firmsize 5 big >500

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.13
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.1
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.05
Firm size 2:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- other job charachteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.03
Firm size 2:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
Firm size 3:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characterisctics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.08
Firm size 3:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
Firm size 4:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
Firm size 4:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.04
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.02
Firm size 2:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- other job characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.06
Firm size 2:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.05
Firm size 3:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
Firm size 3:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
Firm size 4:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.12
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.09
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.04
Firm size 2:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.02
Firm size 2:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.09
Firm size 3:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.07
Firm size 3:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.07
Firm size 4:        (VS biggest)
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.06
Firm size 4:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=0
Firm size 1:        (VS biggest)
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Challenge of work
Subject code: W04ab02

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelJob: requires skill
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationChallenge of work, code W04ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question if  skills are required at work:
1 Yes
0 No
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.35 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Log of other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Job: makes own decisions
- Job: has enough time
- Job: free of conflicting demands
- Job: has variety of tasks
- Job: trust in management
- Self-perceived health
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Contacts w. family members
- Contacts w. friends
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency of attending religious services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Challenge of work
Subject code: W04ab02

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelCareer prospects
Page in Source 211
Our classificationChallenge of work, code W04ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single statement: 'My job offers good 
prospects for career advancement'. 
0: disagree/ strongly disagree/ neither agree nor 
disagree  
1: agree/ strongly agree
Observed distributionRange 1-5 Sweden: M= 2.49, Finland: M= 2.64, Netherlands: M= 2.96, Germany: M= 2.78, United Kingdom: M= 3.14, Portugal: M= 2.83, Spain: M= 3.14, Hungary: M= 2.29, Bulgaria: M= 2.40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 ns
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level 
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
- GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.13 p < .05
B additionally controlled for country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.06 ns
B additionally controlled for job satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.10 ns
B additionally controlled for work-home 
interference without job satisfaction inserted
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.06 ns
B additionally controlled for both job 
satisfaction and work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B's are not 
significant in all countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Challenge of work
Subject code: W04ab02

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelJob is Stressful
Page in Source 224-225,234
Our classificationChallenge of work, code W04ab02
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question that is your job 
stressful ?
1. Yes
0. No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=-.10 p < .1
Self-reported: (N=356)
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=-.02 ns
Wage-earners:  (N=640)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Challenge of work
Subject code: W04ab02

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelJob is Mentally Straining
Page in Source 224-225,234
Our classificationChallenge of work, code W04ab02
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question that is your mentally 
straining ?
1. Yes
0. No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=-0.1 p < .1
Self-employed: (N=356)
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=+.03 p < .1
Wage-earners:   (N=640)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Commuting to work
Subject code: W04ab03

StudyFrey et al. (2004): study XZ Germany West 1985
TitleValuing Public Goods: The Life Satisfaction Approach.
SourceInstitute for Emperical Research in Economics, Working Paper No. 184, 2004, Zürich, Switzerland
PublicAdults, general public, Germany 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27015

Correlate
Author's labelCommuting time
Page in Source 14,27
Our classificationCommuting to work, code W04ab03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How long does it naturally take you to go all the way 
from your home to your place of work using the most 
direct route? (One way only)
1. 0-10 min
2. 11-20 min
3. 21-30 min
4. more than 30 min
Observed distributionAverage commuting time=23 min. Median commuting time= 20 min. More than 1 hour commuting time= 5,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Average life satisfaction
1. 0-10 min           7,24
4. more than 30 min   7,00
difference           -0,24
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01
B= -0,007

B controlled for
-Age
-Age2
-Gender
-Years of education, ln
-Children
-Head of household
-Child of head of household
-Marital status
-Spouse living abroad
-No. Of household members
-Employment status
-West/East Germany
-National
-EU foreigner
-Other foreigner
-Year

People commuting one hour report 0,31 points lower 
on 0-10 happiness than employed people who do not 
commute.

More negative among people pursuing extrinsic 
goals (income, influence on political decisions 
and career success) than among people pursuing 
intrinsic goals (family, friends, faith and 
religion).

Income not controlled, which suggests that income 
gains due to commuting do not compensate the 
happiness loss of commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Commuting to work
Subject code: W04ab03

StudyStutzer & Frey (2008): study XZ Germany West 1985
TitleStress that Doesn''t Pay: The Commuting Paradox.
SourceThe Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 2008, Vol. 110, 339 - 366
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2008.00542.x
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =270150

Correlate
Author's labelCommuting
Page in Source 184
Our classificationCommuting to work, code W04ab03
Operationalization
Average daily commuting time (minutes, one way)
Observed distributionAverage daily commuting time is 23 minutes one way (standard deviation 19 min). Median commuting time is 20 minutes, first quartile is 10 min, fourth quartile is 30 min.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 p < .00
B=-0.0070
(t-value= -7.27)
1st quartile <10 min: life satisfaction=7.24
4th quartile >30 min: life satisfaction=7.00
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=0.01 p < .00
B=0.030e-3 
(t-value= 4.11)
Commuting time squared

B's controlled for:
-Age
-Age2
-Gender
-Years of Education (ln)
-Children (Yes/No)
-Singel (with/without partner)
-Married (Yes/No)
-Seperated (with/without partnert)
-Divorced (with/without partner)
-Widowed (with/without partner)
-Spouse living abroad
-Number of household members
-Employed
-Self-employed
-Western/Eastern Germany
-Child of the Head of Household (vs. not)
-EU foreigner/Other Foreigner
-Year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Commuting to work
Subject code: W04ab03

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 2001
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2001-2003
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =7200

Correlate
Author's labelCommuting time
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCommuting to work, code W04ab03
Operationalization
Commuting time in minutes per day
1: 0-5
2: 6-15
3: 16-30
4: 31-60
5: >60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% satisfied:
0-5   minutes: 96.4
6-15  minutes: 96.7
16-30 minutes: 97.4
31-60 minutes: 96.8
60 or more   : 97.0

Positive correlation unaffected by age, gender, 
education and occupation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Commuting to work
Subject code: W04ab03

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelTransport to go to work
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCommuting to work, code W04ab03
Operationalization
a: car
b: train
c: bus
d: bike
e: feet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
% Satisfied
car  : 84,8
train: 84,2
bus  : 82,9
bike : 88,6
walk : 79,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Commuting to work
Subject code: W04ab03

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelCommuting time
Page in Source 211
Our classificationCommuting to work, code W04ab03
Operationalization
Hours of commuting time of subjects using their usual 
mode of transport
Observed distributionRange 0-6 Sweden: M= .57, Finland: M= .62, Netherlands: M= .73, Germany: M= .61, United Kingdom: M= .62, Portugal: M= .59, Spain: M= .61, Hungary: M= .67, Bulgaria: M= .57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.10 p < .05
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level 
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
- GDP per capita 
- country dummies 
- job satisfaction
- work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B is only 
significant in Sweden (-.28)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Commuting to work
Subject code: W04ab03

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelcommuting
Our classificationCommuting to work, code W04ab03
Operationalization
a active walking
b active cycling
c passive public transport
d passive car

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
active walking             M=8.1
active cycling             M=7.7
passive public transport   M=7.4
passive car                M=7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Distance to work
Subject code: W04ab03a

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelHome-work distance
Page in Source 22
Our classificationDistance to work, code W04ab03a
Operationalization
Home location:
A: Central
B: Urban
C: Suburban
D: Rural

Work location:
A: Central
B: Urban
C: Suburban
D: Rural

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dDM=
The most happy live and work in the same area.
The least happy live in urban area and work in 
rural area.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Transport mode used
Subject code: W04ab03b

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelTransport mode use. Work-related trips
Page in Source 23
Our classificationTransport mode used, code W04ab03b
Operationalization
A: Bicycle
B: Walking
C: Metro
D: Train
E: Others
F: Car
G: Bus

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dDM=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Transport mode used
Subject code: W04ab03b

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelcommuting
Our classificationTransport mode used, code W04ab03b
Operationalization
a active walking
b active cycling
c passive public transport
d passive car

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
active walking             M=8.1
active cycling             M=7.7
passive public transport   M=7.4
passive car                M=7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelJob: Free of conflicting demands
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Single direct question if the job is free of 
conflicting demands:
1 Yes
0 No
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.08

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.16 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Log of personal income
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Job: makes own decisions
- Job: requires skill
- Job: has enough time
- Job: has variety of tasks
- Job: trust in management
- Self-perceived health
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelJob demanding/ stressful
Page in Source 211
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single statement: 'My work is too 
demanding and stressful'. 
0: disagree/ strongly disagree/ neither agree nor 
disagree 
1: agree/ strongly agree
Observed distributionRange 1-5 Sweden: M= 3.01, Finland: M= 2.45, Netherlands: M= 2.49, Germany: M= 3.27, United Kingdom: M= 2.94, Portugal: M= 3.44, Spain: M= 2.97, Hungary: M= 3.14, Bulgaria: M= 3.75

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.35 p < .001
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level  
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.15 p < .05
B additionally controlled for GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.07 ns
B additionally controlled for country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.07 ns
B additionally controlled for: 
- job satisfaction
- work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B is only 
significant in Bulgaria (+.59)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptability of leaving earlier/arriving later (colleagues)
Page in Source 206-208,306
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Is it acceptable that one may leave earlier and/or 
arrive later due to problems regarding children? Among 
you and your colleagues.
1=very unacceptable 6= very acceptable

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.20 p < .01
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.18 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.19 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptability of leaving earlier/arriving later (managers)
Page in Source 206-208,306
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Is it acceptable that one may leave earlier and/or 
arrive later due to problems regarding children?By your 
managers
1=very unacceptable 6= very acceptable

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.17 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.23 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.20 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptability of bringing child to work (colleages)
Page in Source 206-208,306
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Is it acceptable that one may bring a child to work 
(for an hour) due to problems regarding childcare? 
Among you and your colleages
1=very unacceptable 6= very acceptable

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.12 ns
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.26 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.19 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptability of bringing child to work (managers)
Page in Source 206-208,306
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Is it acceptable that one may bring a child to work 
(for an hour) due to problems regarding childcare? By 
your managers.
1=very unacceptable 6= very acceptable

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.17 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.21 p < .01
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.19 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelHow well colleagues take account of childcare responsibilities
Page in Source 206-208,307
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How well do you think the following people take into 
account the fact that you have responsebility for a 
child/ren? Your colleages.
1=not at all well  6=very well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.30 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.10 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.21 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelHow well supervisor takes account of childcare responsibilities
Page in Source 206-208,307
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How well do you think the following people take into 
account the fact that you have responsebility for a 
child/ren? Your immediate supervisor.
1=not at all well  6=very well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.25 p < .001
All
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.34 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.13 ns
Males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelHow well employer takes account of childcare responsibilities
Page in Source 206-208,307
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How well do you think the following people take into 
account the fact that you have responsebility for a 
child/ren? Your employer.
1=not at all well  6=very well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.22 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.03 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.13 p < .01
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived resentment when men take extended leave for childcare
Page in Source 206-208,308
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question;
To what extent do you agree that in your workplace many 
employees are resentful when men take extended leaves 
to care for newborn or adopted children?
1=strong disagree 7=strong agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.21 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.24 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.23 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived resentment when women take extended leave for childcare
Page in Source 206-208,308
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
To what extent do you agree that in your workplace many 
employees are resentful when women take extended leaves 
to care for newborn or adopted children?
1=strong disagree 7=strong agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.19 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.27 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.22 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelView on men in work-family programs
Page in Source 206-208,309
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Men who participate in available work-family programmes 
(e.g. job-sharing, part-time work) are viewed as less 
serious about their career than those who do not 
participate in these programmes.
1=strong disagree 7=strong agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.16 p < .001
All
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.14 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.17 p < .05
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelView on women in work-family programs
Page in Source 206-208,309
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question
Women who participate in available work-family 
programmes (e.g. job-sharing, part-time work) are 
viewed as less serious about their career than those 
who do not participate in these programmes.
1=strong disagree 7=strong agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.22 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.10 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.17 p < .01
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived expectations about overwork
Page in Source 206-208,309
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
To get ahead employees are expected to work over and 
above the normal hours, whether at the workplace or at 
home.
1=strong disagree 7=strong agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.15 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.12 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.14 p < .01
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived pressure to put job ahead of family/personal life
Page in Source 206-208,309
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
To be viewed favourably by top management, employees 
must constantly put their jobs ahead of their families 
or personal lives.
1=strong disagree 7=strong agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.20 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.17 p < .05
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.19 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPotential flexibility at work
Page in Source 212-214,141,307-308
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions:
A: Is it acceptable for you to run private errands such 
as shopping, go to a bank or a post office during work?
B: Do you have the possibility of owing work time?
C: Do you have a formal agreement of flexible working 
time?
D: Do you have a informal agreement of flexible working 
time?
E: Is it possible for you to swap shifts/working time 
with coworkers?
F: Is it acceptable for you to make phone calls to 
doctors, handymen, call home, etc. during work?
Answer options: yes/no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.24 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.14 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.18 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelActual flexibility at work
Page in Source 212-214,143,310
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions:
A: Do you ever leave your job earlier or arrive later 
due to problems regarding childcare?
B: Do you ever bring children to work on occasion due 
to problems with childcare?
C: Do you run private errands such shopping, go to the 
bank or a post office during work?
D: Do you make phone calls to doctors, handymen, call 
home etc. during work?
Answer options: yes/no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.01 ns
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.08 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.03 ns
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelFamily friendly policies in workplace
Page in Source 212-14, 231 307-10
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Number of family friendly policies available in the 
workplace
Respondents were asked about a 14 different potential 
workplace policies in their place of employment. These 
included paid and unpaid maternity leave, paid and 
unpaid paternity leave, paid and unpaid parental leave, 
flexible hours, part-time  working, job-sharing, term 
time working, personalised (flexible) working hours, 
teleworking, career breaks and emergency/special leave.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.09 ns
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.07 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.08 ns
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelProblems with childcare arrangements
Page in Source 212-214,313
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Do the hours you work create problems in your childcare 
arrangements?
1=notable 4=yes a great deal

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.26 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.27 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.27 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulty combining work and family life
Page in Source 212-214,313
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How easy/difficult is it for you to combine your job 
and family life?
1=very easy  6=very difficult

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.42 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.25 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.33 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional Demands
Page in Source 273,275
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Self report on 6 questions whether employees have to 
deal with emotionally charged situations and whether 
they are confronted with events that touch them 
personally:
- Do you face emotionally charged situations in your 
work?
Rated: 1=never to 5 = always
Observed distributionMen: M=2,01 SD=.58 Women: M=2,12 SD=.66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.13 ns
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.10 ns
Women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demands in work
Subject code: W04ab04

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelJob strain
Page in Source 51,125,137,140,143
Our classificationDemands in work, code W04ab04
Operationalization
Here are some ways that people may feel. When you think 
about your experiences here at your job, how much of 
the time do you feel these ways: 
a:Bothered or upset 
b:Worried 
c:Frustrated 
d:Tense
e:Emotionally worn out.

Rated: 1 = Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 
5 = very often
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=2,8, SD=.72, Married Mothers M = 2,9 SD = .77, Single Mothers M=2,7 SD = .80
Error Estimatesalpha = .82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.30 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.17 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.31 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.45 p < .01
Single Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.40 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Distance to work
Subject code: W04ab05

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 2001
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2001-2003
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =7200

Correlate
Author's labelCommuting time
Page in Source 8
Our classificationDistance to work, code W04ab05
Operationalization
Commuting time in minutes per day
1: 0-5
2: 6-15
3: 16-30
4: 31-60
5: >60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% satisfied:
0-5   minutes: 96.4
6-15  minutes: 96.7
16-30 minutes: 97.4
31-60 minutes: 96.8
60 or more   : 97.0

Positive correlation unaffected by age, gender, 
education and occupation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Distance to work
Subject code: W04ab05

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelLength of commuting time
Page in Source 198, 200-201, 293
Our classificationDistance to work, code W04ab05
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How long does it take, on average, for you to get to 
work? (in minutes)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=
Males not reported
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.18 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.05 ns
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Distance to work
Subject code: W04ab05

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelLength of partner's commuting time
Page in Source 198, 200-201
Our classificationDistance to work, code W04ab05
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How long does it take, on average, for your partner to 
get to work? (in minutes)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.07 ns
All
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.01 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.14 p < .05
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Distance to work
Subject code: W04ab05

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelDistance to work
Our classificationDistance to work, code W04ab05
Operationalization
Single direct amount of time spent travelling.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.20 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Load of work
Subject code: W04ab06

StudyWeston et al. (2003): study AU 2001
TitleThe Impact of Long Working Hours on Employed Fathers and Their Families.
SourcePaper Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weston_r_2003.pdf
PublicEmployed fathers, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1479

Correlate
Author's labelwork hours
Page in Source 14-16
Our classificationLoad of work, code W04ab06
Operationalization
Single question on number of hours usually worked per 
week:

1: 35-40 hours per week 
2: 41-48 hours
3: 49-59 hours
4: 60 or more hours
Observed distributionN = 1 : 491, 2: 323, 3: 349, 4:316

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eDM=- ns
35-40: M=7,9  SD=0,06 (comparison group)
41-48: M=8,0  SD=0,08 (ns)
49-59: M=8,0  SD=0,07 (ns)
60+  : M=7.8  SD=0,09 (ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eDMa=-
35-40: Ma=8,0  SD=0,17 (comparison group)
41-48: Ma=8,0  SD=0,18 (ns)
49-59: Ma=8,0  SD=0,18 (ns)
60+:   Ma=7,8  SD=0,18 (05)

Ma adjusted for 
- partner's work hours
- education level
- English use and profiency
- age of youngest child
- number of children under 15
- occupation
- income
- employment classification.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Load of work
Subject code: W04ab06

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelHours match
Page in Source 32-33
Our classificationLoad of work, code W04ab06
Operationalization
Self report on preference for number of hours work a 
week, minus the self report on actual amount of hours 
work a week.
a: underworked: working at least 3 hours less than 
preferred 
b: fit: =<3 hours of difference between preference and 
real muber of working hours.
c: overworked: working more than 3 hours more than 
preferred

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.20 p < .01
UNDERWORKED (vs. hours actual fit preferred)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.20 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=.21 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.19 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.19 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .01
OVERWORKED(vs. hours actual fit preferred):
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.08 p < .10
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
CONTROL VARIABLES:
Set A:
- number of hours per week working and caring
- importance of having children/success in a job
- marital status
- age 
- age squared/100
- number of children 0-15 years
- unemployment rate
- born in east-Germany
- foreigner status
- education
- age youngest child
- objective health

Set B: (N = 70859)
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- extraversion
- openness to experience

Set C:
- birth cohort

Set D: 
- interaction: hours match*work orientation

Set E:
- interaction: hours match*work-care combinations

Interaction effect with workcare orientations: 
only underworked work-centered and adaptive women 
and women with unplanned careers (drifters) score 
lower on SWB (vs women with a good fit & home 
centered)


Interaction effect with work-care combinations: 
only overworked women who
work without caring duties and women combining 
work and care but working more than 24 hours a 
week score significantlylower on SWB (vs women not 
working nor caring and good fit).


Fixed effects analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Load of work
Subject code: W04ab06

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of vacation days in past year
Page in Source 833
Our classificationLoad of work, code W04ab06
Operationalization
Self reported number of vacation days in the past year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.16 p < .02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems at work
Subject code: W04ab07

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelConflicts, difficulties in social relations at work
Page in Source 261
Our classificationProblems at work, code W04ab07
Operationalization
Have you experienced conflicts, difficulties in social 
relations at work
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 963. Ever in your life: N = 737

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.11
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.73
95% CI for difference:   [0.11 ; 0.27]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems at work
Subject code: W04ab07

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 833
Our classificationProblems at work, code W04ab07
Operationalization
Self report of sources of stress
- clinical competence
- future in medicine
- realities in practice
- time pressures
- diffelcult patients

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.21 p < .01
Clinical competence and social release
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.45 p < .001
future in medicine
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .0001
dealing with the realities of practice
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.28 p < .0001
time pressures
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.14 p < .05
dealing with diffecult patients


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations at work
Subject code: W04ab08

StudyLance et al. (1989): study US Georgia 1984
TitleA Comparison Between Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Bidirectional Models of Relationships Between Global and Life Facet Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Personality, 1989, Vol. 57, 601 - 624
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/229529155_A_Comparison_Between_BottomUp_TopDown_and_Bidirectional_Models_of_Relationships_Between_Global_and_Life_Facet_Satisfaction
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00565.x
PublicMarried academics, university of Georgia, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labelsupport from co-workers
Page in Source 607, 610
Our classificationRelations at work, code W04ab08
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
As a source of personal and emotional support, how 
would you rate your university colleagues?
 
Rated: 1= poor 9= excellent
Observed distributionMean 45,2 SD 10,6
Error Estimatesthree-week test-retest r==,76

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.29 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interaction at work
Subject code: W04ab08a

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelInformal work relations
Page in Source 92,93
Our classificationInteraction at work, code W04ab08a
Operationalization
Three item index of direct questions on informal work 
relations. Answer categories yes/no.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.10
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interaction at work
Subject code: W04ab08a

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelExtent of necessary interaction in the job setting
Page in Source 195
Our classificationInteraction at work, code W04ab08a
Operationalization
2-item index of closed questions on necessary talking 
to other employees, and to customers, clients or just 
the general public: no / rarely or some- times / often 
or all day 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSNR= ±0 ns
Computed for employed Ss only.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fSNR= ±0 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interaction at work
Subject code: W04ab08a

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelExtent of potential interaction in the job setting
Page in Source 199
Our classificationInteraction at work, code W04ab08a
Operationalization
2-item index measuring amount of time spent working 
around three or more fellow-workers: very little or 
some / most / all the time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fG= +
Presented for Index of Negative Affect only:
G' = -.42 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leadership of boss
Subject code: W04ab08c

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelJob: Trust in management, or in co-workers
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationLeadership of boss, code W04ab08c
Operationalization
Single direct question on trust in management:
1 Yes
0 No
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.56 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Log of other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Job: requires skill
- Job: has enough time
- Job: free of conflicting demands
- Job: has variety of tasks
- Job: makes own decisions
- Self-perceived health
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Contacts w. family members
- Contacts w. friends
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency of attending religious services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leadership of boss
Subject code: W04ab08c

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelDescription of superior
Page in Source 43
Our classificationLeadership of boss, code W04ab08c
Operationalization
Self report on single question: Which of the following 
best describes your local superior?
3: usually praises work which is well done
2: sometimes praises work which is well done
1: rarely praises.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=+.25 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Safety at work
Subject code: W04ab09

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelJob dangerous/ unhealthy
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSafety at work, code W04ab09
Operationalization
Selfreport on single statement: 'I work in dangerous or 
unhealthy condition'. 
0: disagree/ strongly disagree/ neither agree nor 
disagree 
1: agree/ strongly agree
Observed distributionRange 1-5 Sweden: M= 2.09, Finland: M= 2.11, Netherlands: M= 1.88, Germany: M= 1.81, United Kingdom: M= 1.92, Portugal: M= 2.13, Spain: M= 1.97, Hungary: M= 2.35, Bulgaria: M= 2.47

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.20 p < .05
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level 
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.14 ns
B additionally controlled for GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.20 p < .01
B additionally controlled for country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- job satisfaction
- work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B's are 
only significant in Portugal (-.84) and Bulgaria 
-.79)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Works at home
Subject code: W04ab10

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelWorking in own house
Our classificationWorks at home, code W04ab10
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=+.20 p < . 000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Works at home
Subject code: W04ab10

StudyGuillen-Royo (2008): study PE 2004
TitleConsumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 89, 535 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9248-1
PublicGeneral public, 7 poor communities, Peru, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =399

Correlate
Author's labelHomemaker
Page in Source 544-545
Our classificationWorks at home, code W04ab10
Operationalization
Selfreport questions:
Can you please tell us what the main two 
activities/occupations of the household members were in 
the last month? Where were these activities/occupations 
conducted?
1: inside home
0: other
Observed distributionM = 0.326; SD = 0.469
Remarks
The text was reported in the questionnaire.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.34 p < .1
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -self-employed dummy
-Basic needs
 -intermediate needs
-Consumption
 -log total expenditure
-Location
 -Peri-urban dummy
 -rural dummy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.31 ns
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -self-employed
-Basic needs
 -intermediate needs
-Consumption
 -average expenditure
 -relative expenditure
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.20 ns
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -self-employed
-Basic needs
 -intermediate needs
-Consumption
 -average expenditure
 -relative expenditure
-Motives for consumption
 -providing household basics dummy
 -hedonism dummy
 -social interaction dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Security of job
Subject code: W04ab11

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelSimilar job elsewhere
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationSecurity of job, code W04ab11
Operationalization
Could you get a similar or better job with another 
employer?
Remarks
subjective indicator for firm-specific human capital.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.02
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.02
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Supervisor
- Irregular hours
- Firmsize 
- Turn down Job
- Number of collegues 
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Security of job
Subject code: W04ab11

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelJob insecurity
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSecurity of job, code W04ab11
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 'How likely do you think 
it is that you might lose your job in the next 6 
months'. 
0: very unlikely/ quite unlikely/ neither likely nor 
unlikely
1: very likely/ quite likely
Observed distributionRange 1-5 Sweden: M= 1.53, Finland: M= 1.60, Netherlands: M= 1.48, Germany: M= 1.72, United Kingdom: M= 1.60, Portugal: M= 1.88, Spain: M= 1.85, Hungary: M= 1.93, Bulgaria: M= 3.21

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-1.2 p < .001
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.67 p < .001
B additionally controlled for GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.43 p < .001
B additionally controlled for:
- country dummies 
- job satisfaction
- work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B's are 
only significant in Hungary (-.75) and Bulgaria 
(-.65)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Security of job
Subject code: W04ab11

StudyMakarczyk (1962): study PL 1960
TitleFactors affecting Life Satisfaction among People in Poland.
SourcePolish Sociological Bulletin, 1962, Vol. 1, 105 - 116
PublicAdults, general public, students and peasants excluded, Poland, 1960
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =2387

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived security in occupation
Page in Source 113
Our classificationSecurity of job, code W04ab11
Operationalization
Single question: does your job give you a feeling of 
security ?
insecure / average /secure / very secure.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aT=.10 p < .001
Computed for non-farmers only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Security of job
Subject code: W04ab11

StudyGreen & Heywood (2011): study GB 1999
TitleFlexible Contract and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceEconomic Inquiry, 2011, Vol. 49, 716 - 729
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Heywood/publication/227346218_FLEXIBLE_CONTRACTS_AND_SUBJECTIVE_WELLBEING/links/0046351a5dfc82a60e000000.pdf
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2010.00291.x
Public20-65 aged employees, United Kingdom, 1999-2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =30700

Correlate
Author's labelFlexible contract
Page in Source 720,726
Our classificationSecurity of job, code W04ab11
Operationalization
1: Flexible contracts:
    a  fixed term contract
    b  agency work
    c  other flexible contract
0 Permanent contract

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.15 ns
Males: Fixed term contract
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.22 ns
Males: Agency work
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOLRC=-.13 ns
Males: Other flexible contracts
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.11 ns
Females: Fixed term contract (vs Permanent)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.00 ns
Females: Agency work
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.21 ns
Females: Other flex contracts

OPRC controlled for:
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Marital status
  - Presence of a dependent child
  - Education level
- Job characteristics:
  - Tenure years
  - Usual hours
  - Usual overtime
  - Log wage
  - Union membership
  - Public sector employment
  - Firm size
  - Managerial or supervisory role
  - Employer provided pension
  - Employer provided training
  - Annual pay incremnents
  - Night and shift work
  - Flexitime
  - Annualized hours
  - Term time work only
  - Job sharing

Fixed effect analysis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Security of job
Subject code: W04ab11

StudyBlood (1969): study US 1967
TitleWork Values and Job Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1969, Vol. 53, 456 - 459
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0028653
PublicMilitary, airforce, low rank maintenance jobs, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =420

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 458
Our classificationSecurity of job, code W04ab11
Operationalization
1 tenure
0 no tenure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
students
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
workers

Beta's controlled for: 
- age
- education
- fathers occupation
- work ethic


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelSelfcontrol in work situation
Page in Source 93,T38
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Single direct question on selfcontrol in the work 
situation. Rated on a 5-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.04
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelJob: makes own decisions
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Single direct question on making own decisions at job:
1 Yes
0 No
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.16 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Log of other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Job: requires skill
- Job: has enough time
- Job: free of conflicting demands
- Job: has variety of tasks
- Job: trust in management
- Self-perceived health
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Contacts w. family members
- Contacts w. friends
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency of attending religious services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1975 /2
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
PublicEmployed persons: middle and lower professions, West-Germany, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =881

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of freedom at work
Page in Source 252
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Single direct question: 'Do you find yourself at work:
- very free at work (3)
- rather free at work (2)
- not free at work (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.23 p < .01
Blue collar workers
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-bG=+.36 p < .01
Blue collar
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btc=+.15 p < .01
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-btc=+.19 p < .01
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-bG=+.19 p < .01
White collar
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.08 p < .01
White collar workers
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btc=+.04 p < .01
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-btc=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973 /5
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
PublicWorking people, middle and lower professions, West-Germany, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1528

Correlate
Author's labelIndependence at work
Page in Source 248
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Single direct question: 'Are you very independent, that 
means, do you have great space for making your own 
decisions?' 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.50 p < .01
blue collar workers
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btb=+.18 p < .01
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.49 p < .01
landworkers
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btb=+.16 p < .01
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.57 p < .01
lower-white collar workers
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btb=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Factor derived from responses to question about 
characteristics of one's Job.
Questions not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- other job characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- other job characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.1
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Other Job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.1
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelJob autonomy
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Selfreport on single statement: 'I have a great deal of 
influence in deciding how to do my work'.  
0: disagree/ strongly disagree/ neither agree nor 
disagree 
1: agree/ strongly agree
Observed distributionRange 1-5 Sweden: M= 3.94, Finland: M= 3.92, Netherlands: M= 3.81, Germany: M= 3.66, United Kingdom: M= 3.45, Portugal: M= 3.27, Spain: M= 3.63, Hungary: M= 3.02, Bulgaria: M= 3.27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.55 p < .001
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level 
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.31 p < .001
B additionally controlled for GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- job satisfaction
- country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.25 p < .001
B additionally controlled for work-home 
interference without job satisfaction inserted
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 ns
B controlled for both job satisfaction and 
work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B is only 
significant in Germany (+.43)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived freedom at work
Page in Source 44
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Average response to survey question: 
How free are you to make decisions in your job?
 1: None at all
 .
 .
10: A great deal
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2 1990-92, Ann Arbor, 
Michagan, U

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.67
Happy Life Years by Perceived freedom at work in 
41 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.54
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom at work
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.74
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom at 
work in 41 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.47
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom on the job
Page in Source 191
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Direct question: none / some / much freedom.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+ ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of disagreement
Page in Source 43
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How free do the sisters 
in your convent generally feel about disagreeing with 
the local superior?
5: feel completely free to disagree
4: feel somewhat free to disagree
3: feel hesitant about disagreeing
2: rarely feel free to disagree
1: never disagree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=+.29 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelGroup-made decisions
Page in Source 43
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Self report on single question: When important 
decisions are made in your convent, how often are they 
made by all the members, in a group-dicussion?
5: almost always
4: usually
3: about half the time
2: seldom
1: never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=+.28 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelPresence of superior
Page in Source 52
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Single direct question
1: has a superior
0: does not have a superior

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-direction at work
Subject code: W04ab12

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelChoosing own superior
Page in Source 53
Our classificationSelf-direction at work, code W04ab12
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
1: did choose their own superior 
2: did not choose their own superior.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG=+.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Shift work
Subject code: W04ab13

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan et al. (2004): study HR 2004
TitleQuality of Life, Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Shift- and Non-Shiftworkers.
SourceRevisao Saude Publica, 2004, Vol. 3, 3 - 10
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15608908
PublicProfessionals in social care settings, Croatia, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1728

Correlate
Author's labelShiftwork
Page in Source 7
Our classificationShift work, code W04ab13
Operationalization
a) night-shiftworkers
b) day-shiftworkers
c) non-shiftworkers
Observed distributiona: under 40 aged:M=.8 SD=.69; 41 and over: M=1.1 SD=.77 b: under 40 aged:M=1.1 SD=.54; 41 and over: M=.9 SD=.67 c: under 40 aged:M=1 SD=.67; 41 and over: M=.9 SD=.64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aDM=-/+
                    age >40 age<40   difference
Night-shiftworkers  M=6.6   M=6.9      0,3
Day-shiftworkers    M=7.2   M=6.8      0,5
Non-shiftworkers    M=6.9   M=6.8      0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Shift work
Subject code: W04ab13

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelWorking in shifts
Our classificationShift work, code W04ab13
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=+.18 p < . 000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Strain at work (physical)
Subject code: W04ab14

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelWork conditions (physical)
Page in Source 90,93
Our classificationStrain at work (physical), code W04ab14
Operationalization
Three item index of direct questions on temperature, 
cleanliness, and noise. Answer categories yes/no.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.08
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Strain at work (physical)
Subject code: W04ab14

StudyGavin & Kelley (1978): study US 1973
TitleThe Psychological Climate and Reported Well-Being of Underground Miners: An Exploratory Study.
SourceHuman Relations, 1978, Vol. 31, 567 - 581
PublicMiners, non-management, company, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical consequences of work
Page in Source 573
Our classificationStrain at work (physical), code W04ab14
Operationalization
2-item index assessing the degree to which the worker 
reports physical discomforts as a result of his job.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tasks at work
Subject code: W04ab15

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelwork activities
Our classificationTasks at work, code W04ab15
Operationalization
a patient contact > 70 %
b patient contact , 70 %
c research > 20%
d research < 20%
e education > 20%
f education < 20%
g management > 20%
h  management < 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
patient contact > 70 %   M=7.6
patient contact < 70 %   M=7.6

research        > 20%    M=7.6
research        < 20%    M=7.0

education       > 20%    M=7.7
education       < 20%    M=7.4

management      > 20%    M=7.7
management      < 20%    M=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelJob: has enough time
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Single direct question if there is enough time to do 
the job:
1 Yes
0 No
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.20 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Log of other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Job: requires skill
- Job: makes own decisions
- Job: free of conflicting demands
- Job: has variety of tasks
- Job: trust in management
- Self-perceived health
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Contacts w. family members
- Contacts w. friends
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency of attending religious services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelWork pressure
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Factor derived from responses to questions about 
characteristics of one's Job.
Questions not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.15
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- other job characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.11
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.17
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- Other job characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.13
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.11
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- Other Job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.1
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelTime pressure
Page in Source 211
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Selfreport on single statement: 'I constantly work to 
tight deadlines'. 
0: disagree/ strongly disagree/ neither agree nor 
disagree 
1: agree/ strongly agree
Observed distributionRange 1-5 Sweden: M= 3.08, Finland: M= 3.10, Netherlands: M= 2.94, Germany: M= 3.15, United Kingdom: M= 3.43, Portugal: M= 2.75, Spain: M= 2.95, Hungary: M= 2.99, Bulgaria: M= 2.54

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.10 ns
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 p < .05
B additionally controlled GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.09 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- country dummies 
- job satisfaction 
- work-home interference

In analysis of each country separately B is only 
significant in United Kingdom (-.54)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelWork pressure
Page in Source 275
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
- time pressure
- working hard (My work requires working hard)
- ?
rated 1= never, 5 = always:
Observed distributionMen: M= 3,24 SD=.77, Women: M=2,96 SD = .88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.12 ns
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=+.07 ns
Women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

StudyDeBeer (2002): study NL 1998
TitleDruk, Druk .... Geluk? (Busy, Busy .....Happiness?).
SourceEssay, Social Cultural Planning Office, 2002, The Haque, Netherlands
PublicEmployed, the Netherlands, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response4
Respondents N =3239

Correlate
Author's labelWork under high time pressure
Page in Source 2
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Do you work under high time pressure?
3  Yes, often
2  Yes, sometimes
1: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%=+
% very happy: 
- often pressured      25
- sometimes pressured  23
- not pressured        23
- all                  24
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=-
% happy: corrected
- often pressured      21
- sometimes pressured  23
- not pressured        27
- all                  24

D%a adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- education
- religion
- marital status
- household
- kind of employment
- length of employment
- occupation
- branche
- leadership
- time spent on household tasks
- net family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

StudyDeBeer (2002): study NL 1998
TitleDruk, Druk .... Geluk? (Busy, Busy .....Happiness?).
SourceEssay, Social Cultural Planning Office, 2002, The Haque, Netherlands
PublicEmployed, the Netherlands, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response4
Respondents N =3239

Correlate
Author's labelWork pace
Page in Source 2
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Do you work in a high pace?
3: Yes, often
2: Yes, sometimes
1: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%=+
% very happy
- often in high pace      27
- sometimes in high pace  23
- not in high pace        20
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=
% very happy adjusted
- often in high pace      27
- sometimes in high pace  23
- not in high pace        21
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=+
Stronger among Ss who can control their pace of 
work
- often in high pace      31
- sometimes in high pace  26
- not in high pace        23
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=-
Similar among Ss who cannot control their work 
pace
- often in high pace      25
- sometimes in high pace  20
- not in high pace        18

D%a adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- education
- religion
- marital status
- size of household
- kind of employment
- length of employment
- occupation
- branche
- leadership
- time spent on household tasks
- net family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time-pressure at work
Subject code: W04ab16

Study~BBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of stress in the job
Page in Source 64
Our classificationTime-pressure at work, code W04ab16
Operationalization
Self-report on a single question:
Would you say your main job is…
0: Not stressful
1: Quite stressful
2: Too stressful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=-
0: M=3,30  CI95=3,20-3,41
1: M=3,27  CI95=3,21-3,34
2: M=3,18  CI95=2,96-3,40
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=-
0: M=7,47  CI95=7,24-7,70
1: M=7,39  CI95=7,23-7,56
2: M=6,53  CI95=5,97-7,08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBMCT= p < .05
0,1 > 2
  1 > 2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelWorking hours
Page in Source 116
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) How many days do you work every week now?
b) How many hours do you work every day now?
Summation: a*b
Observed distributionM=31.94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.00 ns
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Household income
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2010): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Happiness, and the Disutility of Labor.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol. 107, 77 - 79
URLhttp://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/28101/1/608759643.PDF
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2009.12.032
Public18-65 aged working couples, Germany, followed 7 years, 1999-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16937

Correlate
Author's labelWeekly working hours
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Number of weekly paid working hours (including 
overtime)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.00 ns
Women only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.00 ns
Men only

b's based on Probit-adjusted OLS, controlled for:
- age
- own health
- spuces health
- individual fixed effects
- time fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyAlesina et al. (2005): study DE 1990
TitleWork and leisure in the U.S. and Europe: Why so Different?
SourceWorking Paper no 11278, NBER Working Paper Series, 2005, Cambridge, USA.
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w11278.pdf?new_window=1
Publicemployed heads of household, Germany, followed 10 years from 1990-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =38558

Correlate
Author's labelWeeks of Vacation
Page in Source 59
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Text not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.05 p < .05
T1 (1990)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.09 p < .01
T2(2000)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.04 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness

B's similar across age groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelWork Hours
Page in Source 43
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Log  and log-squared of self reported work hours
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=+.42 ns
Hours log
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=-.07 ns
Hours log-squared

OPRCs controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- earnings (log)
- work conditions
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - married
  - sexe
  - age
  - age-squared
  - education-squared (log)
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelTime to work
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Time to work in minutes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.07
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.06
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=0
Time to work squared:
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=0
Time to work squared:
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.1
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.1
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
Time to work squared:
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
Time to work squared:
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=-.11
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=-.1
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.01
Time to work squared:
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.01
Time to work squared:
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2011a): study ZZ 1996
TitleEuropeans Work To Live and Americans To Work.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 225 - 243
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9188-8
Public15+ aged, general public, the U.S. and Western Europe, 1996-2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11630

Correlate
Author's labelworking hours
Page in Source 228, 229, 232
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
U.S. GSS: Self-report on a single question: How many 
hours did you work last week, at all jobs?

EB98/EB01: Self-report on single question: How many 
hours do you usually work a week in your job, including 
overtime? Please do not include meal breaks. If it 
varies, take the average over the last 4 weeks.

The variable of interest is an interaction of working 
hours and a dummy variable for Europe.
Observed distribution<17: 5% 17-34: 15% 35-39: 17% 40:27% 41-49: 15% 50-59: 11% 60-160: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOR=.99 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelHours worked
Page in Source 29
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Logarithm of average annual hours worked
Remarks
Data: OECD Employment Outlook

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-1.2 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by average hours worked in 
the nation 
OPRC (-1.192) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelLabor supply
Page in Source 54
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Self report on multiple questions

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.03
Average working hours in a week
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.11
Average working hours in a week (at current job)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+2.0
Average working hours in a week
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+8.6
Average working hours in a week (at current job)

Instrument for happiness:
- regional yearly cloud average

Control variables:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelNormal hours worked
Page in Source 18-22
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Number of hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.00 p < .01
MALES (N=58674/10085)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.00 p < .10
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)

B's controlled for: 
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class
- Male/Female Time Use Groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelExtra hours worked
Page in Source 18, 19, 21, 22
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Number of hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.00 p < .01
MALES (N=58674/10085)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.00 p < .01
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)

B's controlled for: 
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelTotal hours worked
Page in Source 10, 11, 15
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
a individual
b spouse/partner
Observed distributionMales: a: M=24.12 sd=17.59 b:? Females: a: M=41.09 sd=17.43 b:?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-
   MALES                 FEMALES
a: b=-.00 SE=.00 p<.05   b=-.00 SE=.00 p<.01
b: b=-.00 SE=.00 ns      b=-.00 SE=.00 p<.10

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Number of children of different age groups
- Employment status
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 2002
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15450

Correlate
Author's labelNumbers of hours worked per week
Page in Source 1607
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Self report on single question on number of hours 
worked per week
Precise text not presented
Observed distributionM = 42.21, SD = 14.72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fr=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyErlandsson et al. (2010): study US 1989
TitleWomen’s Perceived Frequency of Disturbing Interruptions and Its Relationship to Self-Rated Health and Satisfaction with Life as a Whole.
SourceStress and Health, 2010, Vol. 26, 225 - 232
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smi.1287/pdf
PublicSingle black mothers receiving child care, Ohio, United States, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelWorking Hours
Page in Source 29.30
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
self report in single question: "On average, how mainy 
hours would you say spend in paid employment each 
week?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-ar=+.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 1987
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 1987 - 1988
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13007

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of hours worked per week
Page in Source 1609
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Self report on single question on number of hours 
worked per week
Precise text not presented
Observed distributionM = 38.71, SD = 15.24

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-br=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelWorkaholic
Page in Source 18,47
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Selfreport on being a workaholic.
Question not reported.
1 - Yes
0 - No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=-.20 p < .01
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- sociable
- practice sports
- hours of leisure
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Workers: B= +.08
Nonworkers: B= +.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work hours
Subject code: W04ab17

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelWork hours
Page in Source 18,47
Our classificationWork hours, code W04ab17
Operationalization
Selfreport on the hours worked weekly (workers only): 
loglinear function.
Error Estimates.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=+.10 ns
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- sociable
- workaholic
- practice sports
- hours of leisure
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

When the work hours are quadrated B= -.03.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Irregular work hours
Subject code: W04ab17a

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelIrregular hours
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationIrregular work hours, code W04ab17a
Operationalization
Factor derived from responses to questions about job 
characteristic.
Questions and loadings not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.03
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- Other work characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.02
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.02
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- other job characteristics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.03
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=-.05
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- subjective income
- other job characteristics
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=-.03
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variety of work
Subject code: W04ab18

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelVariety of work
Page in Source 79,93
Our classificationVariety of work, code W04ab18
Operationalization
Three item index of direct questions on variety of 
work. Answer categories yes/no.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.11
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Variety of work
Subject code: W04ab18

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelJob: has variety of tasks
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationVariety of work, code W04ab18
Operationalization
Single direct question if the job has variety of tasks:
1 Yes
0 No
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.37 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Log of other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Job: makes own decisions
- Job: requires skill
- Job: has enough time
- Job: free of conflicting demands
- Job: trust in management
- Self-perceived health
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Contacts w. family members
- Contacts w. friends
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency of attending religious services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Private or public sector
Subject code: W04ab19

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmanagement in public/private sphere
Page in Source 120
Our classificationPrivate or public sector, code W04ab19
Operationalization
management in public/private sphere
1: management in the public sector
2: management in large or medium-sized businesses
3: management in small businesses
Observed distributionN All:216; %:1:10,2; 2:65,3; 3:24,5
Remarks
managers only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1: Mt=8.19
2: Mt=8.43
3: Mt=8.03
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Mt=7.84
2: Mt=8.04
3: Mt=7.55
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Mt=7.05
2: Mt=7.74
3: Mt=7.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Private or public sector
Subject code: W04ab19

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelcurrent employment status
Page in Source 160
Our classificationPrivate or public sector, code W04ab19
Operationalization
current employment status
1: unemployed
1.a: unemployment benefits
1 b: social security recipient
2: employed
2 a: private sector
2 b: public sector
Observed distributionN: All:4169; 1: 14%; 1a::9,7%; 1b::4,3%; 2: 86,1%; 2a:47,3%; 2b:38,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.97
1a: Mt=7.25
1b: Mt=6.35
2:  Mt=7.93
2a: Mt=8.04
2b: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.56
1a: Mt=6.81
1b: Mt=5.99
2:  Mt=7.62
2a: Mt=7.68
2b: Mt=7.54
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.41
1a: Mt=6.59
1b: Mt=6.01
2:  Mt=7.16
2a: Mt=7.25
2b: Mt=7.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Private or public sector
Subject code: W04ab19

StudyPark (1998): study KR 1996
TitleWork and Quality of Life in the Perception of the Korea People: Focussing on the Difference among Occupational Groups.
SourceDevelopment and Society, 1998, Vol. 27, 17 - 33
PublicWorking people, South Korea, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelWork and quality of working life
Page in Source 25
Our classificationPrivate or public sector, code W04ab19
Operationalization
a  professionals
b  workers in public sector
c  clerical and managerial workers
d  workers in sales and services
e  manufacturing workers
f  agricultural workers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
Mean happiness (original scores on range 1-5 
transformed to range 0-10)
All 5.4
a   5.8
b   6.6
c   5.5
d   5.3
e   4.7
f   4.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Private or public sector
Subject code: W04ab19

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelLabour market status
Page in Source 253
Our classificationPrivate or public sector, code W04ab19
Operationalization
a. Employed in private sector    (reference)
b. Public sector
c. Self-employed
d. Unemployed
d. Disability
e. Work in home
Observed distributionNot reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.02 ns
Public sector
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Self-employed
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.63 p < .05
Unemployed
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.43 p < .05
Disability
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.23 p < .05
Work in home 

OPRC's controlled for:
-schooling
-intelligence
-social background
-family status
-self-perceived health
-wealth.

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote whether the 
correlation is positive or negative and the 
relative differences in correlation between labour 
market status and happiness, e.g. unemployed 
people are unhappier than disabled people and 
full-time homemakers.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hourly pay (vs salary)
Subject code: W04ab20

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 2002
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15450

Correlate
Author's labelHourly status
Page in Source 1607
Our classificationHourly pay (vs salary), code W04ab20
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
In your main job, are you salaried, paid by the hour, 
of what?
0: salaried
1: paid by the hour
Observed distributionM = 0.62, SD=0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fr=-.10 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- hourly status (salaried vs paid by the hour)
- occupation
- age
- gender
- education 
- marital status
- having children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hourly pay (vs salary)
Subject code: W04ab20

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 1987
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 1987 - 1988
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13007

Correlate
Author's labelHourly status
Page in Source 1609
Our classificationHourly pay (vs salary), code W04ab20
Operationalization
Self report on the question:
How are you paid in your main job?
0: salaried
1: paid by the hour
Observed distributionM = 0.59, SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-br=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.06 p < .001
Beta controlled for
- hourly status (salaried vs paid by the hour)
- occupation
- age
- gender
- education 
- marital status
- having children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Opportunity for personal development
Subject code: W04ab21

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelDevelopment
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationOpportunity for personal development, code W04ab21
Operationalization
Factor derived from responses to questions about 
characteristics of one's Job.
Questions and loadings not reported.
Remarks
Suggesting code:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.21
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- Other Job characterisctics
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.18
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.2
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- Other Job characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.16
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.26
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- Other job characterisitcs
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.2
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fSelfreport on 10 questions:

We are interested in how people are feeling these days. The following items describe some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week
A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B That things were going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F Upset because someone criticized you
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Bored
I Very lonely or remote from other people
J Depressed or very unhappy

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to E
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average F to J
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -25 to +25

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aSelfreport on two questions:

A
Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low0
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down0
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

B)
Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average, what percentage of the time do you feel Happy? What percent of the time do you feel unhappy? What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy nor unhappy)? Write down your best estimate, as well as you can, in the space below. Make sure the figures add-up to equal 100%
The percent of time I felt happy _____%
The percent of time I felt unhappy _____%
The percent of time I felt neutral _____%

Summation: A + % happy on B

Name: Fordyce's 'Happiness measure'
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aSelf report on single question:

"Here you have ladder of nine rungs representing different conditions of life in which a person may possibly be. The top of the ladder '9' represents the best possible condition one may think of, and the bottom '1'represents the worst possible condition. On which rung do you think you stand with regard to your personal condition?"
9 best possible
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst possible

This question was followed by questions on the past (five years ago) and the future (five years from now).

Name: Cantril ladder rating (adjusted version)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Think about the quality of your life at the present time. I would like you to give a rating where 0 represents the worst possible life for you and 10 represents the best possible life for you.
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

… your life in general … (full question not reported)
9 best I could expect to have
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst I could expect to have
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".......satisfaction with life........."
(full question not reported)

Responses scored pictorial faces scale consisting on several
smilies, expressing variations from very unhappy to very happy.
(Pictures not presented here)
1 unhappy face
2
3
4 neutral face
5
6
7 happy face
(Pictures not presented here)

Name: Kunin's `Faces Scale'
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

A For the past five years, how much have you accomplished of what you planned in your life?
1 completely failed
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely accomplished
B How much are you satisfied with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
C How much do you enjoy your life these days?
3 a great deal
2 a fair amount
1 not very much
D How happy have you been for the past five years?
1 completely unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely happy

Summation: % positive answers

Response options A, D and C not reported in full detail
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eSelfreport on single question:

Do you generally feel that your life is a source of personal satisfaction?
1 no, never
2 yes, sometimes
3 yes, most of the time
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-aClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center.

Rater instruction:
"To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?"
1 low
2
3 average
4
5 high
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general these days, how happy or unhappy would you say you are, on the whole...?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are on the whole?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you consider yourself in an overall perspective?
10 most happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 least happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bSelf report on single question:

Do you consider your life as a whole
1 happy
0 unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

When somebody would say about you, 'this person is very happy', is he right or wrong......?
3 right
2 fifty-fifty
1 wrong
- difficult to say.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

To what extend do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life ....."
Full question not reported

Response options: not reported
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not satisfied
- don't know
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question

Taking everything together, how happy are you with the way things are going in your life now?
6 completely satisfied
5 pretty much satisfied
4 slightly satisfied
3 slightly dissatisfied
2 pretty much dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration: how satisfied are you with your life in general at the present time.....?
1 not satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
4 very satisfied
5 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not too satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how do you judge your quality of life?
4 very satisfactory
3 sufficiently satisfactory
2 not too satisfactory
1 unsatisfactory
- don't know
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
10 extermely happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy

B. All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays.?
10 extremely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extermely dissatisfied

Summation: (A+B)/2
O-Sum-c-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on two questions:

A "Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days ? Would you say you are......"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

B in general how satisfying do you find the way you are
spending your life these days? Would you call it ........"
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for correlation of happiness with a variable that is unrelated to the independent variable, e.g. for b of happiness with body length in an analysis of the relation between happiness and lottery playing, assuming that there is no relation between body length and lottery playing. Aims to eliminate reversed causality and spurious correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_variable
http://homepage.univie.ac.at/Christine.Zulehner/iv.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
D%aDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED PERCENTAGES, See also D%
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
W04WORK: CONDITIONSA02ac11Working
W04WORK: CONDITIONSE02EMPLOYMENT
W04WORK: CONDITIONSE02aeCurrent employment arrangement
W04WORK: CONDITIONSL10ao04Local job characteristics
W04WORK: CONDITIONSM10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK
W04WORK: CONDITIONSN04ac09Work conditions
W04WORK: CONDITIONSO01OCCUPATION
W04ab03Commuting to workW05ad02eaSatisfaction with commuting
W04ab03Commuting to workW04ab10Works at home
W04ab03Commuting to workW04ab05Distance to work
W04ab03Commuting to workT01ad02Time spend commuting
W04ab03aDistance to workT01ad02Time spend commuting
W04ab03bTransport mode usedA01ab01Physical activity
W04ab04Demands in workE02ad02Hours work
W04ab05Distance to workW04ab10Works at home
W04ab05Distance to workW04ab03Commuting to work
W04ab05Distance to workM10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK
W04ab07Problems at workP12PROBLEMS
W04ab08Relations at workW05ad02cSatisfaction with colleagues
W04ab08cLeadership of bossW05ad02gSatisfaction with management
W04ab10Works at homeW04ab05Distance to work
W04ab11Security of jobE02aeCurrent employment arrangement
W04ab11Security of jobN04ae01dajob protection
W04ab12Self-direction at workE02aeCurrent employment arrangement
W04ab12Self-direction at workF05ab03Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
W04ab13Shift workS04abCurrent sleep-pattern
W04ab14Strain at work (physical)A01ab01Physical activity
W04ab15Tasks at workA02ac11dWork activities
W04ab15Tasks at workT01ad07Time spend on work tasks
W04ab16Time-pressure at workP04cySpeedy, hurried
W04ab16Time-pressure at workE02ad02Hours work
W04ab17Work hoursF01aa02a Change working hours of mother
W04ab17Work hoursL03abCurrent leisure time
W04ab17Work hoursM04ad02Work hours of spouce
W04ab17Work hoursT01adCurrent time-usage
W04ab17Work hoursW05ahPreferred working hours
W04ab20Hourly pay (vs salary)I01ad03Type of income
W04ab21Opportunity for personal developmentP04cpSelf-actualization (need for)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings