Findings on Happiness and VALUES: CAREER

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and VALUES: CAREER
Subject Code: V01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
V01VALUES: CAREER0
V01aaEarlier values0
V01aa01Earlier value-preferences2
V01aa02Earlier value-climate0
V01aa03Earlier value-similarity0
V01abChange in values0
V01ab01Change in value-preferences0
V01ab02Change in value-climate0
V01ab03Change in value-similarity0
V01acLater values0
V01ac01Later value-preferences4
V01ac02Later value-climate0
V01ac03Later value-similarity0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and VALUES: CAREER
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=V01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier value-preferences
Subject code: V01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptance of social values
Our classificationEarlier value-preferences, code V01aa01
Operationalization
Composite measure at T1, T2, T3 and T4 designed to tap 
values that are highly approved in the United States, 
consisting of six indexes: honesty (7 items), kindness 
(4 items), reciprocity (7 items), self-control (5 
items), social responsibility (4 items), social skills 
(6 items). Scale: 1.00 = low approval to 6.00 = high 
approval of social values

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
                  Acceptance of social values
Happiness      T1       T2       T3       T4
T1      tau = +.28     +.22     +.19     +.15
T2      tau = +.20     +.34     +.21     +.25
T3      tau = +.18     +.26     +.33     +.25
T4      tau = +.14     +.21     +.24     +.34
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier value-preferences
Subject code: V01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievement value
Our classificationEarlier value-preferences, code V01aa01
Operationalization
Index at T1, T2 and T3 of four items that indicate the 
extent to which the respondent considers it to be "a 
good thing" to demonstrate behavior indicative of 
academic achievement. Items: "studying constantly in 
order to become a well-educated person; working hard to 
achieve academic honors; striving to get the top 
grade-point average in the group; studying hard to get 
good grades in school." 
Scale: 1 = low to 6 = high in academic achievement 
value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
              Academic achievement value
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1    tau = +.26 (001)  +.15 (001)  +.15 (001)
T2    tau = +.16 (001)  +.22 (001)  +.14 (001)
T3    tau = +.12 (01)   +.18 (001)  +.25 (001)
T4    tau = +.10 (01)   +.13 (001)  +.18 (001)
All tau's significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later value-preferences
Subject code: V01ac01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAbortion disapproval
Our classificationLater value-preferences, code V01ac01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T4 and T5:
'A woman should be permitted to have an abortion at any 
time during the first three months of pregnancy.' 
Scale:
1 = agree; 2 = mostly agree; 3= mostly disagree; 4 = 
disagree; 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=
                Abortion disapproval
Happiness       T4          T5
T1        tau = +.05 (ns)   +.03 (ns)
T2        tau = +.05 (ns)   +.01 (ns)
T3        tau = +.08 (05)   -.01 (ns)
T4        tau = +.06 (ns)   -.02 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later value-preferences
Subject code: V01ac01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptance of social values
Our classificationLater value-preferences, code V01ac01
Operationalization
Composite measure at T1, T2, T3 and T4 designed to tap 
values that are highly approved in the United States, 
consisting of six indexes: honesty (7 items), kindness 
(4 items), reciprocity (7 items), self-control (5 
items), social responsibility (4 items), social skills 
(6 items). Scale: 1.00 = low approval to 6.00 = high 
approval of social values

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
                  Acceptance of social values
Happiness        T1       T2       T3       T4
T1        tau = +.28     +.22     +.19     +.15
T2        tau = +.20     +.34     +.21     +.25
T3        tau = +.18     +.26     +.33     +.25
T4        tau = +.14     +.21     +.24     +.34
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later value-preferences
Subject code: V01ac01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment should end discrimination
Our classificationLater value-preferences, code V01ac01
Operationalization
A mean composed of three items asking the respondent 
how strongly he agrees or disagrees that the government 
should take a role in racial issues. 
Scale: 1.00 = disagree to 4.00 =agree. Assessed at T3, 
T4, T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
           Government should end discrimination
Happiness        T3        T4        T5
T1         tau = +.03      +.02      +.03
T2         tau = +.04      +.02      +.05
T3         tau = +.04      +.04      +.04
T4         tau = +.03      +.06      -.03
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later value-preferences
Subject code: V01ac01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievement value
Our classificationLater value-preferences, code V01ac01
Operationalization
Index at T1, T2 and T3 of four items that indicate the 
extent to which the respondent considers it to be "a 
good thing" to demonstrate behavior indicative of 
academic achievement. Items: "studying constantly in 
order to become a well-educated person; working hard to 
achieve academic honors; striving to get the top 
grade-point average in the group; studying hard to get 
good grades in school." 
Scale: 1 = low to 6 = high in academic achievement 
value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
              Academic achievement value
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1    tau = +.26 (001)  +.15 (001)  +.15 (001)
T2    tau = +.16 (001)  +.22 (001)  +.14 (001)
T3    tau = +.12 (01)   +.18 (001)  +.25 (001)
T4    tau = +.10 (01)   +.13 (001)  +.18 (001)
All tau's significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
V01aa01Earlier value-preferencesV02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)
V01aa02Earlier value-climateV03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
V01aa03Earlier value-similarityE03ag02Personal experience of ethnic discrimination
V01aa03Earlier value-similarityV04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)
V01ab01Change in value-preferencesV02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)
V01ab02Change in value-climateV03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
V01ab03Change in value-similarityV04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)
V01ac01Later value-preferencesV02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)
V01ac02Later value-climateV03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
V01ac03Later value-similarityV04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings