Findings on Happiness and TRAVEL

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and TRUST
Subject Code: T05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
T05TRUST0
T05aaTrust career2
T05abCurrent trust2
T05ab01Trust in institutions2
T05ab02Trust in people41
T04TRAVEL0
T04aaTravel career0
T04abCurrent travel0
T04acAttitudes to travel0
T04aa01Earlier travel0
T04aa02Change in travel0
T04aa03Later travel0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and TRUST
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=T05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust career
Subject code: T05aa

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Our classificationTrust career, code T05aa
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on trust in people, 
assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4. Scale: 1.00 = low trust 
to 2.00 = high trust. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
          Trust in people          
        T1        T2        T3        T4
Happiness
T1     +.16      +.14      +.08 (05) +.08 (05) T2  
   +.13      +.23      +.21      +.17
T3     +.12 (01) +.15      +.19      +.15
T4     +.08 (05) +.10 (01) +.14      +.21
All tau's significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust career
Subject code: T05aa

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Our classificationTrust career, code T05aa
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on trust in people, 
assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4. Scale: 1.00 = low trust 
to 2.00 = high trust

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
          Trust in people
Happiness T1        T2        T3        T4
T1      +.16      +.14      +.08 (05) +.08 (05)
T2      +.13      +.23      +.21      +.17
T3      +.12 (01) +.15      +.19      +.15
T4      +.08 (05) +.10 (01) +.14      +.21
All significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current trust
Subject code: T05ab

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Our classificationCurrent trust, code T05ab
Operationalization
Self report on generalized trust. Question not 
reported.
Observed distributionM = 0.11, SD = 0.31

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
Probability of being more/less happy when 
trusting:
- very satisfied           +10% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied       + 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied         - 4% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied    - 4% (.01)
- very dissatisfied        - 4% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
- very happy               + 9% (.01)
- quite happy              - 2% (.10)
- not very happy           - 4% (.01)
- not at all happy         - 3% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment
- gender
- marital status
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current trust
Subject code: T05ab

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 1041
Our classificationCurrent trust, code T05ab
Operationalization
Self report of  'generalized trust'. Question(s) not 
reported.
Observed distributionM = 0.07, SD= 0,25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
Probability of being more/less happy when 
trusting:
- very satisfied           0% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied       0% (ns)
- medium satisfied         0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied    0% (ns)
- very dissatisfied        0% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy               0% (ns)
- quite happy              0% (ns)
- not very happy           0% (ns)
- not at all happy         0% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment
- gender
- marital status
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: T05ab01

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional trust (confidence)
Page in Source 1038
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code T05ab01
Operationalization
Self report on question: How much confidence do you 
have in
a.  the education system?
b.  the police?
c.  the civil service?
d.  the health care system?
e.  the justice system?

Rated:
1 = none at all
2 = not very much
3 = quite a lot
4 = a great deal
Observed distributionM = 3.07, SD = 0.68
Remarks
Cronach's alpha = 0.82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
Probability of being more/less happy when 
confident:
- very satisfied           + 5% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied       + 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied         - 2% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied    - 2% (.01)
- very dissatisfied        - 2% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
- very happy               + 4% (.01)
- quite happy              - 0% (ns)
- not very happy           - 2% (.01)
- not at all happy         - 2% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment
- gender
- marital status
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: T05ab01

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional trust (confidence)
Page in Source 1038
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code T05ab01
Operationalization
Self report on question:
How much confidence do you have in
a.  the education system?
b.  the police?
c.  the civil service?
d.  the health care system?
e.  the justice system?
Rated: 
1 = none at all
2 = not very much
3 = quite a lot
4 = a great deal.
Observed distributionM = 2.61, SD = 0.81
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
Probability of being more/less happy when 
confident
- very satisfied          +5% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      +5% (.01)
- medium satisfied        +1% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   -3% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -8% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
- very happy              +6% (.01)
- quite happy             +4% (.01)
- not very happy          -4% (.01)
- not at all happy        -5% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment status
- gender
- marital status
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
" Generally speaking, would you say that most people 
can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Error Estimatess.e.=.057
Remarks
Operationalization recoded by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelOther's moral qualities index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Index of 3 single questions on satisfaction with:
a: How dependable and responsible 
b: How sincere and honest
c: How generous and kind
people around you are
All scored on a 1-9 rating scale, summation by average.
Observed distributionM = 6.6 SD = 1.2
Remarks
All items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.40 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1186

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
" Generally speaking, would you say that most people 
can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Error Estimatess.e.=.092

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.27 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1385

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
"Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Error Estimatess.e.=.089

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.19 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
" Generally speaking, would you say that most people 
can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Error Estimatess.e.=.056

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.09 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTrusting others
Page in Source 216
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.20 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.03 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.12 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
" Generally speaking, would you say that most people 
can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Error Estimatess.e.=.094

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.33 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =767

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
" Generally speaking, would you say that most people 
can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Observed distributions.e.=.13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.17 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
" Generally speaking, would you say that most people 
can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?"
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Error Estimatess.e.=.159

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.41 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral trustfulness
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Using this card, generally speaking, would you say that 
most people can be trusted, or that you can’t be too 
careful in dealing with people? 
0:  you can’t be too careful
:
10 most people can be trusted.
Observed distributionM=4.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.10 p < .01
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- gender
- friends
- partner
- children
- health
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelFamily trust
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on the level of trust in your family:
1. not trust
2. neutral
3. trust
Full question was not reported, assumed.
Observed distributionM = 2.63; SD = .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.39 p < .01
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
 -single parent
 -repeated at least one school year
 -residence location
 -gender
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 44
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Full text not reported.
1: most people can be trusted
0: Cannot be too careful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=+
Most people can be trusted M =  6,6
Cannot be too careful      M =  5,4
Difference                   = +1,2
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIngroup trust
Page in Source 50,55,56
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Direct composite question:
"To what degree do you feel you can trust or not trust 
the following people?"
a - Family and relatives
b - Friends and acquaintances
Remarks
Mean value of z-scores of a and b.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.26 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education level
- work status
- household income
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust gap
Page in Source 50,55,56
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
2 direct composite questions on in-group and out-group 
trust:
A In-group trust:
"To what degree do you feel you can trust or not trust 
the following people?"
1 - Family and relatives
2 - Friends and acquaintances
B Out-group trust
"To what degree do you feel you can trust or not trust 
the following people?"
1 - Most people
2 - Neighbors
3 - Strangers

Subtracted value: Ingroup trust-Outgroup trust

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.09 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education level
- work status
- household income
- ingroup trust
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in others
Page in Source 259
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted or that you nee dto be  very careful 
indealing with people?"
1: most people can be trusted
0: need to be very careful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.23 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual interpersonal 
trust

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
question(s) not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.11
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.13
OPRC's controled for
- Income
- log workhours
- log income
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- 20 job characterisitcs
- Personal characteristics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyRose & Ozcan (2007): study ZZ EU 15 2003
TitleFirst European Quality of Life Survey: Quality of Life in Turkey.
SourceEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0719.htm
Public18+aged, general public, EU 15 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 50
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on a single question: 
Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted, or that you can't be too careful in dealing 
with people?
Rated on a 10-point scale(1=you can't be too 
careful;10=most people can be trusted)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.16 p < .000
Turkey
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.16 p < .000
EU15 (EU Member States before 2004)

Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic position
  - age
  - gender
  - income level (quartile)
  - sufficiency of income (out of money, debts)
  - education
  - health
  - occupational level (manual worker or not)
  - living environment (urban or not)
- Social participation
  - employed
  - church attendance
- Attitudes
  - satisfaction with public services
  - perceived tensions in society
  - perceived safety in neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyKim & Kim (2012): study ZZ 2000
TitleDoes Government Make People Happy?: Exploring New Research Directions for Government’s Roles in Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2012, Vol. 13, 875 - 899
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
Public15+ aged, general public, 131 nations, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 898
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
"generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted or that you need to be careful in dealking 
with people?"
1: most people can be trusted
2: can be too careful
(score reversed)
Remarks
Source: cross-section World Value Survey (1996-2008)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=+.41 ns
AVERAGE happiness by Social Trust 
B controlled for:
-Economy
  -openness
  -investment price
  -log GDP
-post communist
-government quantity and quality of government as 
defined by government effectiveness (instead of 
regulatory quality or control of corruption)
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=+.94 ns
B controlled for:
 -Economy
  -openness
  -investment price
  -log GDP
-post communist
-government quantity and quality as defined by 
regulatory quality (instead of government 
effectiveness or control of corruption)
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=+.11 ns
B controlled for:
-Economy
  -openness
  -investment price
  -log GDP
-post communist
-government, quantity and quality as defined by 
control of corruption (instead of government 
effectiveness or regulatory quality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labeltrust most people
Page in Source 132,137, 153
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
0: does not trust most people
1:          trusts most people

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.17 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by trusting 
most people.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Percentage of people in a country who think that most 
people can be trusted.
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Can't be too careful
Observed distributionM=0,26 SD=0,15
Remarks
Self-report on a single question: "In general, do you 
think most people can be trusted?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.6 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE social trust
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.5 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.9 p < .01
b controls for: 
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b controls for: 
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of 
economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.7 p < .01
b controls for: 
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.9 p < .01
b controls for: 
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b controls for: 
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+2.1 p < .01
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)


Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .05
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, sound money, freedom to trade and 
regulation are controlled for INSTEAD of economic 
freedom. When legal system and property rights are 
controlled for instead of economic freedom, social 
trust is not significant.

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies

Similar results are obtained when economic freedom 
is instrumented by:
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks 
English as a mother tongue

In sum: Social trust is positively associated with 
average life satisfaction in nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 8
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
0 You cannot be too careful when dealing with people
1 People can be trusted in general
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M= 0.30 SD= 0.46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.88 p < .05
B controlled for:
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 0.88 point greater happiness on scale 
10-100 of trusting people


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 461, 466, 471
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionM=1.30, SD=0.46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.07 ns
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.30 p < .01
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 94
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on a question that asks whether most people 
can be trusted. Responses are:
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Can't be too careful
Remarks
Scale of responses are assumed to be recoded as such.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.13 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL trust

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
Separately in 74 nations.
Significantly positive in 30 nations.
Not significant in other countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 159
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
0: people in general can not be trusted
1: people in general can be trusted
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M= 0.32, SD= 0.47

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.23 p < .000
B controlled for: 
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- education
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 208
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you think in general most people 
can be trusted or that one can't be too careful enough 
in engaging other people?" 
0 Little trust in people
1 Trust in people

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .01
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .01
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12 p < .01
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .01
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12 p < .01
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .05
Northern Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12
EC

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=+
EC (stratified sample)   
Trust in people    Mt'=  7.11
Little trust       Mt'=  6.56
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta= ns
In none of the European countries ß weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis,when controlling for:
happiness(HAPP 1.1), affect(AFF 2.3); satisfaction 
with health,income and family life; age, income, 
education, marital status, having children, male 
sex, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own 
home, religiousness, social participation; 
uncertainty about future, expected negative 
changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past 
and future;  loneliness, tolerance, hopeless about 
life and sense of control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ EU 27 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public15+ aged, 29 EU nations, 2007-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 168, 174
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Percentage of respondents answering 'yes' to the 
question: "Do you think most people can be trusted?"
Remarks
Data:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
CHANGE average happiness  in 29 nations 
2007-2010,by social trust.

B controled for:
- GDP growth rate
- legal quality
- postcommunist
- openness
- government size
- investment price
- recession
- interaction growth x recession

Random effect analysis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyAhmadyar (2016): study NL 2016
TitleDo the determinants of happiness differ between immigrants and home-stayers? A comparison between Afghansin the Netherlands and Afghanistan
SourceMaster thesis Msc Program in Urban Management and Development, Erasmus university Rotterdam
Public+18 aged Afghan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2016
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =141

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrants Social Trust
Page in Source 36-37
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted, or that you cannot be too careful  in 
dealing with people? Please tell me on scale of 1 to 
10, where (1) means you cannot be too careful and (10) 
means that most of people can be trusted.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aR²=.68 p < .05
The more trusting in each other, the happier.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdR²=.69 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in other people
Page in Source 27
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Direct question on trust in people, rated on a graphic 
scale ranging from 'none' to 'very much'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelSocial isolation
Page in Source 42
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
5-item index indicating a strong mistrust in other 
people (see Berting, 1968).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.16 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelTrust to people
Page in Source 548, 554
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about trust to people:
0 no trust to people (reference)
1 trust to people

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
trust to people (compared to no trust to people)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+ p < .05
trust to people (compared to no trust to people)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Values are therefore not reported in this 
abstract.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyNoble (2009): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being: A Ukrainian Case Study.
SourceThesis, 2009, University College London, UK
Public18-85 aged, general public, 2 districts in city Kyiv, Ukraine, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =136

Correlate
Author's labelHaving trust in general
Page in Source 123, 135, 136, 139, 265
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Generally speaking, do you think that most people can 
be trusted or that you need to be cautious when dealing 
with people?"
1: most can be trusted
0: need to be careful
Observed distributionM=0.42; Borshegovka M=0.38 sd=0.48; Pechersk M=0.5 sd=0.50; p-value of difference= 0.18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 ns
city district Borshegovka r=-.12 (ns)  N=86
city district Pechersk    r=-.02 (ns)  N=50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

Study~BBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 94
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on a single question:
On the subject of trust and dealing with people, would 
you say that generally speaking, most people nowadays 
can be trusted or that most people nowadays cannot be 
trusted?
0: Most people cannot be trusted
1: Most people can be trusted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=+ p < .05
0: M=3,16  CI95=3,10-3,23
1: M=3,32  CI95=3,26-3,38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=+ p < .05
0: M=7,11  CI95=6,94-7,29
1: M=7,51  CI95=7,37-7,65


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal Trust
Page in Source 902
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on level of agreement with statement " Most 
people are honest"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.10 p < .004
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture

B similar when controlled either for:
- Transfer payments
- Government Ideology
- Democratic Party Control
Instead of:
- economic regulation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBarefoot et al. (1998): study US 1978
TitleTrust, Health and Longevity.
SourceJournal of Behavioral Medicine, 1998, Vol. 21, 517 - 526
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1018792528008
PublicElderly, USA, followed from 1978 to 1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 520
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on 19 questions on generalized expentancy 
that other people can rely on.

Rated on 5-step  response
Error Estimatesinternal consistency: split half r=.76 test-retest reliability: r=.68
Remarks
High negative correlation with measures of cynicism and 
suspiciousness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.25 p < .01
T1 happiness by T1 trust
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.30 p < .01
T1 happiness by T1 trust
O-SL?-?-sq-n-10-ar=+.08 ns
T2 happiness by T1 trust
O-SL?-?-sq-n-10-ar=+.09 ns
T3 happiness by T1 trust


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBorgatta et al. (1982): study US 1978
TitleAlcohol Use and Abuse, Life Crisis Events, and the Elderly.
SourceResearch on Aging, 1982, Vol. 4, 378 - 408
URLhttp://roa.sagepub.com/content/4/3/378
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0164027582004003007
Public18+ aged general population USA, 1978 -1980
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2969

Correlate
Author's labelFair Help
Page in Source 388,402
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreported  beliefs that people
a: try to be fair
b: try to be helpful
c: can be trusted
Remarks
Reported as correlation with Unhappiness. Signs 
reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.21 p < .05
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.21 p < .05
Younger than 65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.17 ns
Older than 45
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.06 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.19 ns
Older than 65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.04 ns
Beta's controled for
- gender
- urbanity
- education
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyMatlin & Gawron (1979): study US 1977
TitleIndividual Differences in Pollyannaism.
SourceJournal of Personality Assesment. 1979, Vol. 43, 411 - 412
PublicUniversity students white, middle-class, State University of New-York, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelPollyannaism: other rating
Page in Source 412
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Rating of another person on 20 personality 
characteristics indicative of tendency to take a rosy 
view

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyMatlin & Gawron (1979): study US 1977
TitleIndividual Differences in Pollyannaism.
SourceJournal of Personality Assesment. 1979, Vol. 43, 411 - 412
PublicUniversity students white, middle-class, State University of New-York, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelPollyannaism: other rating
Page in Source 412
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
Rating of another person on 20 personality 
characteristics indicative of tendency to take a rosy 
view

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBrim (1974): study US 1972
TitleSocial Network Correlates of Avowed Happiness.
SourceJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1974, Vol. 158, 432 - 439
PublicFemales Feminists and controls. Seatle, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in social network members
Page in Source 437
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions: 1. Would trust 
him/her with important    information.                 
2. Discuss with him/her psychological    problems.      
                 3. Tell him/her about a 'put down'    
some-one had given her.
   The questions were answered for each    social 
network member.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-ar=+.10 ns
Unaffected by marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 243
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on trust in people 
(see Robinson et al., 1969).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.13 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on trust in people, 
assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4. Scale: 1.00 = low trust 
to 2.00 = high trust

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
          Trust in people
Happiness T1        T2        T3        T4
T1      +.16      +.14      +.08 (05) +.08 (05)
T2      +.13      +.23      +.21      +.17
T3      +.12 (01) +.15      +.19      +.15
T4      +.08 (05) +.10 (01) +.14      +.21
All significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in people
Subject code: T05ab02

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelHaving faith in people
Page in Source 94/140/290
Our classificationTrust in people, code T05ab02
Operationalization
5-item index of agree / disagree statements on 'no one 
cares for you', 'human nature is cooperative', 'trust 
in people', 'people take advantage of you', 'most 
people tend to help others'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.27
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.34
After control for participation in extracurricu-
lar activities: Gs = +.31.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .18 p < . 01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .14 p < . 01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".......happiness....."
(Full text not reported)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how would you say things are these days? Please put a circle around the appropriate number to indicate how happy you are these days.....?
9 very happy
8
7
6
5 pretty happy
4
3
2
1 not too happy

(originally rated on a horizontal scale)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gSelreport on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your life at present? I feel...
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are on the whole?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all into account, right now would you say that you are:
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-SL?-?-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life......"
(Full question not reported)
1 low satisfaction
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 high satisfaction
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitively disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitively agree
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, to what extend are you satisfied with your life?
0 the minimum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the maximun
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole.

Scores transformed to scale 0-10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceSelfreport on single question:

At present, how satisfied are you, all in all, with your life in general?
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
10 extermely happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy

B. All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays.?
10 extremely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extermely dissatisfied

Summation: (A+B)/2


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
VCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
T04TRAVELA02ac10Traveling
T04TRAVELL03ac02jTraveling
T04TRAVELW04ab03Commuting to work
T04aa01Earlier travelA02aa01Earlier activity pattern
T04aa01Earlier travelL03aa01aEarlier travel
T04aa01Earlier travelL08aaEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)
T04aa02Change in travelA02aa02Change in activity pattern
T04aa03Later travelL05aa03Later life-change
T04aa03Later travelA02aa03Later activity pattern
T05TRUSTA06ANOMY
T05TRUSTA08ATTITUDES
T05TRUSTN03axModal trust
T05TRUSTP04ccOptimistic
T05TRUSTP04dgTrusting
T05ab01Trust in institutionsP08afAttitudes to political system
T05ab02Trust in peopleP04dgTrusting

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings