Findings on Happiness and WAR

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and WAR
Subject Code: W01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
W01WAR0
W01aaWar-involvement career0
W01aa01Earlier involvement with war3
W01aa02Change in involvement with war1
W01aa03Later involvement with war0
W01abCurrent involvement with war0
W01ab01Involved in warfare1
W01ab02Victim of warfare0
W01acAttitudes to war2
W01ac01Attitudes to own involvement in war0
W01ac02Attitudes to war in general0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and WAR
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=W01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier involvement with war
Subject code: W01aa01

StudyAntonovsky et al. (1971): study IL 1968
TitleTwenty-Five Years Later: A Limited Study of Sequelae of the Concentration Camp Experience.
SourceSocial Psychiatry, 1971, Vol. 6, 186 - 193
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00578367
PublicFemales, born between 1914-1923 in Central Europe, Israel 1968
Sample
Non-Response52%: 24% unattainable, 29% incomplete; unaffected by age
Respondents N =287

Correlate
Author's labelHaving been in concentration camp
Page in Source 188
Our classificationEarlier involvement with war, code W01aa01
Operationalization
Stayed in nazi concentration camp   during World War II
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.36 p < .01
Concentration camp experience:    Mt=5.6
No concentration camp experience: Mt=6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier involvement with war
Subject code: W01aa01

StudyKemmerling (2014): study ZZ 2005
TitleWar's Long Shadow on Happiness.
SourcePaper, 2014, Budapest, Hungary
URLhttps://achimkemmerling.wordpress.com/?s=wars+long+shadow
Public18+ aged, general public, 54 nations, 2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelhistory of warfare
Page in Source 2
Our classificationEarlier involvement with war, code W01aa01
Operationalization
a: number of wars involved over the last 200 years.
B: number of battle deaths over the last 200 years (in 
% of the population)
Remarks
Data source:Correlates of war project: 
http://wwwcorrelatesofwar.org

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar= ns
AVERAGE happiness in nation by number of wars 
involved in over the last 200 years.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-2.2 ns
AVERAGE happiness in nation by number of battle 
deaths over the last 200 years.
B controled for 
- GDP per capita
- post communist (or not)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier involvement with war
Subject code: W01aa01

StudyLeon et al. (1983): study US 1978
TitleSurvivors of the Holocaust and their Children: Current Status and Adjustment.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983, Vol. 41, 503 - 516
PublicEuropean born Jews, Survivors of WW II and controls, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelProsecuted during WW II
Page in Source 511-512
Our classificationEarlier involvement with war, code W01aa01
Operationalization
0 emigrated before WW II, not         prosecuted
1 emigrated after WW II, during WW II    in 
concentration camp or in hiding

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-sq-v-2-aG=-.77 p < .01
males    G'  = - .24   (05)
females  G'  = -1.00   (01)
M-CO-u-sq-v-2-atb=-.24 p < .01
males    _b' = - .07    ns
females  _b' = - .31   (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in involvement with war
Subject code: W01aa02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 /1
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, 2 towns, prosperous and depressed, Illinois, USA, 1962/3 - 1962/10
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in a period of national crisis
Page in Source 82-85
Our classificationChange in involvement with war, code W01aa02
Operationalization
Re-interview during Cuban missile crisis in October 
1962 (T2).
This crisis involved a political con- frontation 
between the USA and the USSR and might have resulted in 
a (nuclear) war. 
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.13 p < . 05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness.
Most Ss got slightly happier.
Unaffected by worrying about the crisis.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= -
Index of Positive Affects only: G' = -.23 (01)
Stronger among Ss who were worrying about the 
crisis.
No relationship with the Index of Negative 
Affects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in warfare
Subject code: W01ab01

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's label(ln) War days
Page in Source 1015-1016
Our classificationInvolved in warfare, code W01ab01
Operationalization
Assessment of authors
Moment of interview:
a) Before the Lebanon-war
b) During the Lebanon-war
c) After the Lebanon-war

a: logarithmic function of interview during the war
b: logarithmic function of interview during the war 
squared
c: logarithmic function of interview after the war
d: logarithmic function of interview after the war 
squared
Remarks
The Libanon war started on July 12, 2006 and
lasted for 34 days until august 14, 2006.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.10 ns
DURING THE LEBANON-WAR         
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.44 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.05 ns
DURING THE LEBANON-WAR SQUARED 
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.14 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.01 ns
AFTER THE LEBANON-WAR          
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.07 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.00 ns
AFTER THE LEBANON-WAR SQUARED  
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.03 ns
Arabs

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- health
- marital status
- (parents') country of origin
- years residing in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- employment status
- place of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to war
Subject code: W01ac

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, 1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelFear of war
Page in Source 264
Our classificationAttitudes to war, code W01ac
Operationalization
Item mentioned in open-ended question on fears and 
worries for one's personal future and/or for the future 
of one's country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM= + ns
Fear of war: Mt = 5.1
No fear    : Mt = 4.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to war
Subject code: W01ac

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelThinking often about atom-bomb or fallout
Page in Source 54
Our classificationAttitudes to war, code W01ac
Operationalization
Response to single question:
"Last week how often did you think about ..  Atom bomb 
or fallout"

Rated: not at all / sometimes / often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= -
High S.E.S. : G = -.04 (ns)
Low S.E.S.  : G = -.26 (05)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-CO-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

I am happy with my accomplishments in life
2 yes
1 no
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you are leading?
1 not satisfied at all
3 not so satisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 no rank correlation
tb = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
W01WARN04af03Civil war
W01WARN04af04Political role of armed forces
W01WARN05acInvolved in international conflict
W01ab01Involved in warfareM11MILITARY LIFE
W01ab02Victim of warfareV06VICTIM
W01acAttitudes to warN06ai02Willingness to fight for country
W01ac01Attitudes to own involvement in warV06ad02Acceptance of victimization
W01ac02Attitudes to war in generalV02ab01bPreference for peaceful solution of political problems

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings