Findings on Happiness and VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)
Subject Code: V04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)0
V04aaConventionality of own values0
V04abSimilarity of own values with others8
V04acSocial acceptance of own values2
V04aeAttitudes to value-consonance/dissonance0
V04ae01Attitude to dominant value-pattern0
V04ae02Attitude to dissimilarity in values1
V04adValue-environment fit2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=V04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeldifference between educational values of the people I know and me
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
Please circle in the second column the extent the 
people you know to agree with the statements:

Concerning an education for the people I know it's 
important: 
A To have brilliant professors
B That teachers be especially friendly
C To do good academic work at the university
D That a student who scores high grades not be more 
appreciated than the average student
E To be the best student in class
F That the choice of major does not depend on gender
G To get better marks than my best friend in school
H That bad results are not a disaster
I That male students are allowed to cry
J To see the highest performing students as a model
K To solve conflicts by means of discussion

Rating: 1= strongly disagree ….5= strongly agree
individual score minus score people I know
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= .14, SD= .49
Remarks
scores of educational values the student thinks the 
people in his/her surrounding will respond minus 
his/her own scores on this value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
St.Louis r=+.06 ns
Utrecht  r=-.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
St.Louis r=+.02 ns
Utrecht  r=-.08 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
St.Louis r=+.03 ns
Utrecht  r=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeldifference between work values of the people I know and me
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
Please circle in the first column, next to the 
statement, the extent to which you expect the people 
you know to agree with the statements:

Statements:

A Concerning work for me it's important 
B To work with my colleagues  harmoniously
C To be able to speak one’s mind even if it might harm 
the relationship with 
ones colleagues
D To have guaranteed job security
in present organisation
E To live to work
F To have a career with prestige
G To be thought ambitious by my colleagues 
H To have a manager who uses his/her intuition
I To have an assertive manager
J To have a decisive manager
K That there is an affirmative action policy at my 
place of work
L That there is an achievement oriented atmosphere
M That the income is related to my performance within 
my work
N To work to live
O That the best performers get the highest positions in 
the organization
P That there is a competitive atmosphere 
Q That everyone is equal and is treated in such a 
manner by his/her co-workers

Rating: 1= strongly disagree ….5= strongly agree
individual score minus score people I know
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= .04, SD= .414
Remarks
scores of work values the student thinks the people in 
his/her surrounding will respond minus his/her own 
scores on this value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 ns
St.Louis r= -.06 ns
Utrecht  r= -.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 ns
St.Louis r= -.07 ns
Utrecht  r= -.08 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns
St.Louis r= -.16 (P<.05)
Utrecht  r= -.01  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeldifference between personal values of the people I know and me
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
Please circle in the first column, next to the 
statement, the extent to which you expect the people 
you know to agree with the statements:

Concerning a personal situation for me it's important: 

A To admire friends that perform 
extremely well in sports
B To support friends who are feeling down
C To own a big car
D To help busy family members with their
responsibilities
E To be able to spend a lot of money 
F To yield a free bus seat to an elderly lady
G To own luxurious products
H To save the last cookie for someone else
I That in a family men and women share
the same tasks
J That men be ambitious
K That a father be more 
rational than emotional
L That a man hit back when attacked
M That men are discouraged from crying
N That women are allowed to cry
O That a woman does not hit back when 
she is attacked
P That women especially concern themselves with human 
relations
Q That conflicts are being solved by compromises
R That people approach each other in a friendly way
S That good friends have a high social status
T That people are able to enjoy
events that are often taken 
for granted, like seeing the sunrise

Rating: 1 = strongly disagree ….5 = strongly agree
individual score minus score people I know
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= .23, SD= .421
Remarks
scores of personal values the student thinks the people 
in his/her surrounding will respond minus his/her own 
scores on this value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.16 p < .01
St.Louis r= -.19 (P<.01)
Utrecht  r= -.07 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .05
St.Louis r= -.13 (P<.05)
Utrecht  r= -.00  ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.13 p < .01
St.Louis r= - .19 (P<.01)
Utrecht  r= + .00    ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeldifference between political values of the people I know and me
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
Please circle in the first column, next to the 
statement, the extent to which you expect the people 
you know to agree with the statements:

Statements:
Concerning politics for me it's important;
A That poor people pay less taxes than 
rich people
B That a destitute person has access to social services 
to meet their need
C That the government spend generously 
on aid for foreign development
D To live in a welfare state
E That the government spend generously 
on pluralism
F That environmental issues and conservation 
has the highest priority 
G That economic renewal has a high priority
H That in society, people appreciate diversity
I International conflicts are solved 
by an international authority 
J That women are voted into office in the next election
K To live in a society where success and opportunities 
are based on achievement
L That international conflicts are being resolved by 
compromises and negotiations

Rating: 1= strongly disagree ….5= strongly agree
individual score minus score people I know
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= .13, SD= .452
Remarks
scores of political values the student thinks the 
people in his/her surrounding will respond minus 
his/her own scores on this value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.08 p < .10
St.Louis r= -.10 (P< .10)
Utrecht  r= -.02   ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .10
St.Louis r= -.11 (P< .10)
Utrecht  r= -.02  ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.07 ns
St.Louis r= -.08 ns
Utrecht  r= -.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeldifference between total values of the people I know and me
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
all values together:
difference between total values of the people I know 
and me on educational values +  political values +  
workvalues +  personal values
Observed distributionM= .14, SD= .339
Remarks
scores of total values the student thinks the people in 
his/her surrounding will respond minus his/her own 
scores on this value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.08 p < .10
St.Louis r= -.09 ns
Utrecht  r= -.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .10
St.Louis r= -.09 ns
Utrecht  r= -.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.09 p < .05
St.Louis r= -.12 (P<0.10)
Utrecht  r= -.05  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelwork values of the people I know
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
Please circle in the first column, next to the 
statement, the extent to which you agree with the 
statements:

Concerning work for me it's important 
A To work with my colleagues  harmoniously
B To be able to speak one’s mind even if it might harm 
the relationship with 
ones colleagues
C To have guaranteed job security
in present organisation
D To live to work
E To have a career with prestige
F To be thought ambitious by my colleagues 
G To have a manager who uses his/her intuition
H To have an assertive manager
I To have a decisive manager
J That there is an affirmative action policy at my 
place of work
K That there is an achievement oriented atmosphere
L That the income is related to my performance within 
my work
M To work to live
N That the best performers get the highest positions in 
the organization
O That there is a competitive atmosphere 
P That everyone is equal and is treated in such a 
manner by his/her co-workers

Rating: 1 strongly disagree ...5= strongly agree
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= 3.03, SD = .33 St. Louis M= 3.13, SD = .303 Utrecht M = 2.93,SD = .329

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
St.Louis r=-.01 ns
Utrecht  r=.04  ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=.03 ns
St.Louis r=.08 ns
Utrecht  r=.10 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.07 ns
St.Louis r=.00 ns
Utrecht  r=.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyBrim (1974): study US 1972
TitleSocial Network Correlates of Avowed Happiness.
SourceJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1974, Vol. 158, 432 - 439
PublicFemales Feminists and controls. Seatle, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelValue similarity with others
Page in Source 437
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on whether the 
respondent feels that:     1. His/her ideals most 
nearly approach    her ideals of 'the right way'.      
2. Feels she has a great many interests    in common 
with him/her.    3. Generally shares the same    
philosophy of life with him/her.
The questions were answered separately for all adult 
one sees at least once a month and who one consideres 
as important persons in ones life.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-ar=+
All network members.

Married females   : r = +.34 (002)
Unmarried females : r = -.19 (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-ar=+.42 p < .002
Husband only (computed for married females only).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Similarity of own values with others
Subject code: V04ab

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptance of social values
Page in Source 243
Our classificationSimilarity of own values with others, code V04ab
Operationalization
33-item index of closed questions on honesty (7 items), 
kindness (4 items), reciprocity (7 items), self-control 
(5 items), social responsibility (4 items), and social 
skills (6 items).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.26 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social acceptance of own values
Subject code: V04ac

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelCommunity approval
Page in Source 164
Our classificationSocial acceptance of own values, code V04ac
Operationalization
Self report:
'To what extent do you feel approval   for your 
lifestyle and ideals from the local community'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.17 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social acceptance of own values
Subject code: V04ac

StudyRosenberg (1962): study US 1960
TitleThe Dissonant Religious Context and Emotional Disturbance.
SourceAmerican Journal of Sociology, 1962, Vol. 68, 1 - 10
PublicHigh school pupils, New York, USA,1960
Sample
Non-Response1% because of inadequate answers
Respondents N =1618

Correlate
Author's labelReligious dissonanceof social context
Our classificationSocial acceptance of own values, code V04ac
Operationalization
0 Mixed/Consonant 
1 Dissonant neighbourhood

The neighbourhood were one lived (longest) when one 
grew up was rated as either "dissonant" or "consonant" 
on the basis of a direct open question on the religious 
affiliation of most of the people in that neighbourhood 
(more than 50% different from ones own religion rated 
"dissonant", less than 50% "mixed" or "consonant").

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.24 p < .01
Stronger among Protestants and Jews than among 
Catholics (G' respectively -.40, -.36, -.07). 

Lower when controlled for recall of prejudice 
experience.

Variable with cultural similarity:
-Catholics who grew up in Protestant area happier
 than those who grew up in Jewish area,
-Protestants who grew up in Catholic area happier
 than those who grew up in Jewish area,
-Jews who grew up in Protestant area happier than
 those who grew up in Catholic area. 
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-atb=-.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Value-environment fit
Subject code: V04ad

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with ability fit
Page in Source 277, 279, 284, 290
Our classificationValue-environment fit, code V04ad
Operationalization
Satisfaction with extent of fit between kibbutz life 
ond one's ability and aspirations

Selfreport on single question, question not reported

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positve)
Observed distributionM=3.21, SD=.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.13 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction of feeling of belonging to Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Value-environment fit
Subject code: V04ad

StudySortheix & Lönnqvist (2014): study ZZ EU 25 2006
TitlePersonal Value Priorities and Life Satisfaction in Europe: The |Moderating Role of Socioeconomic Development.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, Vol. 45, 282 - 299
DOIDOI:10,1177/0022022113504621
Public15+ aged, general public, 25 European nations, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =44106

Correlate
Author's labelRandom slope variance
Page in Source 288-292
Our classificationValue-environment fit, code V04ad
Operationalization
Selfreport of similarity with verbal portraits of 
different people who expressed a value orientation.
A. Security
5. It is important to him/her to live in secure 
surroundings. He/she avoids anything that might 
endanger his/her safety.
14. It is important to him/her that the government 
insure his/her safety against all threats. He/she wants 
the state to be strong so it can defend its citizens.
B. Conformity
7. He/she believes that people should do what they're 
told. He/she thinks people should follow rules at all 
times, even when no-one is watching.
16. It is important to him/her always to behave 
properly. He/she wants to avoid doing anything people 
would say is wrong.
C. Tradition
9. It is important to him/her to be humble and modest. 
He/she tries not to draw attention to herself.
20. Tradition is important to him/her. He/she tries to 
follow the customs handed down by his/her religion or 
his/her family.
D. Benevolence
12. It's very important to him/her to help the people 
around him/her. He/she wants to care for their 
well-being.
18. It is important to him/her to be loyal to his/her 
friends. He/she wants to devote herself to people close 
to him/her.
E. Universalism
3. He/she thinks it is important that every person in 
the world be treated equally. He/she believes everyone 
should have equal opportunities in life.
8. It is important to him/her to listen to people who 
are different from him/her.
Even when he/she disagrees with them, he/she still 
wants to understand them.
19. He/she strongly believes that people should care 
for nature. Looking after the environment is important 
to him/her.
F. Self-direction
1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is 
important to him/her. He/she likes to do things in her 
own original way.
11. It is important to him/her to make his/her own 
decisions about what he/she does. He/she likes to be 
free and not depend on others.
G. Stimulation
6. He/she likes surprises and is always looking for new 
things to do. He/she thinks it is important to do lots 
of different things in life.
15. He/she looks for adventures and likes to take 
risks. He/she wants to have an exciting life.
H. Hedonism
10. Having a good time is important to him/her. He/she 
likes to “spoil” him/herself.
21. He/she seeks every chance he/she can to have fun. 
It is important to him/her to do things that give 
him/her pleasure.
I. Achievement
4. It's very important to him/her to show his/her 
abilities. He/she wants people to admire what he/she 
does.
13. Being very successful is important to him/her. 
He/she hopes people will recognize his/her 
achievements.
J. Power
2. It is important to him/her to be rich. He/she wants 
to have a lot of money and expensive things.
17. It is important to him/her to be in charge and tell 
others what to do. He/She wants people to do what 
he/she says.

How much are you like this person:
6 very much like me
5
4
3
2
1  not like me at all
Error Estimatesinter item correlation: +.72
Remarks
Schwartz (2003) Portrait Values Questionnaire, 21 item 
adapted version (PNQ21)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.08 p < .05
Individual value: security.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.07 p < .05
Individual value: conformity.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.06 p < .05
Individual value: tradition.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: benevolence.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: universalism.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: self-direction.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.08 p < .05
Individual value: hedonism.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.03 ns
Individual value: stimulation.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.10 p < .05
Individual value: achievement.
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=+.05 p < .05
Individual value: power.

B-fix'scontroled for:
- individual level characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - satisfaction with income
- nation level characteristics
  - socio-economic development (HDI)
  - value climate
    - value of autonomy (vs embeddedness)
    - value of equality (vs hierarchy)
- cross level interaction
O-Sum---mq-n-11-ab-fix=
Splitt-up by the human development index of the 
nation:
- universal pattern (same direction of values)
  Security
  Benevolence
  Hedonisme
  Power
- cultural difference (opposite direction of 
values)
  Conformity
  Tradition
  Universalism
  Self-direction
  Achievement
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to dissimilarity in values
Subject code: V04ae02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance
Page in Source 208
Our classificationAttitude to dissimilarity in values, code V04ae02
Operationalization
Direct question, rated on a 4 point   scale: "Do you 
feel embarrassed to be with people with other ideas, an 
other religion or other opinions than yourself? Do you 
think that's..."
1 Very embarrassing
.
.
4 Not embarrassing at all  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .01
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.22 p < .01
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .01
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12 p < .01
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12 p < .01
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.13 p < .01
Northern Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.14
EC

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=+
EC (stratified sample)  
Very embarrassing         Mt'=  5.78
.                         Mt'=  6.22
.                         Mt'=  6.67
Not embarrassed at all    Mt'=  7.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta= ns
In none of the European countries ß weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for:
happiness(HAPP 1.1), affect(AFF 2.3); satisfaction 
with health,income and family life; age, income, 
education, marital status, having children, male 
sex, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own 
home, religiousness, social participation; 
uncertainty about future, expected negative 
changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past 
and future;  loneliness, misantropy, hopeless 
about life and sense of control.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
B On the whole, I think I am a quite happy person.
C In general, how would you say you feel most of the time -in
good or in low spirits?
D I get a lot of fun out of life.
E I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.
F How often do you feel downcast and rejected?

Response options: not reported

The items of this scale were randomly distributed in the questionnaire.

Name: Rosen 'Depressive Affect Scale'
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how would you say things are these days? Please put a circle around the appropriate number to indicate how happy you are these days.....?
9 very happy
8
7
6
5 pretty happy
4
3
2
1 not too happy

(originally rated on a horizontal scale)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-Sum---mq-n-11-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A: How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
B How satisfied are you with how life has turned out so far?
C: How happy are you?

Each rated
0 extremely dissatisfied (unhappy)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremenly satisfied (happy)

Computation: (A+B+C)/3


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)V01aa03Earlier value-similarity
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)V01ab03Change in value-similarity
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)V01ac03Later value-similarity
V04acSocial acceptance of own valuesL07aeAcceptance of one's life-goals by others
V04adValue-environment fitV03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
V04adValue-environment fitV05VALUES: LIVING UP TO
V04ae01Attitude to dominant value-patternN06ac04Satisfaction with moral climate
V04ae02Attitude to dissimilarity in valuesP04deTolerant

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings