Findings on Happiness and VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
Subject Code: V03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)1
V03aaActual value-climate8
V03abAttitudes to value-climate4
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=V03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
Subject code: V03

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ Western Europe 1980 /5
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 10 European nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelMoral apreciation of happiness
Page in Source 58
Our classificationVALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment), code V03
Operationalization
Response to survey questions on:
a) egoism/altruism
b) comfort/materialistic orientation

Summed average per nation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
Average happiness by average moral appreciation in 
nations

Divergence between average Life-satisfaction and 
Affect Balance is neither correlated with moral 
appreciation of life (r = -.02)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeleducational values of the people I know
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
Please circle in the first column, next to the 
statement, the extent to which you agree with the 
statements:

Concerning an education for me it's important: 
A To have brilliant professors
B That teachers be especially friendly
C To do good academic work at the university
D That a student who scores high grades not be more 
appreciated than the average student
E To be the best student in class
F That the choice of major does not depend on gender
G To get better marks than my best friend in school
H That bad results are not a disaster
I That male students are allowed to cry
J To see the highest performing students as a model
K To solve conflicts by means of discussion

Rating: 1= strongly disagree...5= strongly agree
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= 2.83 SD = .421 St. Louis M= 2.87, SD= .394 Utrecht M= 2.78, SD= .427

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 ns
St.Louis r=-.04 ns
Utrecht  r=-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .05
St.Louis r=-.08 ns
Utrecht  r=-.07 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.04 ns
St.Louis r= +.01 ns
Utrecht  r= -.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelpersonal values of the people I know
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
Please circle in the first column, next to the 
statement, the extent to which you agree with the 
statements:

Concerning a personal situation for me it's important: 
A To admire friends that perform 
extremely well in sports
B To support friends who are feeling down
C To own a big car
D To help busy family members with their
responsibilities
E To be able to spend a lot of money 
F To yield a free bus seat to an elderly lady
G To own luxurious products
H To save the last cookie for someone else
I That in a family men and women share
the same tasks
J That men be ambitious
K That a father be more 
rational than emotional
L That a man hit back when attacked
M That men are discouraged from crying
N That women are allowed to cry
O That a woman does not hit back when 
she is attacked
P That women especially concern themselves with human 
relations
Q That conflicts are being solved by compromises
R That people approach each other in a friendly way
S That good friends have a high social status
T That people are able to enjoy
events that are often taken 
for granted, like seeing the sunrise

Rating: 1= strongly disagree .5= strongly agree
Summation: Average
Observed distributionM= 2.57, SD= .397 St. Louis M= 2.64, SD = .399 Utrecht M= 2.51, SD= .345

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.19 p < .01
St.Louis r=-.21 (p<.01)
Utrecht  r=-.11 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.10 p < .05
St.Louis r=-.10 ns
Utrecht  r=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.11 p < .05
St.Louis r=-.05 ns
Utrecht  r=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labeltotal values of the people I know
Page in Source 72-77
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
All values together:
Total values of the people I know on
educational values + political values + work values + 
personal values
Observed distributionM= 2.79, SD= .275 St. Louis M= 2.85, SD = .269, Utrecht M = 2.72,SD= .266

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.10 p < .05
St.Louis r=-.11 ns
Utrecht  r-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 ns
St.Louis r=-.06 ns
Utrecht  r=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns
St.Louis r= +.00  ns
Utrecht  r= -.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleDoes Religious Diversity Make Us Unhappy?
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2011, Vol. 14, 1063 - 1076
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674676.2010.550277
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21486

Correlate
Author's labelreligious fractionalization
Page in Source 1068, 1069
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
Fractionalization is measured by the probability that 
two randomly drawn individuals from the population 
belong to two different religious groups: it equals one 
if everybody belongs to
different group and it equals zero if everybody belongs 
to the same group.
Fractionalisation measures the degree to which 
religious groups are fragmented in a
country  the higher the value of an index the more 
religious groups in a country
Observed distributionrange: 0-.78 m: .28 sd: 23
Remarks
fractionalization=1-sum(s_ij^2)
where s_ij is the share of the group i (i=1N)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-2.5 p < .001
B controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Health
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleDoes Religious Diversity Make Us Unhappy?
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2011, Vol. 14, 1063 - 1076
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674676.2010.550277
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21486

Correlate
Author's labelreligious polarization
Page in Source 1068, 1069
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
Polarisation measures the degree to which individuals 
in a country are divided into two religious groups  
the higher the value is the more equally individuals 
are divided.
Polarization reaches maximum (one) when two equally 
sized religious groups face each other.
Observed distributionrange: 0-1 m: .47 sd: .36
Remarks
polarization=1-sum((0.5-s_ij^2)/0.5)*s_ij    
where s_ij is the share of the group I (i=1N)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.4 p < .001
B controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Health
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ Western Europe 1996
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 8 European nations, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEnjoyment of mundane pleasures
Page in Source 126
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
Respondents were first asked how much they enjoyed 
everyday pleasures such as drinking, smoking, shopping 
and watching TV. They were also asked whether they felt 
any guilt when indulging in these activities. Average 
scores were compared across nations.
Remarks
Source: ARISE (1996) The value of pleasure and the 
question of guilt. International tabulations, Harris 
Research Centre, Richmond UK

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE enjoyment of mundane 
pleasures in 8 western nations
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Data on happiness: World Database of Happiness, 
States of Nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyHills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9195.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 EU nations, 1973-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelValence of words used in books
Page in Source 4,5,14,17
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
2 step rating of positiveness of words used in books in 
a language in a year:

Step1:
Rating of Intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of 
words. Respondents were asked to value of common words, 
such as 'abandon'. 'abbey', 'ability'... etc.. The 
number of words valued varied per nation from 1003 
words in German to 1034 words in the UK and Spain. Each 
word was rated by 20 participants per nation on the 
following scale:
   -3:: Most negative association
   -2
   -1
    0
  +1
  +2
  +3: most positive association
Ratings were recoded afterwards to range 1-9 and a mean 
per nation was computed

Step 2:
Assesment of average valence of words used in books in 
the national language using Google Book database
Observed distributionM = 5,72, SD = 0,114
Error Estimates0.35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1.5 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness in nation by average valence of 
words used in books in 119 nation/year 
combinations 1973-2000
b controlled for:
- country fixed effects
- year fixed effects
- number of words covered
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b additionally controled for GDP
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b when years extended from 1973-2009
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+2.2 p < .01
b without Spain and France (N nation/year 78).
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR=.95
(


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual value-climate
Subject code: V03aa

StudyLalive & Stutzer (2010): study CH 2000
TitleApproval of Equal Rights and Gender Differences in Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Popululation Economics, 2010, Vol. 23, 933 - 962
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-009-0257-4
PublicSalaried workers, Switzerland, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6203

Correlate
Author's labelApproval of equal rights
Page in Source 7,8,9,21,22,27
Our classificationActual value-climate, code V03aa
Operationalization
% votes in community for equal rights amendment in 1975 
referendum:
0 Low: < 60% 
1 High:> 60%
Observed distributionAll 0: N = 3175, 1 = 3906; Women 0: N = 1494, 1: N= 1965; Men 0: N= 1681, 1: N= 1941
Remarks
Equal rights amendment(december 1975):
"Men and women have equal rights. Legislation shall 
ensure legal equality, particularly in the areas of 
family, education and work. Men and women shall have 
the right to equal pay for work of equal value."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
All
0 Low    M =  8,18
1 High   M =  7,96
difference = -0.22
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
Women only
0 Low    M =  8,24
1 High   M =  7,96
difference = -0.28
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
Men only
0 Low    M =  8,13
1 High   M =  7,95
difference = -0.16
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.00 ns
All
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.10 p < .001
Interaction effect of gender and approval of equal 
rights 
Beta = -.10 means that women in communities with a 
high percentage approval of equal rights are .10 
points less happy on a happiness scale 0-10.

Beta's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age 
- Education
- Marital status
- Nationality
- Employment status
- Household income 
- Household size

Ordered Probit analysis (OPRC) yields similar 
results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to value-climate
Subject code: V03ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with others sincerity
Page in Source 112
Our classificationAttitudes to value-climate, code V03ab
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about how sincere and 
honest other people are?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to value-climate
Subject code: V03ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with fair treatment by others
Page in Source 156
Our classificationAttitudes to value-climate, code V03ab
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about how fairly you 
get treated?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.39
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.51
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16
 controlled for 7 criterion satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.17
		 additionally controlled for sociodemographic 
variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to value-climate
Subject code: V03ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2727

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standards and values
Page in Source 156
Our classificationAttitudes to value-climate, code V03ab
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the standards 
and values of today's society?" (asked in November 1972 
and July 1973)
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to value-climate
Subject code: V03ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standards and values of society
Page in Source 113
Our classificationAttitudes to value-climate, code V03ab
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the standards 
and value of today's society?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.20
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-ar=+.17


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-aSelfreport on single question :
Where would you put your life as a whole on a feeling thermometer?
Rated on 'thermometer scale' (in grades)
0 degrees: very cold, negative
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 very warm, positive
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
RCOEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R = 0 no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R = 1 the correlates determine the happiness completely.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)A08ATTITUDES
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)V01aa02Earlier value-climate
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)V01ab02Change in value-climate
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)V01ac02Later value-climate
V03aaActual value-climateN04akValue climate in the nation
V03abAttitudes to value-climateN06ac04Satisfaction with moral climate

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings