Findings on Happiness and VICTIM

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and VICTIM
Subject Code: V06

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
V06VICTIM 0
V06aaVictim career0
V06aa01Earlier victimization (ever victimized)6
V06aa02Change: recently victimized3
V06aa03Later victimization (victim proneness)0
V06abCurrent victim status4
V06ab01Victim of accident3
V06ab02Victim of crime4
V06adAttitudes to victimization1
V06ad01Perceived chance of becoming victim 2
V06ad02Acceptance of victimization0
V06ab03Victim of bullying2
V06acVictimization of intimates2
V06aeDealing with risk of becoming a victem1
V06ab04Victim of domestic violence1
V06ab05Victim of discrimination2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and VICTIM
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=V06
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Subject code: V06aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAccidents in first year of life
Page in Source 310,312
Our classificationEarlier victimization (ever victimized), code V06aa01
Operationalization
Accidents in first year of life as reported in medical 
file
1: no accidents
2: accidents:
   2b: fall from height/stairs
   2c: fall from carriage/table
   2d: other head trauma
   2e: certain concussions of the brain
   2f: burning (second degree more than 5 % of skin)
   2g: poisoning, medicine
   2h: poisoning, kitchen chemicals
   2i: poisoning tobacco
   2j: poisoning, other
   2k: other accident
Observed distributionN all:3737, 1:92,7%, 2:7.2% 2b:1,3%, 2c:0,7%, 2d:1,2%, 2e:0,6%, 2f:0,9%, 2g:1,2%, 2h:0,2%, 2i:0,2%, 2j:0,2%, 2k:0,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.65
2b: Mt=7.65
2c: Mt=7.31
2d: Mt=7.50
2e: Mt=7.86
2f: Mt=8.14
2g: Mt=7.68
2h: Mt=7.78
2i: Mt=9.16
2j: Mt=7.50
2k: Mt=7.03
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.31
2b: Mt=7.25
2c: Mt=7.41
2d: Mt=7.23
2e: Mt=7.03
2f: Mt=7.79
2g: Mt=7.44
2h: Mt=7.23
2i: Mt=8.75
2j: Mt=7.50
2k: Mt=6.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.03
2:  Mt=7.09
2b: Mt=7.10
2c: Mt=7.21
2d: Mt=7.23
2e: Mt=7.14
2f: Mt=7.58
2g: Mt=6.88
2h: Mt=6.95
2i: Mt=8.75
2j: Mt=6.56
2k: Mt=6.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Subject code: V06aa01

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelViolent behaviour of someone near
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier victimization (ever victimized), code V06aa01
Operationalization
Have you experienced violent behaviour of someone near
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Ansswers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2141 Ever in your life: N = 295

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.09
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.65
95% CI for difference:   [0.11 ; 0.35]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Subject code: V06aa01

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBeen a victim of violence outside home
Our classificationEarlier victimization (ever victimized), code V06aa01
Operationalization
Have you experienced been a victim of violence outside 
home
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.03
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
ever in your life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Subject code: V06aa01

StudyAntonovsky et al. (1971): study IL 1968
TitleTwenty-Five Years Later: A Limited Study of Sequelae of the Concentration Camp Experience.
SourceSocial Psychiatry, 1971, Vol. 6, 186 - 193
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00578367
PublicFemales, born between 1914-1923 in Central Europe, Israel 1968
Sample
Non-Response52%: 24% unattainable, 29% incomplete; unaffected by age
Respondents N =287

Correlate
Author's labelHaving been in concentration camp
Page in Source 188
Our classificationEarlier victimization (ever victimized), code V06aa01
Operationalization
Stayed in nazi concentration camp   during World War II
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.36 p < .01
Concentration camp experience:    Mt=5.6
No concentration camp experience: Mt=6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Subject code: V06aa01

StudySturms et al. (2003): study NL 1999
TitleYoung Traffic Victims' Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life: Child Self-Reports and Parental Reports.
SourceArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 84, 431 - 436
DOIdoi:10.1053/apmr.2003.50015
Public8-15 aged, 3 year after a trafic accident, The Netherlands, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelSequale of trafic accident
Page in Source 91
Our classificationEarlier victimization (ever victimized), code V06aa01
Operationalization
1 Traffic accident victims
0 Reference group
Observed distributionTrafic accident victims N = 157; Reference group N = 2334
Remarks
Traffic injury victims treated at the Traumatology 
Department of Groningen University Hospital in 
1996-1997, aged 8-15 years at follow up  in June 1999.

Reference group: 2 random sample groups of children 
from the general Dutch population (n= 1131 children 
8-11 y; n= 1252 children 12-15 y).
Both sample groups were stratified by age and gender.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-3-aDM=- p < .NS
Traffic victims rating M =  1,59
Reference group rating M =  1,68
Difference            DM = -0,08
                CI [-0,95; +0,79]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Subject code: V06aa01

StudyLeon et al. (1983): study US 1978
TitleSurvivors of the Holocaust and their Children: Current Status and Adjustment.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983, Vol. 41, 503 - 516
PublicEuropean born Jews, Survivors of WW II and controls, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelProsecuted during WW II
Page in Source 511-512
Our classificationEarlier victimization (ever victimized), code V06aa01
Operationalization
0 emigrated before WW II, not         prosecuted
1 emigrated after WW II, during WW II    in 
concentration camp or in hiding

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-sq-v-2-aG=-.77 p < .01
males    G'  = - .24   (05)
females  G'  = -1.00   (01)
M-CO-u-sq-v-2-atb=-.24 p < .01
males    _b' = - .07    ns
females  _b' = - .31   (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change: recently victimized
Subject code: V06aa02

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelattacked in last 12 months
Page in Source 903
Our classificationChange: recently victimized, code V06aa02
Operationalization
Question not reported
Self reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,18 p < .01
B controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area

B unaffected by
- additional control for personal assets
- alternative controls for relative wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change: recently victimized
Subject code: V06aa02

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in being a crime victim
Page in Source 1729
Our classificationChange: recently victimized, code V06aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in reports of being a crime victim in the 
last year

A  Became a victim
   0 no
   1 yes

B  Stopped being a victim
   0 no
   1 yes
Observed distributionT2: A0 97,6%, A1: 2,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.43 p < .01
T1-T2 BECAME a victim, by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.11
T1-T2 CEASED being a victim by T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 health
- T1-T2 changes in life situation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change: recently victimized
Subject code: V06aa02

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHusband died in mineaccident 6 months ago
Our classificationChange: recently victimized, code V06aa02
Operationalization
1 Widows (N=44)
0 Non-widow controls (wives of   survivors and other 
miner wives,   N=178)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acD%=-
% not too happy
- widows            56%
- survivor wives    12%
- other miner wives 9%
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bDMo=-
Modus on range 1-10
- widows            5
- survivor wives    8
- other miner wives 8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current victim status
Subject code: V06ab

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-harm-weighted victimization
Page in Source 273
Our classificationCurrent victim status, code V06ab
Operationalization
Calculated by multiplying the mean harmfulness score 
for each kind of offence times each occurrence of the 
offence for every respondent and adding all these 
products for each respondent
Remarks
Crime victims only: N = 462

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current victim status
Subject code: V06ab

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelVictimization
Page in Source 253/4, 268
Our classificationCurrent victim status, code V06ab
Operationalization
Selfreport of being a victim of crime in the last year
1: was victim
0: was not
Observed distribution1: 38% 0: 62%
Remarks
Theft of less than $500: 35.3%; Break and enter 
dwelling: 16.9%; Vanedalism damage lees than $1000: 
8.7%; Break and enter vehicle: 8.7%; Theft of $5000 or 
more: 8.7%; Vandalism damage $1000 or more: 6.2%; 
Assault: 4.8%; Fraud: 2.8%; Other: 2.7%; Spousal abuse: 
1.5%; Drunkendriving injury: 1.3%; Stalker: 0.8%; Elder 
abuse: 0.8%; Sexual assault: 0.7%
Victim of more than one crime: 18%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=-
was victim   M = 5.5
was not      M = 5.7
- difference    -0.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-eDM=-
was victim   M = 5.4
was not      M = 5.6
- difference    -0.2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fDM=-
was victim   M = 5.6
was not      M = 5.9
- difference    -0.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current victim status
Subject code: V06ab

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelUnjust behaviour from the authorities
Page in Source 261
Our classificationCurrent victim status, code V06ab
Operationalization
Have you experienced unjust behaviour from the 
authorities
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1948. Ever in your life: N = 525

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.21
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.14
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.64
95% CI for difference:   [0.19 ; 0.37]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current victim status
Subject code: V06ab

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelRisk experience
Page in Source 50,55,56
Our classificationCurrent victim status, code V06ab
Operationalization
Self-report on 9 questions:
"When did your household experience the following 
things latest?"
a Threatened livelihood due to unemployment or low 
income of household members
b Threatened livelihood due to unemployment or low 
income due to illness or injury of household
c Food insecurity
d Threatenend access to safe water
e Threatened life due to poor means of transportation 
or road conditions, traffic accidents
f War or armed conflict
g Political oppression, denying of human rights
h Someone in your household got involved in a crime
I Someone in your household been a victim of corruption 
such as demanded a bribe from civil servants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.17 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education level
- work status
- household income
- trust gap
- ingroup trust
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of accident
Subject code: V06ab01

StudyBrorsson et al. (1993): study SE 1991 /1
TitleThe Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey ( SWED-QUAL).
SourceQuality of Life Research, 1993, Vol. 2, 33 - 45
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00642887
Public18-84 aged, victims of traffic accidents 2 years ago, Sweden,1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =2349

Correlate
Author's labelInjured
Page in Source 37
Our classificationVictim of accident, code V06ab01
Operationalization
0: General population
1: Seriously injured in traffic accident.
   Judged as needing hospital care by police officer at 
the place of accident.
Remarks
General population: probability sample of 18-84 aged in 
Sweden.
Reported separately in study BROS 1993/1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-aDM=-
General population M = 3.9
Injured            M = 3.1
- difference          -0.8

Affect Balance computed by WDH team; subtraction 
average negative affect from average positive 
affect.

Accident victems score lower on both positive 
affect (71,9 vs 75,6) and negative affect (68,8 vs 
71,7), which indicates reduced emotionality.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of accident
Subject code: V06ab01

StudyBrooks & McKinlay (1983): study GB 1980
TitlePersonality and Behavioral Change after Severe Blunt Head Injury - A Relative`s View.
SourceJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1983, Vol. 46, 336 - 340
DOIDOI:10.1136/jnnp.46.4.336
PublicSeverely head injured patients, Glasgow UK, 1980-82
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelchange happiness after injury
Page in Source 337
Our classificationVictim of accident, code V06ab01
Operationalization
Rating happiness by close relatives
a before injury (retropectively)
b 12 months after injury

This rating was part of an 'personality adjective 
checklist which intimate informats rated as the patient 
was BEFORE injury and NOW at the time of the interview
Remarks
Only Ss whose personality had changed after injury (N 
=33)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-rdf-n-5-aD%=- p < .01
% rated happy by close relative
Before injury   85%
After injury    50%
-difference    -35%
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of accident
Subject code: V06ab01

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners, paralyzed accident victims, and controls, Illinois USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an accident victim
Page in Source 921
Our classificationVictim of accident, code V06ab01
Operationalization
Accident victims vs major lottery winners and controls. 
             
1. Accident victims: 11 paraplegic and
   18 quadraplegic accident victims,
   drawn from the fulltime patient
   population of a rehabilitation
   institute.
   N=29, non-response 15%.
2. Lottery winners: won $50000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-reponse 48%.
3. Controls: 22 individuals, living in
   approximately the same areas of the
   city as the lottery winners.
   N=22, non-reponse 41%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cAoV=- p < .01
Accident victims: M=2.96  Mt'=5.92
Lottery winners:  M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Controls:         M=3.82  Mt'=7.64

Both difference with lottery winners and controls 
significant.

Accident victims interviewed face-to-face; winners 
and controls by phone.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of crime
Subject code: V06ab02

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBeen a victim of property crimes
Page in Source 261
Our classificationVictim of crime, code V06ab02
Operationalization
Have you experienced been a victim of property crimes
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answera:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2006. Ever in your life: N = 473

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.89
ever in your life:       M = 3.73
95% CI for difference:   [0.07 ; 0.25]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of crime
Subject code: V06ab02

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelattacked in last 12 months
Page in Source 903
Our classificationVictim of crime, code V06ab02
Operationalization
Question not reported
Self reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,18 p < .01
B controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area

B unaffected by
- additional control for personal assets
- alternative controls for relative wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of crime
Subject code: V06ab02

StudySulemana (2014): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2008
TitleThe Effect of Fear of Crime and Crime Victimization on Subjective Well- Being in Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2015, Volume 121, 849 - 872
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-014-0660-4#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0660-4
PublicAdult general public, 20 sub-saharan African countries, 2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =27713

Correlate
Author's labelVictim of theft
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationVictim of crime, code V06ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
1: respondent or someone in their family had something 
stolen from their house (at least once) over the past 
year;
0: otherwise.
Observed distribution M = 0.341, SD = 0.474

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-db=-.04 p < .05
b (-0,04) controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - social capital
  - religion 
- environmental characteristics
  - size of town
  - country (dummy)

Ordered probit analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of crime
Subject code: V06ab02

StudySulemana (2014): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2008
TitleThe Effect of Fear of Crime and Crime Victimization on Subjective Well- Being in Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2015, Volume 121, 849 - 872
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-014-0660-4#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0660-4
PublicAdult general public, 20 sub-saharan African countries, 2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =27713

Correlate
Author's labelVictim of physical attack
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationVictim of crime, code V06ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
1: respondent or someone in their family had been 
attacked (at least once) over the past year;
0: otherwise.
Observed distributionM = 0.142, SD = 0.349.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-db=-.11 p < .01
b (-0,106) controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - social capital
  - religion 
- environmental characteristics
  - size of town
  - country (dummy)

Ordered probit analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of bullying
Subject code: V06ab03

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelBullying victimization
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classificationVictim of bullying, code V06ab03
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, 
repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the  
part of one or more other persons, and he or she has 
difficulty defending himself or herself: How often have 
you been bullied at school in the past couple of 
months?
Rated:
1: never 
2: once or twice
3: two or three times a month 
4: about once a week
5: several times a week
Observed distributionM=1.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.25 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrant (born in Italy or not)
- Gender
- Age
- Family socio-economic status
- Friends support
- Number of friends


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of bullying
Subject code: V06ab03

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelBeing bullied
Page in Source 185, 192
Our classificationVictim of bullying, code V06ab03
Operationalization
Self report of being bullied more than twice a month
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N =50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ers=-
Girls:rs = -.13
Boys :rs = -.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of domestic violence
Subject code: V06ab04

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a victim of domestic violence
Page in Source 1082
Our classificationVictim of domestic violence, code V06ab04
Operationalization
Domestic violence was defined as an assault, threat, or 
intimidation by a male partner or a family member. 
Question: Have you ever been a victim of domestic 
violence?
0. No
1. Yes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acDM=-
No  M = 6,12 SD = 2,36
Yes M = 4,86 SD = 2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=-.28
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of discrimination
Subject code: V06ab05

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelGender discrimination
Page in Source 1082, 1081
Our classificationVictim of discrimination, code V06ab05
Operationalization
Question: Do you feel any gender discrimination in 
general?:
0. No
1. Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acDM=-
No  M = 6.04 SD = 2.40
Yes M = 4.96 SD = 2.04
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=+.14
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victim of discrimination
Subject code: V06ab05

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelDiscriminiation experience
Page in Source 50,55,56
Our classificationVictim of discrimination, code V06ab05
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions:
"How do you think the following attributes or 
attainments of yourself have given you an advantage or 
disadvantage in your life ?" 
a  Gender
b  Age
c  Educational background
d  Occupation
e  Income
f  Assets
g  Family background
h  Race, ethnicity, or nationality
I  Area of residence
j  Region of origin
k  Religion

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.29 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education level
- work status
- household income
- trust gap
- ingroup trust
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victimization of intimates
Subject code: V06ac

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelRelative/close friend victimization
Page in Source 258, 273
Our classificationVictimization of intimates, code V06ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on question whether friends or relatives had 
been a victim of crime in the last year
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionyes: 48% no: 41% don't know: 11%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Victimization of intimates
Subject code: V06ac

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelWitnessing domestic violence
Page in Source 1077, 1081,1082
Our classificationVictimization of intimates, code V06ac
Operationalization
Domestic violence was defined as an assault, threat, or 
intimidaion by a male partner or a family member. 
Question was: Have you ever known anyone personally who 
was the victim of domestic violence?
0. No
1. Yes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acDM=-
No  M = 6    SD = 2,45
Yes M = 5,50 SD = 2,14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=-.28
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to victimization
Subject code: V06ad

StudySchulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response4%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived avoidability of injury
Page in Source 1170
Our classificationAttitudes to victimization, code V06ad
Operationalization
Single direct question on whether the subject felt he 
could have avoided the 
disability.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-ar=+.17 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chance of becoming victim
Subject code: V06ad01

StudySulemana (2014): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2008
TitleThe Effect of Fear of Crime and Crime Victimization on Subjective Well- Being in Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2015, Volume 121, 849 - 872
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-014-0660-4#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0660-4
PublicAdult general public, 20 sub-saharan African countries, 2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =27713

Correlate
Author's labelFear of crime
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationPerceived chance of becoming victim , code V06ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1: if respondent or someone in their family feared 
crime (at least once) in their home over the past year;
0: otherwise.
Observed distribution M = 0,326, SD = 0,469

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-db=-.08 p < .01
b (-0,08) controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - social capital
  - religion 
- environmental characteristics
  - size of town
  - country (dummy)

Ordered probit analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chance of becoming victim
Subject code: V06ad01

StudyBecker & Ester (1987): study NL 1986
TitleRampbewustzijn in Nederland. (Beliefs about Coming Disasters in the Netherlands).
SourceSociale Wetenschappen, 1987, Vol. 30, 179 - 206
Public18-70 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1986
Sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =2016

Correlate
Author's labelDisaster awareness
Page in Source 182
Our classificationPerceived chance of becoming victim , code V06ad01
Operationalization
5item Guttman-index:
1) end to world 
2) big war 
3) environmental disaster 
4) nuclear disaster 
5) economic disaster 
Ss were asked whether they expected such disasters. 
Probability rated on a 5-point scale, ranging from 
strongly disagree to strongly agree (order reversed). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.06
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=? ns
ß controlled for sex, age, educational level, 
occupational level, income, social-economic 
category (allowance yes/no), political 
ineffectivity and neuroticism.
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-drpc=-.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dealing with risk of becoming a victem
Subject code: V06ae

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelIndex of defensive behaviour
Page in Source 273
Our classificationDealing with risk of becoming a victem, code V06ae
Operationalization
Answer to question did you engage in defnesive 
behaviour 
a. Any special locks on you doors
b. Any locks on anything else
c. Is there a burglar alarm
d. Do you stay off streets at night
e. Lock doors lock at home in daytime
f. Avoid going downtown
g. Lock doors when you leave home
h. Done anything else to protect you
1: yes
2: no
Observed distributionAnswer yes (percentage): a: 72, b: 43, c: 24, d: 46, e. 64, f: 30, g: 97, h: 42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-3-aSelf rating on 16 questions:

In the recent weeks, did you feel
A Joyfull
B In good spirits
C Contented
E Enthusiastic
F Relaxed
G Happy
H Confident
J Cheerfull
K Short-tempered
L Jealous
M Anxious
N Sad
O Angry
P Worried
Q Gloomy
R Aggressive

Rated:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation: (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+J) - (K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R)
Name: TACQOL Positive and Negative emotional functioning scales
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 12 questions:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statements concerning your feelings during the last week?
A My time has been filled with things meaningful to me
B I have felt liked
C I have felt nervouys
D I have felt tense
E I have felt down
F I have felt I have much to look forward to
G I have felt harmony
H I have felt emotionally stable
I I have felt sad
J I have felt impatient and restless
K I have felt anoyed
L I have felt lighthearted

Rated:
4 completely agree
3 partly agree
2 partly disagree
1 completely disagree

Computation: (A+B+F+G+H+L) - (C+D+E+I+J+K)
Possible range -18 to +18. Transformed to range 0-100

Name: Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey (SWED-QUAL) Part 4 'Your feelings'
A-AOL-c-rdf-n-5-aFamily rating on single question:

… personality of the patient now .. (full lead question not reported)
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5 happy

Item in longer adjective checklist
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
M-CO-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

I am happy with my accomplishments in life
2 yes
1 no
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you now (not at this moment, but at this stage of life) .....?"
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5 very much

(originally rated on horizontal line scale)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are....?
1 not too happy
2 relatively happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-eSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mixed
5 happy
6 happy
7 very happy

lVerbal abel 'unhappy' used for numerical options 2 and 3 together. Likewise verbal label 'happy'used for both numerical options 5 and 6.
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question

In general, how would you describe: Your own present living conditions?
1 very bad
2 fairly bad
3 neither good nor bad
4 fairly good
5 very good
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acSelfreport on single question:

If you consider all the aspects of your recent life, in what measure are you satisfied with it?
1 completely unsatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceSelfreport on single question:

At present, how satisfied are you, all in all, with your life in general?
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

Considering the whole situation: how satisfied are you about your daily life?
1 very unsatisfied
2 unsatisfied
3 neither unsatisfied, nor satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original (very unsatisfied '5', very satisfied '1')


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMoDIFFERNCE IN MODUS (D= difference, Mo=modal score)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
V06aa01Earlier victimization (ever victimized)E03ag02Personal experience of ethnic discrimination
V06aa01Earlier victimization (ever victimized)L06aa01Earlier life-events
V06aa02Change: recently victimizedL06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
V06ab01Victim of accidentH02ab01cPhysical handicap
V06ab02Victim of crimeL10aeLocal safety
V06ab04Victim of domestic violenceA01ab02Mental activity
V06ab05Victim of discriminationG01afGender discrimination
V06ad01Perceived chance of becoming victim W07WORRIES
V06ad02Acceptance of victimizationC10COPING
V06aeDealing with risk of becoming a victemC10ab01Current coping-style
V06aeDealing with risk of becoming a victemL10aeLocal safety

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings