Findings on Happiness and THERAPY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and THERAPY
Subject Code: T02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
T02THERAPY0
T02aaTherapeutical career0
T02aa01Earlier therapy0
T02aa02Change in therapy1
T02aa03Current therapy18
T02aa04Later therapy0
T02abTherapeutical effect (on happiness)3
T02ab01Effects of activation therapy0
T02ab01aSelf-perceived effects0
T02ab01bActual effects (follow-up)3
T02ab02Effects of happiness-training1
T02ab02aSelf-perceived effects0
T02ab02bActual effects (follow-up)6
T02ab03Effects of family-marriage therapy0
T02ab03aSelf-perceived effects0
T02ab03bActual effects (follow-up)2
T02ab04Effects of psycho-therapy0
T02ab04aSelf-perceived effect0
T02ab04bActual effect (follow-up)3
T02acTherapeutic behavior0
T02ac01Behavior of therapist1
T02ac02Behavior of client1
T02adAttitudes to own therapies1
T02ab05Effects of crisis intervention0
T02ab05aSelf-perceived effect0
T02ab05bActual effect (follow-up)1
T02ab06Effect of health training (rehabilitation)0
T02ab06bActual effects (follow up)3
T02ab06aSelf perceived effect0
T02ab07Effects of support groups0
T02ab07aActual effects (follow-up)3
T02ab07bPerceived effects7
T02ab08Effects of meditation, mindfullness0
T02ab08aActual effects (follow-up)1
T02ab08bPerceived effects0
T02ab09Effects of after-care of prisoners0
T02ab09aPerceived effects0
T02ab09bActual effects (follow-up)1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and THERAPY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=T02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in therapy
Subject code: T02aa02

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in mental health consultations
Page in Source 1730
Our classificationChange in therapy, code T02aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in reponse to question: Seen a doctor for 
your nerves in the last year?
0 no
1 yes
Observed distribution0: 89,1%, 1: 10,9%
Remarks
T1-T2 2 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.72 p < .001
T1-T2 INCREASE in mental health consultations ny 
T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.32 p < .05
T1-T2 DECREASE in  mental health consultations by 
T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelRevieved empowerment training
Page in Source 664, 665
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month to raise his 
decision making power and supportive interaction

Options:
0=no
1=yes
Error Estimatesalpha= .82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelParticipated in Mental illness /chemical abuse groups
Page in Source 665
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month concerning
a: help with medication
b: recognizing symptoms
c: managing symptoms
d: recognizing stresses

Options: 
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelRecieved leisure activities support
Page in Source 665
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether(or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month 

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelReceived time structuring support
Page in Source 664, 665
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on question whether (or not) one received 
services in the last month for developing a structure 
of activities involving help from staff with planning 
time time on week nights, weekends, and holidays

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.22 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's label Received Vocational rehabilitation
Page in Source 664, 665
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether (or not) one received this type 
of services in the last month, e.g.
a: work responsabilities  
b: expectations from work
c: learning work skills

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelType of psychiatric treatment recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question whether (or not) one 
received this type of treatment in the last month
a: Individual treatment
b: Group treatment
c: Mica (Mental Ill Chemical Abusers) group treatment  
d: Double trouble treatment

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .95

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.10 ns
Individual treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
Group treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
MICA group treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.14 ns
Double trouble treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08 ns
Any of the above (vs none) treatments

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific services recieved for planning time
Page in Source 307.309
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month
concerning
a: Planning time in weeknights and weekends
b: Planning time on weekdays
c: Planning time on holidays

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.22 p < .05
Planning time in weeknights and weekends
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.17 p < .10
Planning time on weekdays
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Planning time on holidays
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
Any of the above services recieved (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelBasic Needs- services recieved
Page in Source 307,309
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month
a: Help with housing
b: Help with finances
c: Club loan
d: Help with medical care

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.17 ns
Housing services
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23 p < .10
Financial services
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
Club loan
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.13 ns
Help with medical care
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Any of the above mentioned services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSocial skills - services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of service in the last month
a: help with relationships
b: help with communicating
c: help with developing trust
d: help with increasing friends
e: help with self-confidence in relating

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts- services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of service in the last month about: 
a: friends in area and on vans
b: regular contact with members of the program

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelVocational Rehabilitation/Specific services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month
a: Dealing with people
b: Work responsabilities
c: Expectations from work
d: Learning work skills
e: Personal problems interfering with work

Options: 
0: no
1: yes
Error Estimatestest-retest reliability .63

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Service concerning how to deal with people
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.00 ns
Service concerning work responsabilities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
Service concerning personal problems interfering 
with work
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
Service concerning learning work skills
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
Service concerning expectations from work
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Any of the above mentioned vocational 
rehabilitation services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelStructure of activities - services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month concerning the:
a: number of days per week at the Club
b: number of hours per week at the club
c: attendance in area meetings
d: number of hours per week in task
e: attendance in Club recreation
f: attendance in other recreation
g: time spent in leisure activities
h: time spent socializing
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09 ns
Number of days per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
Number of hours per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in area meetings
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
Number of hours per week in task
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in Club recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .01
Time spent in leisure activities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.08 ns
Attendance in other recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Time spent in socializing
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
Any of the above services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelServices recieved for psychiatric symptoms
Page in Source 305
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of service in the last month 
concerning 
a: help with medication
b: recognizing symptoms
c: managing symptoms
d: recognizing stresses

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .79

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
  - social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDaily living skills - services recieved
Page in Source 305, 307
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of service in the last month concerning:
a: managing a household
b: getting around in a community
c: personal appearance

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retst reliability .57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16 p < .10
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSupervision and Guidance- services recieved
Page in Source 304, 305,307
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning frequency and 
recency of contact with staff members 

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.13 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Background characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelEmpowerment- services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of service in the last month to 
raise his decision power and supportive interaction (21 
items)

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.19 p < .05
Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelReceived Financial support
Page in Source 665
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of services in the last month e.g. 
Transitional employment for which one were  paid

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23 p < .06
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current therapy
Subject code: T02aa03

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelPsychotherapy
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent therapy, code T02aa03
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Counseling or psychotherapy
- Walking or driving for the exclusive purpose or 
relaxation and enjoyment
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Counceling 1.40, Walking etc 2.60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Therapeutical effect (on happiness)
Subject code: T02ab

StudyGhosal et al. (2013): study IN Kolkata 2012
TitleBelieving in Oneself: Can Psychological Training Overcome the Effects of Social Exclusion?
SourceWorking Paper Series, University of Warwick, 2013, No. 152
URLhttp://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/59304/
PublicSex workers, before and after training, Kolkata India 2012-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =472

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological training
Page in Source 21
Our classificationTherapeutical effect (on happiness), code T02ab
Operationalization
Program consisted of 8 sessions spread over 8 weeks, 
during which experienced trainers attempted to 
psychologically  empower participating sex workers 
through novel methods of discussion and engagement. 

1 trained
0 controls (in baseline sample but not invited for 
training)
Observed distribution1: 260, 0: 201

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-IBeta=+.12 p < .01
Beta controled for:
 - area
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-IBeta=+.10 p < .05
Beta additionally controled for:
- age
- education
- muslim
- marital status
- has fixed client
- 50 50 contract
- flying
- durbar member
- has bank account
- log income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Therapeutical effect (on happiness)
Subject code: T02ab

StudyGilman & Handwerk (2001): study US 1996
TitleChanges in Life Satisfaction as a Function of Stay in a Residential Setting.
SourceResidential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2001, Vol. 18, 47 - 65
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J007v18n04_05
DOIDOI: 10.1300/J007v18n04_05
Public11-14 aged in residential treatment followed 4 months, USA, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22

Correlate
Author's labelResidential treatment
Page in Source 55
Our classificationTherapeutical effect (on happiness), code T02ab
Operationalization
Residential treatment in Father Flanagan's Boy's Home 
(FFBH) involves the Teaching-Family Model (TFM), in 
which a highly trained, married couple resides in a 
large, domestic home with eight school-aged children. 
The TFM emphasizes a normalized environment in which 
adolescents are taught a variety of socal, academic, 
and vocational skills using a token economy motivation 
system.
Error EstimatesTime 1: Cronbach's alpha=0,76 Time 2: Cronbach's alpha=0,70
Remarks
Life satisfaction was measured at two points of time of 
the residential treatment.
Time 1: Upon first arrival
Time 2: Between 4 to 7 months after arrival at 
institution

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aDM=+
Time 1     : M=3,61  SD=1,05
Time 2     : M=4,44  SD=0,80
-Difference:  +0,83
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-at.=4.29 p < .01
Paired sample t-tests were conducted (between Time 
1 and Time 2).Effect size=0.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Therapeutical effect (on happiness)
Subject code: T02ab

StudyBalkin (1968): study US 1964
TitleOnce More, with Feeling: Psychotherapy Revisited.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Colombia, 1968, USA
Public40-50 aged, female therapy clients, followed 4 weeks, USA 196?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-therapy
Page in Source 32
Our classificationTherapeutical effect (on happiness), code T02ab
Operationalization
a pre-therapy 
b post-therapy
c non-therapy (controls)
Observed distributionN = a: 32, b: 35, c: 33
Remarks
Ad a: initial evaluation of 2 to 5 interviews, accepted 
for treatment.
Ad b: duration of therapy varied from 1 .0 to 5.8 years 
wit a mean of 2.5 years; the time since termination of 
therapy varied from 1.0 to 8.8 years with a mean of 3.7 
years.
Ad c: person, who had never sought therapy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aDM=+
M = 3.68 pre-therapy
M = 5.60 post-therapy
M = 5.69 non-therapy
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-at.=12.7 p < .001
Post- vs pre-therapy group.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-at.=13.1 p < .001
Non- vs pre-therapy group.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-at.=0.56 p < .001
Non- vs post-therapy group.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab01b

StudyHanrahan (2005): study MX 2005
TitleUsing Psychological Skills Training from Sport Psychoogy to Enhance the Life Satisfaction of Adolescent Mexican Orphans.
SourceAthletic Insight, 2005, Vol. 7, 1 - 7
Public15-20 aged, before and after training, Mexico, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response6
Respondents N =24

Correlate
Author's labelThree weeks daily program, improving psychological skills
Page in Source 2
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab01b
Operationalization
Particpation in 3 week daily training, involving 15 
sessions on weeldays. The focus of the training was 
"control of the controlable". The program was 
advertised to teach skills that would help participants 
in sport, work, music or any other area of achievement
Remarks
24 students attended at least 5 sessions (8,82 on 
average).4 students attended only 1 or 2 sessions and 
were deleted.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+ ns
Pre-test:  M=3,65 (SD=0,84)
Post-test: M=3,89 (SD=0,70)
difference   0,24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab01b

StudyVanWeert et al. (2004): study NL 2001
TitleBehavioral and Mood Effects of Snoezelen Integrated in 24-h Dementia Care.
SourceVanWeert, J.M.: "Multi-Sensory Stimulation in 24-Hour Dementia Care", Thesis University Utrecht, 2004, Netherlands, 139 - 163
URLhttp://www.nivel.nl
PublicDemented elderly and controls, before and after sensory stimulation program,The Netherlands, 2001-2003
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125

Correlate
Author's labelSensory Stimulation Program
Page in Source 156
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab01b
Operationalization
Snoezelen or Multi-Sensory Stimulation (MSS) is a 
widely used and accepted approach to nursing home 
residents suffering from dementia. It is an approach 
which actively stimulates the senses by light, sound, 
smell and touch. Treatment was integrated in daily 
care.

Patients were treated according to an individualized 
plan by trained caregivers.

Controls were randomly selected from the same nursing 
homes.
Observed distributionPre-test : Experimental 62, Controls: 63 Pre-test and post-test completers: Experimental: 29, Controls 32 Newly included in post-test: Experimentals 37, Controls 31
Remarks
Demented patients selected for treatment were 1) not 
bed riden 2) their hearing and vision was completely or 
partly unimpaired and 3) had no additional psychiatric 
diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-rdv-n-5-aDM=+ p < .001
               Experimentals  Controls  
Pre-test    M =  2.74          3.07        
Post-test   M =  3.47          2.63        
-difference     +0.73 (001)   -0.44 (ns)
A-CA-mh-rdv-f-3-aDM=+
               Experimentals  Controls  
Pre-test    M =  2.10          2.17        
Post-test   M =  2.49          2.16        
- change        +0.39 (001)   -0.01 (ns)

Pre-test posttest lag 18 months


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab01b

StudyLanger & Rodin (1976): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibilty for the Aged: A Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976, Vol. 34, 191 - 198
PublicNursing home residents, Hamden, Connecticut, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response51%
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelBoosting of responsibility and choice
Page in Source 196
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab01b
Operationalization
In nursing home two floors selected because of 
similarity in residents' characteristics. A different 
floor was randomly selected for each treatment. The 
nursing home administrator called a meeting in the 
lounge of each floor where she delivered two 
communications. 0 Comparison group: 2nd floor, the 
  administrator stressed staff
  responsibility
1 Experimental group: 4th floor, the 
  administrator emphasized respondents
  responsibility for themselves

Happiness was assessed 1 week prior to the 
communication (T1) and 3 weeks after (T2).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-8-aDMt=+ p < .05
Mean happiness (Mt) pre and post treatment.
                     T1      T2      CHANGE
-Experiment       :  6.31    6.65    + 0.34
-Comparison group :  5.99    5.84    - 0.15

The difference in change was significant at  05 
level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Effects of happiness-training
Subject code: T02ab02

StudyGoldwurm et al. (2003): study IT 2001
TitleImproving Subjective Well-Being for the Promotion of Health: The Milan Project.
SourceHomeostasis, 2003, Vol. 42, 157 - 162
PublicParticipants in a happiness training, Italy, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelEfffect of happiness training
Page in Source 159/161
Our classificationEffects of happiness-training, code T02ab02
Operationalization
A: Training group: 
B: Control Group

Happiness assessed at:
T1: at start of the course
T2: after 2 months, at 6th meeting
T3: after 4 month at last 8th meeting

The training program was as follows:

PART 2: 2 month long 6 meetings
1st meeting: Informaton, assesssment, 
introduction of the 14 fundamentals, Homework on the 
fundamentals, readings
2nd to 5th meetings: lecture of diaries, discussion and 
encouragement, deepening of 3-4 fundamentatals each 
lesson, teaching of actuation techniqies Homework: 
daily diary
6th meeting: retest, information and role playing, 
discussion and encouragement

PART 2: 4 month and summer break:
In the Summer break homework training of the 14 
fundamentals
7th meeting: analysis of the result of the test, 
retest, discussion and encouragement
8th meeting: final retest, check discussion, 
description of the research
Observed distributionTraining: N = 45, Control: N = 47

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abD%=+ ns
              Training          Control
              Test   Retest     Test   Retest 
              Mean   Mean       Mean   Mean
% Happy       51.95  55.94      52.69  52.82
% Neutral     27.93  28.12      33.21  32.03
% Unhappy     20.12  16.88      14.10  14.38
none of these differences is significant (05) in 
two sample test


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab02b

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1978
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicAdults, trainees and controls, followed 10 weeks, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1978
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =23

Correlate
Author's labelBeliefs about self
Page in Source 60
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab02b
Operationalization
28-item index with 4 response categories. Typical items 
are:
- I choose my emotions and feelings
- I believe my personality is fixed
- I am ready to try out new
  experiences 
Assessed at the start (T1) and the end (T2) of a course 
on happiness and mental health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-br=+.80 p < .01
T1 LEVEL of beliefs to T1 LEVEL of happiness

A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-br=+.75 p < .01
T1-T2 CHANGE in beliefs to T1-T2 CHANGE in 
happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab02b

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1978
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicAdults, trainees and controls, followed 10 weeks, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1978
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =23

Correlate
Author's labelCourse on happiness and positive mental health
Page in Source 60
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab02b
Operationalization
0 No course: Control group on waiting
  list (N=13)
1 Treatment: 8 2-hours sessions over 4
  weeks between T1 and T2 (N=10)

The goal of the course was to discuss 
"irrational beliefs" about self.
(Ellis 1977 rational-emotive therapy)
In the course 15 current beliefs were introduced one at 
a time in 5 minute mini-lectures, followed by a class 
discussion on how these work out in every day life. 
Sometimes Ss were asked to do home exercises.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-aE²=+.17 ns
Happiness assessed at:
T1: start of course
T2: end of course (4 weeks after T1)
T3: 6 weeks follow up (10 weeks after T1)


O-SL?-m-sq-?-7-aE²=+.41 p < .05
Happiness assessed at:
T1: start of course
T2: end of course (4 weeks after T1)
T3: 6 weeks follow up (10 weeks after T1)


A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bDMt=+
Happiness assessed at:
T1: start of course
T2: end of course (4 weeks after T1)
T3: 6 weeks follow up (10 weeks after T1)

LEVEL of happiness 
at:     Controls Experimentals  Difference
T1      Mt'=7.6     Mt'=7.8     DMt'= + .2
T2      Mt'=7.6     Mt'=8.3     DMt'= + .7
T3      Mt'=7.4     Mt'=8.6     Dms'= +1.2
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-aDM=+ p < .05
Difference in T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness between 
controls and experimentals
O-SL?-m-sq-?-7-aDM=+ ns
Difference in T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness between 
controls and experimentals
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bDMt=+ s
CHANGE in happiness:
at      Controls Experimentals  Difference
T1-T2   Mt'=0.0     Mt'=+.5     DMt'= + .5  p<05
T1-T3   Mt'=-.2     Mt'=+.8     DMt'= +1.0  p<01
O-SL?-m-sq-?-7-aDM=+ ns
Difference in T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness between 
controls and experimentals
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-aDM=+ ns
Difference in T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness between 
controls and experimentals
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bE²=+.47 p < .05
Difference in T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness between 
controls and exeprimentals

A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bE²=+.66 p < .01
Difference in T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness between 
controls and experimentals


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab02b

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1976
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicPsychology students, followed 2 weeks, University of Otago New Zealand, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness induction
Page in Source 63
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab02b
Operationalization
O: Control group (N=23). No reading
1: Experimental group(N=25). Instructed
   to read every morning during the
   2-weeks testing period between T1
   and T2 a list of 18 positive
   statements.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bDM=
Happiness assessed at:
T1: start of a 2-week induction period
T2: end of a 2-week induction period

LEVEL of happiness
        Controls      Experimentals  Difference
at T1   Mt'= 6.2      Mt'= 5.5       DMt'= - .7
at T2   Mt'= 6.4      Mt'= 6.9       DMt'= + .5
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bDMt=+ p < .01
CHANGE in happiness
T1-T2  DMt'=+0.2     DMt'=+1.4       DMt'= +1.2
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bE²=+.50 p < .01
CHange in happiness by induction (difference in 
change between experimentals and controls)
    


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab02b

StudyCarter et al. (2016): study GB Wales 2016
TitleHappy thoughts: Enhancing Well-Being in the Classroom with a positive events Diary.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2016, on line version
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1245770
DOIdoi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1245770
PublicSchool children, aged 9 and 11, Wales, United Kingdom, 2016
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =606

Correlate
Author's labelPositive Psychology Intervention
Page in Source 4-6
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab02b
Operationalization
Children had to fill in a diary and describe 3 positive 
events during a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-f-7-aDM=+ p < .01
T0 Before          M = 5,79
T1 1 week after    M = 5.83
T2 3 months after  M = 5.88

CHANGE Happiness      
T0-T1    +.04
T0-T2    +.09
T1-T2    +.05

See also fig.1.
Set Image size:   

A-AOL-m-sq-f-7-aDM=+ p < .001
Least happy children
T0-T1   +1.01
T2-T0   +1.24
Set Image size:   

A-AOL-m-sq-f-7-aDM=+ p < .001
Mid happy children
T0-T1    +0.20
T0-T2    +0.09
A-AOL-m-sq-f-7-aDM=- p < .001
Most happu children
To-T1   -0.58
T0-T2   -0.65


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab02b

StudySuldo et al. (2014): study US Florida 2008
TitleIncreasing Middle School Students’ Life Satisfaction: Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Group Intervention.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 19 - 42
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9414-2
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s10902-013-9414-2
Public10-12 aged, participants in wellness program, USA, followed 6 months, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelWellness program
Page in Source 33
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab02b
Operationalization
The intervention group was given a Wellnes-Promotion 
program during 10 weeks; the control group was not. The 
program consisted of 10 sessions of about 50 minutes 
during 10 weeks. Goals of sessions are:
1: introduction
2,3: explore positive emotions about the past
4,7: improve positive emotions within the present
8,10: create positive emotions about the future.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-fDM=+.08
At T1: beginning
Intervention group M = 1.49
Control group      M = 1.41
- difference       M =+0.08
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-fDM=+.05
At T2: after intervention (10 weeks)
Intervention group M = 1.68
Control group      M = 1.63
- difference       M =+0.05
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-fDM=-.15
At T3: at follow up (after 6 months)
Intervention group M = 2.12
Control group      M = 2.27
- difference       M =-0.15
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-f
Participants' mean level of subjective well-being 
at baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up; b 
Positive affect; c Negative effect.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab02b

StudyFillenbaum & Willis (1976): study US 1970
TitleEffects of a Training Program: Older Persons Caring for the Elderly.
SourceIndustrial Gerontology, 1976, Vol. 3, 213 - 221
Public50-79 aged, females, trainees and controls, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelTraining in care for elderly
Page in Source 218
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab02b
Operationalization
1 Trainees participants
0 controls on waiting list

4 weeks of classroom instruction followed by 80 hours 
on-the-job training
Classroom instruction in 12 areas:
a: activities of daily living    4 hrs
b: the aging process             8 hrs
c: care of the feet              4 hrs
d: first aid                    10 hrs
e: home management              10 hrs
f: nutrition                    10 hrs
g: personal adjustment          16 hrs
h: personal exercise             8 hrs
i: recreational activities      12 hrs
j: continuing orientation        4 hrs
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: the start of training
T2: four weeks after
T3: eight weeks after
T4: six months after

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cDM=0 ns
T1-T4 happiness not different
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ ns
T1-T4 increase in happiness among trainees 
compared to controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab03b

StudyDaly et al. (2014): study IE 2013
TitleCan Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.
SourceUniversity of Stirling Management School, Discussion Paper, 2014, 1 - 66
URLhttp://www.stir.ac.uk/management/research/economics/working-papers/
PublicParticipants support program for underprivileged pregnant women, Dublin, Ireland, 2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response90
Respondents N =102

Correlate
Author's labelMaternal-focused intervention
Page in Source 11,12,27,28,31
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab03b
Operationalization
Eligible women randomly assigned to 
0 controls group, who received the usual social support
1 treatment group, who additionally received the 
following treatment

Treatment aimed to improve the health and development 
of children, which involved:
-  twice monthly home visits by a mentor
-  during 5 years, from pregnancy until the children 
start school

Mentors aimed to support women by
- building a personal relation with them
- help them to improve parenting and problem solving
using role modelling, coaching, encouragement and 
feedback
Observed distribution N treatment 46, N controls 56
Remarks
Name of the programs:
-  PFL-program (Preparing For Life)
- Triple P Positive Parenting (when children were 
between 2 and 3 years old)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-md-mqr-n-7-aDM=+ ns
                         M
Treatment group        3,01
Control group          2,84
-difference           +0,17
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-jDM=+ ns
                        M
Treatment group        0,93
Control group          0,89
-difference           +0,04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab03b

StudyAnderson et al. (1985): study US 1985
TitleDropping out of Marriage and Family Therapy: Interventions, Strategies and Spouses'Perceptions.
SourceAmerican Journal of Family Therapy, 1985, Vol. 13, 39 - 54
PublicCouples, followed family therapy, USA, 1985-86
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =94

Correlate
Author's labelLife Happiness
Page in Source 43
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab03b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: before start of therapy
T2: after termination of therapy (either premature or 
planned)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
Average happiness (Mt) at : T1    T2    change

Completers

-husbands                   5.4    6.2   +0.8
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
-wives                      3.8   5.0   +1.2

Dropouts
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=0
-husbands                   2.1   2.1   +0.0
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
-wives                      2.6   3.3   +0.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effect (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab04b

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life
Page in Source 243
Our classificationActual effect (follow-up), code T02ab04b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: With 3 weeks after admission to mental hospital
T2: 6 month later
Remarks
Depressive patients only (n= 28)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=+ p < .001
Happiness at:
T1:         M = 2,7 CI95 [1,2-4,3]
T2          M = 3,9 CI95 [2,3-5,5]
Difference     +1,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effect (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab04b

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995 /1
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental outpatients, before and after additional therapy, Italy,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelResponsiveness to further treatment
Page in Source 56, 57, 58
Our classificationActual effect (follow-up), code T02ab04b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed of patients treated by either 
cognitive behavioral therapy of residual symptoms or by 
short-term well-being psychotherapeutic strategy 
(well-being therapy) at:
T1: before treatment
T2: after treatment (3 to 5 months later)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-aDM=-
T1: before teatment   M=2,7; SD= 1,9
T2: after treatment   M=2,4; SD=2,1
-difference            -0,3
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-at.=2,06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effect (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab04b

StudyAnderson et al. (1985): study US 1985
TitleDropping out of Marriage and Family Therapy: Interventions, Strategies and Spouses'Perceptions.
SourceAmerican Journal of Family Therapy, 1985, Vol. 13, 39 - 54
PublicCouples, followed family therapy, USA, 1985-86
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =94

Correlate
Author's labelLife Happiness
Page in Source 43
Our classificationActual effect (follow-up), code T02ab04b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: before start of therapy
T2: after termination of therapy (either premature or 
planned)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
Average happiness (Mt) at : T1    T2    change

Completers

-husbands                   5.4    6.2   +0.8
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
-wives                      3.8   5.0   +1.2

Dropouts
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=0
-husbands                   2.1   2.1   +0.0
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
-wives                      2.6   3.3   +0.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effect (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab05b

StudyDott & Walling (1995): study EC 1990
TitleQuality of Life: Exploring How Patients Change.
SourcePoster presented at Annual Meeting American Psychological Association Meeting, May 1995, Miami, USA
PublicPsychiatric patients, before and after hospitalization, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelHow patients change
Page in Source 1
Our classificationActual effect (follow-up), code T02ab05b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: admission
T2: discharge
Remarks
Patients in residential crisis facility (N = 50) and 
university psychiatric hospital (N = 28), which both 
offered structured treatment programs which involved 
medication monitoring

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-bDM=+ p < .05
Happiness at admission  M = 2,92  SD = 1,32
Happiness at discharge  M = 3,74  SD = 1,00
Difference              M = 0,72 CI95 0.35-1.09
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-bgH=0,70 p < .000

No difference between outcomes in residential 
facility and psychiatric university hospital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow up)
Subject code: T02ab06b

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelPulmonary rehabilitation program
Page in Source 104
Our classificationActual effects (follow up), code T02ab06b
Operationalization
1 Experimental group: High intensity duration program
0 Controls: Standard care in general hospital

The experimental pulmonary rehabilitation program 
involved:
a: pharmaco¬logical treatment (optimalisation of 
medication by a pulmonologist, mostly consisting of 
bronchodilator ther¬apy)
b: strength and endurance training, breathing 
retraining
c: dietary interventions.
d: psycho-social interventions aimed at 
psycho-education and self-management of the patients.

The programme differed from common programmes in  a 
longer duration and a higher intensity.
Observed distributionExperimental group N = 65, Control group: N =47

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .03
           experimental   control
T1         M=5,3 SD=1,4   M=6,1 SD=1,5
T2         M=5,9 SD=1,7
Difference  +0,6
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aES=.43
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-at.=2.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow up)
Subject code: T02ab06b

StudyWamsteker et al. (2003): study NL 2000
TitleBeleving van Obesitas: Gewichtsverlies en de Kwaliteit van Leven na een Dieetbehandeling met Maaltijdvervangers. (Obesitas: Loss of Weight and the Quality of Life after Diet with Food Replacements).
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Diëtisten, 2003, Vol. 58, 59 - 63
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wamsteker_em_2003.pdf
PublicObese persons, treated with meal substitutes, The Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =66

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness following diet
Page in Source 61
Our classificationActual effects (follow up), code T02ab06b
Operationalization
Low Calory Diet (LCD) using meal suplements. 800-1000 
kilocalories a day.
Ss visited a dietist every week 
T1: week before diet
T2: week 9
Remarks
Ss lost on average 10% weight between T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=+ p < .007
          M          SD
T1:      75,9        18,2
T2       80,8        12,9
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=+
Been happy person      T1      T2
- all of the time      30.3     24,2
- most of the time     31,8     51,5
- some of the time     10,6     13,6
- a little of the time 25,8      9,1
- none of the time      1,5      1,5
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=
T1-T2 CHANGE of happiness
worse      no change     better
33%          6%           62%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow up)
Subject code: T02ab06b

StudyHolloway & Carson (1998): study GB 1997
TitleIntensive Case Management for the Severely Mentally Ill. Controlled Trial.
SourceBritish Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, Vol. 172, 19 - 22
PublicSevere mental patients, London UK, followed 18 month, 1997-98
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelIntensive Case Management
Page in Source 21
Our classificationActual effects (follow up), code T02ab06b
Operationalization
1: Intensive Case Management (ICM)
0: control

ICM involved 5,6 client contact per month and support 
by a multi-disciplinary team with a case load of 8 
patients.

Control group received standard care. This group was 
matched for: gender, residence, ethnicity, martial 
status, diagnosis, age and years since onset of illness
Remarks
Happiness assessed at 
-T1: baseline
-T2: 9 month
-T3: 18 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM= ns
        intensive case         control
        management
        Mean  (SD)   N         Mean  (SD)   N
T1:     3.89   1.38  33        3.66   1.38  33
T2:     4.33   1.37  26        4.33   1.37  26
T3:     4,54   1.59  25        4.54   1.59  25

No difference between experimental and control
T1-T3. 
Change in experimental group not greater than in 
control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab07a

StudyHébert et al. (2007): study CA Quebec 2006
TitleLe Programme "Apprendre à être Mieux...et Mieux Aider" à l' Intention des Aidants Familiaux d'un Parent atteint de Démence vivant à Domicile. (The Programme "Learning to Feel Better"...and Care Better).
SourceRevue Québécoise de Psychologie, 2007, Vol. 28, 81 - 102
PublicFamily caregivers followed before and after stress coping programme, Canada, Quebec, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelImpact of programme on caregivers
Page in Source 89,96
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab07a
Operationalization
A Experimental group followed 15 week programme 
involving 4 steps) 
Week 1-3: Step 1: identifying and specifying accurately 
the difficult (stressing) situation/event. Step 2: 
learning to make distinctions between changeable and 
unchangeable aspects of the different (stressing) 
situations/events. Step 3: choosing a course of action 
or behaviour in respect to the changeable and/or the 
unchangeable aspects of the situation/event in order to 
cope efficiently with both aspects of it
Week 4-15: Step 4: developing capacities to adapt 
efficiently to specific difficult situations/ events 
taking into account the possibilities of changeable and 
unchangeable aspects of it.

B Control group

in: 
A Experimental group
B Control group
Observed distributionExperimental group:N=60,- Control group:N=58
Remarks
Happiness assessed:
T1: at the beginning of the programme 
T2: immediately after the end of the 15 week programme

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
T2 Happiness
- experimental group: M=+10,98; SD=3,55   
- control group:      M=+10,50; SD=3,15
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+ p < .49
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
- experimental group: DM=+0,08; SD=3,15   
- control group:      DM=-0,19; SD=3,02
Difference            DM=+0,27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab07a

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-help group vs. support group
Page in Source 294
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab07a
Operationalization
A: 12-step program groups
7 different 12-step self-help groups (1 Overeaters 
Anonymous group, 5 Compulsive Eaters Anonymous groups, 
1 Debtors Anonymous group)

B: support groups: 
4 different support groups (1 hearing and speech 
impairment group, 1 mentally ill patients group, 2 
homosexuals groups)
Observed distributiona: N= 71; b: N=24
Remarks
-Self-help groups: supportive, usually change oriented 
mutual aid group that adresses a single life problem or 
conditions shared by all members Use ideology to 
achieve change. Professionals rarely have an active 
role.
- Support group: purpose to give emotional support and 
information to persons with a common problem. De not 
espouse an ideology and are unstructured. Often 
facilitated by professionnals, linked to a formal 
organization. 

The two types of groups showed no difference in their 
levels of self-esteem as measured by the Rosenberg 
(1965) scale nor in depression or anxiety levels as 
measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=- ns
                           M        SD
A= 12-step program group  7,54     1,77
B= support group          6,71     2,51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab07a

StudySegrin et al. (2005): study US 2000
TitleDyadic Interdependence on Affect and Quality-of-Life Trajectories among Women with Breast Cancer and Their Partners.
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, Vol. 22, 673 - 689
DOIDOI:10.1177/0265407505056443
PublicBreast cancer patients and partners, USA, 2000.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =96

Correlate
Author's labelCounseling program
Page in Source 678
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab07a
Operationalization
The women and their partners were randomly assigned to 
participate in one of two different 6 week counseling 
programs, after wich they once again completed the 
measures over the phone at T2.
The other half of the sample was assigned to an 
attentinal control condition in wich the women with 
breast cancer also received six weekly calls an dtheir 
partners received two bimonthy calls.
However, their was no substantive counseling offered in 
these brief contacts.
Remarks
T1 baseline, T2 6 weeks, T3 10 weeks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dDM=+
Patients happiness at
T1 M= 16,59
T2 M= 18.11
T3 M= 18.68
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dDM=-
partners happiness
T1 M= 17.27
T2 M= 15.57
T3 M= 13.68

Difference between experimental group and control 
group not reported in this paper


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelHope and control
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a. Since I started coming to meetings, I have begun to 
have more faith in my ability to change myself
b.Since I started coming to meetings, I have begun to 
cope much better with my life 
c. The group helps me to find new coping strategies
d. The group has helped me learn ways of solving my 
problems
e. The group has helped me find ways of controlling my 
self

Rated on a numerical scale:
Items a,b,c,e:after reversing the scale 1=never to 
5=always
Item d:1=certainly wrong to 6=certainly right
Observed distributiondifferent dtributions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.87
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.27 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with group as alternative to loneliness
Page in Source 293
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Sefreport on following questions:
a. The group makes me feel I'm not alone with my 
difficulties
b. The group takes me out of my loneliness
c. A professional could never understand me the way 
group members can
d. The group helps me evaluate my coping strategies
e. The group makes me feel I can function as well as 
anyone else
f. Other group members'knowledge and experience helps 
me as much as the help I could get from professionals

Rated on a numerical scale
Items a,b,c,e,f:after reversing the scale 1=never to 
5=always
Item d:1=certainly wrong to 6=certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent distributions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.79
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.18 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with the group
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Self report 
Questions unknown
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.49 p < .01
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.32
Beta controlled for:
- hope and control
- group as alternative to loneliness
- emotional disclosure
- experiential knowledge of members of the group
- caring and concern
- tips for coping  methods


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional disclosure
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a: I share my life experiences with other members of 
the group
b: I share my troubles with other memebers of the group
c: Members of the group disclose personal and intimate 
details of their lives
d: The group helps me te release tension

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale:
1=certainly wrong to 6=certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.80
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelExperiential knowledge of members of the group
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a. I contribute to my own knowledge and experience to 
the other members
b. I help the members of the group a lot
through my own knowledge and experience
c. The knowledge and experience I acquired as a result 
of my situation contribute to the group at least the 
same as the knowledge of a professional

Rated on a numerical scale: 
Item a:after reversing the scale 1=never to 5=always
Items b and c:1=certainly wrong to 
6=certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.85
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelCaring and concern
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions: 
a: When something bothers me, members of the group 
treat me kindly
b: group members care about each other

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale:
1= certainly wrong to 6= certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.80
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects
Subject code: T02ab07b

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelTips for coping methods
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived effects, code T02ab07b
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a: I give the group members "tips"on how to cope with 
daily situations
b: The group offers me "tips"on how to cope with daily 
situations

Rated on a 5-point numerical scale After reversing the 
scale:1=never; 5=always
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.66
Remarks
Question concern helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab08a

StudyAlHussaini et al. (2001): study OM 2001
TitleVipassana Meditation: A Naturalistic, Preliminary Observation in Muscat.
SourceMedical Sciences, 2001, Vol.3, 87 - 92 (Published by Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174711/
PublicMeditation trainees and controls, Oman, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelmeditation course
Page in Source 6
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab08a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
-T1: the beginning of the 10-day meditation course
-T2: immediately after the conclusion of the course 
in:
- Experimental group: participants N=14
- Control group: university students N=31
Remarks
T1: at beginning of course, T2, right after

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-nDM=+
                 T1     T2     T1-T2 CHANGE
experimental M:  2,57   2,93   +0,36
             SD  0,65   0,27
controls:    M   1,87   1,87   0
             SD  0,43   0,43
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-nE²=+.13 p < .0667


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual effects (follow-up)
Subject code: T02ab09b

StudyBerman (1972): study US 1972
TitleParolees' Problems, Aspirations and Attitudes.
SourceDissertation, Northwestern University Evanston, 1972, Illinois, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/berman_jj_1972.pdf
PublicJail mates on parole, Illinois, USA, 197? Followed 9 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =89

Correlate
Author's labelParolee program
Our classificationActual effects (follow-up), code T02ab09b
Operationalization
Parole supervision program in which lawyers voluntered 
to spend at least 6 hours a months with a parole. The 
lawyers were not given any specific instruction. The 
only rule was that they should not represent the man in 
court

Parolees were randonly assigned to:
0 normal parole supervision
1 parole supervision by a volunteer lawyer
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: before start of the program
T2: when the program had been in effect for nime month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aDM= ns
No effect on happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Behavior of therapist
Subject code: T02ac01

StudyGurman (1972): study US 1970
TitleTherapists' Mood Patterns and Therapeutic Facilitativeness.
SourceJournal of Counseling Psychology, 1972, Vol. 19, 169 -170
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0032407
PublicStudent psychotherapists, Columbia University, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =12

Correlate
Author's labelTherapist's functioning
Page in Source 170
Our classificationBehavior of therapist, code T02ac01
Operationalization
Rating of individual therapy sessions (recorded on 
audiotapes) by 3 advanced graduate students in 
counseling psychology. 
Two 4-minute segments from each of 24 tapes were rated 
independently by the raters for each variable. The 
average of these ratings per scale per therapist was 
used. Inter-rater reliabilities ranged from .69 to .97.
Scales from Truax & Carkhuff 1967.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.55 p < .05
1. Warmth
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.40 ns
2. Empathy
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.43 ns
3. Genuineness
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.44 ns
4. Self-disclosure
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.59 p < .05
5. Facilitative interpersonal functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Behavior of client
Subject code: T02ac02

StudyAnderson et al. (1985): study US 1985
TitleDropping out of Marriage and Family Therapy: Interventions, Strategies and Spouses'Perceptions.
SourceAmerican Journal of Family Therapy, 1985, Vol. 13, 39 - 54
PublicCouples, followed family therapy, USA, 1985-86
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =94

Correlate
Author's labelCompletion of family therapy
Page in Source 43 + 50
Our classificationBehavior of client, code T02ac02
Operationalization
0  Therapy dropouts   (N=60)
   - premature termination according to therapist
   - average number of sessions 3.4

1  Therapy completers (N=44)
   - timely termination according to therapist: goals 
reached
   - average number of sessions 8.8
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: before intake
T2: after  therapy

T1 happiness:    dropouts  completers  difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
Average happiness (Mt) at : T1    T2    change

- husbands                  2.1    5.4   3.3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+
- wives          Mt'=2.6    Mt'=3.8    DMt'=1.2
O-SLW-c-sq-ol-7-aDM=+ p < .05
T1 Satisfaction by T2 completion status

- husbands
O-SLW-c-sq-ol-7-aDM=+ ns
- wives

Discriminant analysis (DA) shows that in couples 
who dropped out of therapy both husbands and wives 
were less happy prior to therapy, where as in 
couples who completed therapy wives and husbands 
were more happy initially. The difference is more 
pronounced among husbands than among wives. T1 
Happiness discriminates better between dropouts 
and completers than marital satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own therapies
Subject code: T02ad

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment to the 12-steps program
Page in Source 289, 293
Our classificationAttitudes to own therapies, code T02ad
Operationalization
Selfreport based on 10 statements e.g. " Only a power 
greater than myself could restore my sanity"(step 2)
Rated on a 7 point numerical scale
(1= oppose to 6= strongly agree; 7= "I haven't reached 
this step"
Remarks
Self-help groups only: supportive, usually change 
oriented mutual aid group that adresses a single life 
problem or conditions shared by all members Use 
ideology to achieve change. Professionals rarely have 
an active role.
Statement based on earlier 12-step program 
questionnaires (Humphreys& Wood, 1994; Kingree & 
Ruback, 1994. For a list of the 12 steps, see Kurtz 
(1997)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.29 p < .05


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How is your mood AT THIS MOMENT? Which of the smilies below fits best with how you feel?
1 sad smily
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy smily
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-ASA-md-mqr-n-7-aSelfreport of affect during specific activities noted in diary (Day Reconstruction Method)

A happy
B affectionate
C competent
D relaxed
E in control
F depressed
G impatient
H critisized
I angry
J frustrated
K Irritated
L stressed

Rated
1 not at all
:
7 very strongly

Scores weighted by length of episode

Computation: [(A-E)/5 + (F-L)/7]/2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I an't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last month
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

Over this period I have had the feeling: (Timeframe chosen by subjects: mostly past few weeks)
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version period unspecified
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-fSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past two week?:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past 2 weeks' version)
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past week?:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past week' version)
A-CA-mh-rdv-f-3-aRating of mood by two independent observers from videotaped session
Rated using smilies
1 frowning face
2 neutral face
3 smiling face
A-CA-mh-rdv-n-5-aRating of non-verbal behavior on four aspects

A tearful/sad
B happy/content
C fearful/anxious
D confused

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 nearly all the time

Subscale of Baker & Dowling (1995) INTERACT schedule
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 6 questions

Please describe how you have felt during THE PAST WEEK and make a small check mark. For example, the word nervous is on the first line. If you have felt nervous, check YES, if you have not felt nervous check NO
A Cheerfull
B Happy
C Feeling well
D Contented
E Enjoying yourself
F Looking forward to the future

Rating:
1 yes
0 no

Name: Contentment subscale in Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (SQ).
Version: Past Week.
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how happy would you say you have been feeling OVER THE PAST WEEK. Please place an x by the choice which best describes how happy you have felt. Try to be as accurate as you can. Over the past week I have been feeling..."
5 very happy
4 happy
3 somewhat happy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

'How would you rate your overall life-satisfaction and contentment during the past week?'
1 very poor
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 very good

Last item (nr 277) in 'Quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) by Jean Endicott. The focus of this questionnaire is on health problems and physical performance.
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very pleased
5 pleased
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-nSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole at present?
3 happy
2 undecided
1 unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy would you say you were in general?"
1 -
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 +

(Full response options not reported)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ISelfreport on single question:

On a scale of 1-5, how happy would you classify yourself to be in life?
5 very happy
4 somewhat happy
3 indifferent
2 somewhat unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SL?-m-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".........satisfaction with life right now........."
(Full question not reported)

1 -
2
3
4
5
6
7 +
Response options not reported.
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question

Taking everything together, how happy are you with the way things are going in your life now?
6 completely satisfied
5 pretty much satisfied
4 slightly satisfied
3 slightly dissatisfied
2 pretty much dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as..
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6 satisfied

Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale' adjusted version
O-SLW-c-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? Put an X where you think it belongs".

Rated on an open line scale. Afterwards scores were grouped in seven categories
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-jSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your present life?
1 very unsatisfied
2 unsatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ESEFFECT SIZE
Type; descriptive statistic
Range: [-1;+1]

Meaning:

Computation: T1-T2 mean devided by pooled SD

Interpretation: ES<.20 trivial, .20>ES>.50 small, .50>ES>.80 medium, >.80 large effect

Reference: Cohen
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
T02THERAPYE01EDUCATION
T02THERAPYM06MEDICAL TREATMENT
T02ab01Effects of activation therapyA01aa02Change in activity level
T02ab01Effects of activation therapyI02ac01Restrictiveness of setting
T02ab02Effects of happiness-trainingH05ab02Actual changes in happiness
T02ab02Effects of happiness-trainingH05aa04Expected change in happiness (period unspecified)
T02ab02Effects of happiness-trainingH05aa02Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)
T02ab03Effects of family-marriage therapyM03aa02aChange in characteristics of marriage
T02ab04Effects of psycho-therapyM07aa02Change in mental health
T02ab04Effects of psycho-therapyM07adCurrent positive mental health
T02ab06Effect of health training (rehabilitation)M06MEDICAL TREATMENT
T02ab07Effects of support groupsS10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED
T02ab09Effects of after-care of prisonersP11PRISON

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings