Findings on Happiness and TIME

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and TIME
Subject Code: T01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
T01TIME 1
T01aaTime-behavior career0
T01aa01Earlier time-behavior0
T01aa02Change in time-behavior3
T01aa03Later time-behavior0
T01abCurrent time-perception2
T01ab01Awareness of time0
T01ab02Perceived speed of time2
T01ab03Perceived time-pressure13
T01ab04Temporal orientation1
T01ab04aOrientation on the past0
T01ab04bOrientation on the present0
T01ab04cOrientation on the future9
T01ab05Perceived continuity of time2
T01acCurrent time-organization8
T01adCurrent time-usage22
T01afAttitudes to own time-behavior1
T01af02Satisfaction with time-use12
T01af03Satisfaction with leisure hours3
T01af01Fit between actual and desired time-use4
T01ad06Time spent on work and care12
T01aa01aEarlier future orientation0
T01ad01Time spend alone1
T01ad05Time spend socializing4
T01ad02Time spend commuting1
T01ad04Time spend on leisure1
T01ad03Time spend at home0
T01ad05aTime spend with family1
T01aeRelative time use0
T01ad07Time spend on work tasks1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and TIME
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=T01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and TIME
Subject code: T01

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 19,24
Our classificationTIME , code T01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=-/+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.11 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in time-behavior
Subject code: T01aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of volutary associations
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in time-behavior, code T01aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend in the area of 
voluntary associations
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .216
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+13 p < .054
Direction of difference: Ss who come to spend more 
time with voluntary associations become more happy

Correlations with T1-T2 change in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in time-behavior
Subject code: T01aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of the community
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in time-behavior, code T01aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend in the area of 
community
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.20 p < .005
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .353
Direction of the difference: Ss who came to spend 
more time with community activities did not become 
happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in time-behavior
Subject code: T01aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of the family
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in time-behavior, code T01aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend with family
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .359
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.05 p < .282
Direction of difference; Ss who spend more time 
with family became slightly less happy

Correlation with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-perception
Subject code: T01ab

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelTemporal orientation
Page in Source 215-218
Our classificationCurrent time-perception, code T01ab
Operationalization
a.  Time Anxiety
    16-item index referring to anxiety
    about the flow of time, fear of the
    future, longing for the past 
    (Time Anxiety Scale; see Calabresi
    & Cohen, 1968).

b.  Time submissiveness
    9-item index referring to a confor-
    ming, pedantic attitude towards        punctuality.
    (Time Submissiveness Scale; see
    Calabresii & Cohen, 1968).

c.  Time possessiveness
    5-item index referring to a greedy
    and possessive attitude towards 
    time.
    (Time Possessiveness Scale; see 
    Calabresi & Cohen, 1968).

d.  Time flexibility
    8-item index referring to an accep-
    ting and flexible attitude towards
    time.
    (Time Flexibility Scale; see 
    Calabresi & Cohen, 1968).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.31 p < . 05
a. 
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.31 p < . 05
a.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.07 ns
b.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.03 ns
b.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.15 ns
c.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.30 p < . 05
c.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.09 ns
d.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.24 ns
d.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-perception
Subject code: T01ab

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelExperience of time
Page in Source 117-119
Our classificationCurrent time-perception, code T01ab
Operationalization
Time Metaphor Test, in which 214 meta- phors concerning 
time were rated in terms of their closeness or distance 
from the subject's experience of time. Several scales 
derived.

1.  Descending vs ascending






2.  Decomposition vs composition






3.  A bad vs a good person







4.  A dark vs bright future







5.  Monotonous, barren and empty vs   harmony and 
complexity







6.  Passive vs active
Remarks
The group of subjects was divided into two accor- ding 
to their mean 'daily average mood' (AFF 3.1).
Only significant correlations with average mood level 
were presented.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
a. The happy men experience time in terms of 
ascending, upwardly soaring images: 'a soaring 
bird', 'a mountain flame of hope'. 
The unhappy men experience time in terms of 
descending, declining images: 'a flower falling to 
the mold', 'the grave of aspiration'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
b. The happy men experience time as organic 
composition, growth and fertility: 'a succession 
of new forms', 'pregnancy and birth'.
The unhappy men experience time as decomposition, 
deterioration, corruption, and decay: 'a rotting 
tree trunk', 'dust setting in an ancient house'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
c. The happy men personify time as a good person, 
a beneficent friend and wise teacher: 'the voice 
of encouragement', 'the wisest of counselors'.
The unhappy men personify time as a bad person, a 
malevolent adversary and opponent: 'the old bad 
cheater', 'a chronic thief', 'a relentless 
antagonist'. 

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
d. For the happy men a bright future lies ahead, 
with favorable anticipation of gain and increase: 
'a promising career', 'good prospects'.
For the unhappy men a dark future lies ahead, with 
unfavorable anticipation, and dreaded
foreboding: 'future misfortune', 'increasing 
darkness'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
e. The happy men experience a sense of harmony in 
time, with active order and rhythmic pace in its 
complexity: 'the order of nature', 'a harmony of 
wishes'.
The unhappy men experience a sense of monotony in 
time. It is slow, tedious, barren and empty: 'the 
marching of tired feet', 'a retarded clock', 'an 
empty room'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
f. The happy men experience time as the setting 
for active oriented effort: 'the thrust of forward 
purpose', 'continuity of aim'.
The unhappy men express a feeling of passive 
subjection to time; it is something they cannot  
master or control to their own  purposes: 'boredom 
unrelieved', 'something you can never stop', 
'something you are never ready
for'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived speed of time
Subject code: T01ab02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /8
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and persioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =926

Correlate
Author's labelBoredom
Page in Source 235
Our classificationPerceived speed of time, code T01ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: 'Do you know the feeling on 
Sundays and holidays that time becomes so long?'
0   no
1   yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.38 p < .01
The cheerfull have less the feeling that time 
becomes so long. This pattern is similar among the 
young (16 - 29) and pensioners.
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived speed of time
Subject code: T01ab02

StudyLevy (1978): study US 1977
TitleSome Determinants of Temporal Experience in the Retired and its Correlates.
SourceGenetic Psychology Monographs, 1978, Vol. 98, 181 - 202
URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1979-30778-001
Public52-74 aged white male retirees, from two universities Mid-West U.S.A. 1977
Sample
Non-Response36% (12% refusals, 24% not available)
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelSpeed of objective time
Page in Source 197
Our classificationPerceived speed of time, code T01ab02
Operationalization
Content-analysis of tapes of focused interviews by two 
independent raters. Scored on a seven-point scale 
ranging from "extreme slowness, time dragging to a 
sense of time speeding by."(amazed at how fast things 
go", etc.)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.29 p < .05
M-CO-c-fi-v-7-ar=+.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyVeenhoven (2005a): study ZZ 1990
TitleHappiness is Hardship.
SourceBruni, L.;Porta, P.L.:"Economics and Happiness", Oxford University Press, 2005, UK, 243 - 266
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8649
PublicAdults, general public, 55 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTime pressure
Page in Source 250
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Frequency of high work speed, or tight deadlines:
 0 = never
 .
 .
 6 = all the time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bD%=+
% happy by average time pressure in 13 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of free time
Page in Source 36
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
(full question not reported)
1 Little 
2 Average (reference category) 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Much    1,32    0,94       1,09       0,93 
Average 1       1          1          1 
Little  0,90    1,05       1,23       1,31*

Control variables are:
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
(full question not reported)
1 Rarely/ never
2 Often/ sometimes (reference category)
Observed distributionN = 1: 812 2: 1147

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=-
            Often/ sometimes   Rarely/ never 
Very happy       19.5%              28%
Happy            68,5%              66%
Not happy        12%                6%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=-
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Often  1        1          1          1
Rarely 1,99*    2,17*      0,89       0,92

Control variables are:
- gender
- education 
- family stage 
- situation 
- urban living environment
- self reported health
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyDeBeer (2002): study NL 1998
TitleDruk, Druk .... Geluk? (Busy, Busy .....Happiness?).
SourceEssay, Social Cultural Planning Office, 2002, The Haque, Netherlands
PublicEmployed, the Netherlands, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response4
Respondents N =3239

Correlate
Author's labelWork under high time pressure
Page in Source 2
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Do you work under high time pressure?
3  Yes, often
2  Yes, sometimes
1: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%=+
% very happy: 
- often pressured      25
- sometimes pressured  23
- not pressured        23
- all                  24
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=-
% happy: corrected
- often pressured      21
- sometimes pressured  23
- not pressured        27
- all                  24

D%a adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- education
- religion
- marital status
- household
- kind of employment
- length of employment
- occupation
- branche
- leadership
- time spent on household tasks
- net family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyDeBeer (2002): study NL 1998
TitleDruk, Druk .... Geluk? (Busy, Busy .....Happiness?).
SourceEssay, Social Cultural Planning Office, 2002, The Haque, Netherlands
PublicEmployed, the Netherlands, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response4
Respondents N =3239

Correlate
Author's labelWork pace
Page in Source 2
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Do you work in a high pace?
3: Yes, often
2: Yes, sometimes
1: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%=+
% very happy
- often in high pace      27
- sometimes in high pace  23
- not in high pace        20
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=
% very happy adjusted
- often in high pace      27
- sometimes in high pace  23
- not in high pace        21
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=+
Stronger among Ss who can control their pace of 
work
- often in high pace      31
- sometimes in high pace  26
- not in high pace        23
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eD%a=-
Similar among Ss who cannot control their work 
pace
- often in high pace      25
- sometimes in high pace  20
- not in high pace        18

D%a adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- education
- religion
- marital status
- size of household
- kind of employment
- length of employment
- occupation
- branche
- leadership
- time spent on household tasks
- net family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelTime pressure
Page in Source 79
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.15 p < .00
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelTime
Page in Source 24
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=+.43 p < .1
Mental patients with severe disorder:Patients of 
mental hospital
 - aged 18-65
 - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years 
duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.15 p < .1
Community residents with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.19 p < .001
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelRushed in Daily Life
Page in Source 35
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Self report of feeling rushed in daily life, full 
question not mentioned.
3 Always
2 Sometimes
1 Almost never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=+ p < .05
% Very Happy
-Always        27%
-Sometimes     34%
-Almost never  42%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTime for self
Page in Source 358
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
- time of leisure
- feelings of being rushed
- being tied down
- enough time for travel
Observed distributionMean 10,28; SD 2,58; N=554

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=+.30 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.22 p < .005
Beta controlled for:
- mindfulness
- relationships
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.19 p < .005
Beta additionally controlled for:
- mindfulness
- relationships
- discrepancy between selfrated importance of 
ecological sensitivity and the actual use of 
technology
- discrepancy between the selfrated importance of 
homestead food production and actual percentage of 
homestead food production
- age
- homestead food production


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTime for Leisure
Page in Source 192
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.24 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.30 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.33 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.17 p<.05
-high Homestead Production   r=+.22 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.25 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelNever rushed
Page in Source 192
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.25 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.30 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.29 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.21 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.26 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.25 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTime to travel satisfaction
Page in Source 192
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+ p < .005
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.29 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.33 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.30 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.25 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.31 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.29 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived time-pressure
Subject code: T01ab03

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelTime pressure
Page in Source 1063, 1065
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure, code T01ab03
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A In general, how do you feel about your time-would you 
say you always feel rushed even to do things you have 
to do, only sometimes feel rushed, or almost never feel 
rushed? (if not always rushed)
B How often would you say that you have time or your 
hands that you don't know what to do with - quiter 
often, just now and then, or almost never?
1 = greater time pressure, 7 = lesser time pressure
Observed distributionWomen with husband in white collar job Employed M = 2,36, Housewives M = 2,86 Women with husbands in blue collar job Employed M = 2,30, Housewives M = 2,85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.10 ns
Employed women with white-collar husband
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.08 ns
Housewives with white collar husband
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.33 p < .005
Employed women with blue-collar husband
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.04 ns
Housewives with blue collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.04 ns
Employed women with white-collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20 p < .005
Housewives with white collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.23 p < .05
Employed women with blue-collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.04 ns
Housewives with blue collar husband
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.16 p < .05
Employed women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.03 p < .05
Housewives
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.10 ns
Employed women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.07 ns
Housewives:

B's Controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Husband's job status
- Respondents present or last job status
- Social desirability

Reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Temporal orientation
Subject code: T01ab04

StudyCameron (1975): study US 1970
TitleMood as an Indicant of Happiness: Age, Sex, Social Class and Situational Differences.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 216 - 224
PublicCollege students, Detroit, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =187

Correlate
Author's labelTime orientation
Page in Source 218/220
Our classificationTemporal orientation, code T01ab04
Operationalization
Time sampling, the question asked 21 times during 10 
weeks: "Were you thinking about the past, present or 
future?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-ar=
Thinking about the past:                     Happy 
  mood: r=+.17  (05)  
Neutral mood: r=-.27  (001) 
Unhappy mood: r=+.05   ns

Thinking about present:                         
Happy   mood: r=-.22  (01) 
Neutral mood: r=+.32  (001) 
Unhappy mood: r=-.09   ns

Thinking about future:                          
Happy   mood: r=+.11   ns
Neutral mood: r=-.24  (01)                    
Unhappy mood: r=+.19  (05)  
 
Happiness assessed by time sampling. Correlations 
concern frequency of report of happy, neutral or 
sad mood.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with future security
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your future security?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.11 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta's controlled for:
- mental health
- social support
- crime-relatred worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - achievements in life
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.23 p < .05
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
-health              (+.28)
-recreation          (+.13)
-achievement in life (+.16)

(45% of variance explained)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.20 p < .05
Beta' s additionally controlled for:
-mental health             (+.15)
and satisfaction with:
-romantic relationships    (+.13)
-feeling part of community (+.12)
-health                    (+.24)
-recreation                (+.11)

(48% of variance explained)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyLehr (1968): study XZ Germany West 1965
TitleAttitudes Towards the Future in Old Age.
SourceHuman Development, 1968, Vol. 10, 230 - 238
URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/270588
Public60-65 aged, middle class, Germany, 1965
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200

Correlate
Author's labelAttitude towards the future
Page in Source 235
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Content analysis of lengthy interviews and tests by 4 
to 5 raters.
Rated
1 completely negative
.
.
9 completely positive
Remarks
Dichotomized 1-4 negative attitude, 6-9 positive 
attitude.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-b
Difference in happiness between positive and 
negative groups.
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bMW=52 p < .00
Men aged 60 - 65   (z = 3,49)
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bMW=70 p < .00
Men aged 70 - 75 (z =3,81)
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bMW=100 p < .01
Women aged 60 -65  (z = 2,05)
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bMW= ns
Women aged 70 -75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, ±1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelFuturity
Page in Source 263
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Number of items mentioned on open-ended
question on personal worries and fears for the future.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.07 p < . 05
Computed by us on the basis of data available in 
the book. See also "Worries".


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyKoralewicz & Zagorski (2009): study PL 2007
TitleLiving Conditions and Optimistic Orientation of Poles.
SourceInternational Journal of Sociology, 2009, Vol. 39, 10 - 44
DOIDOI:10.2753/IJS0020-7659390401
PublicAdults, general public, Poland, 2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with chances for the future
Page in Source 15,19
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Self report on single question; question not reported:
5 very satisfied
4 rather satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
Observed distribution1: 4,8%, 2: 15,9%, 3: 37,1%, 4: 33,5%, 5: 8,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.18 p < .001
Beta controlled for satisfaction 
with:
- friends and acquaintances
- wife/husband
- health
- housing
- locality of residence
- education
- employment
- income
- children
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.16 p < .001
Beta additionally controlled for satisfaction 
with:
- material living conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDegree in which he works with distant objects in view
Page in Source 26
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyLevy (1978): study US 1977
TitleSome Determinants of Temporal Experience in the Retired and its Correlates.
SourceGenetic Psychology Monographs, 1978, Vol. 98, 181 - 202
URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1979-30778-001
Public52-74 aged white male retirees, from two universities Mid-West U.S.A. 1977
Sample
Non-Response36% (12% refusals, 24% not available)
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelExtension
Page in Source 197
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Content-analysis of tapes of focused interviews by two 
independent raters. Scored on a seven-point scale 
ranging from no sense of future, the future as not part 
of the individual's awareness to a sense of future 
extended many years, still lots of time left, etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.05 ns
M-CO-c-fi-v-7-ar=+.21 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelFuturity
Page in Source 209
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Closed question on how much one looks forward to next 
month? not at all / very little / somewhat / 
considerably / very much.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-ar= + p < . 01
normals     : r = +.43 (01)
handicapped : r = +.28 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier future extension
Page in Source 23
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
The number of years projected into the future on the 
Life Evaluation Chart as
reported 11 years ago at T1(1969).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=
Males:   r= -.13  ns        
Females: r= -.13  ns
Happiness assessed at T5(1980).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Orientation on the future
Subject code: T01ab04c

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelLength of time span
Page in Source 120-121
Our classificationOrientation on the future, code T01ab04c
Operationalization
Score obtained from a set of 30 stories using Thematic 
Apperception Test cards (see Ricks & Epley, 1960).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.54 p < . 05
Prospective time span.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.44 p < . 10
Retrospective time span.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived continuity of time
Subject code: T01ab05

StudyLevy (1978): study US 1977
TitleSome Determinants of Temporal Experience in the Retired and its Correlates.
SourceGenetic Psychology Monographs, 1978, Vol. 98, 181 - 202
URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1979-30778-001
Public52-74 aged white male retirees, from two universities Mid-West U.S.A. 1977
Sample
Non-Response36% (12% refusals, 24% not available)
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelDisconnected Present
Page in Source 197
Our classificationPerceived continuity of time, code T01ab05
Operationalization
Content-analysis of tapes of focused interviews by two 
independent raters. Scored on a seven-point scale 
ranging from a sense of nonintegrated temporal 
experience ("I live only for today" etc.) with no sense 
of past or future to a conveyed sense of temporal 
integration, with present experience reflecting a clear 
continuity with past life and future intentions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-c-fi-v-7-ar=+.27 p < .05
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived continuity of time
Subject code: T01ab05

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfactions with links to the past and traditions
Page in Source 113
Our classificationPerceived continuity of time, code T01ab05
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the extent to 
which you maintain links to the past and to 
traditions?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for structure
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions related to:
- Planning weeknights and weekends
- planning weekdays
- planning holidays
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=1,77

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelActive Coping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Using special calendars, making lists or using other 
devices to become better organized
- Attending religious services or activities
- Reading non work-related books and magazines other 
than daily newspapers
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Using calendars etc 3.75, Religious services 1.76, Reading etc 4.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelRestructuring practice
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
Selfreported of strategies to organize and rectrutive 
work in order to make life more enjoyed:
- Blocking out time for making or returning phone calls
- Organizing and scheduling work activities so that I 
will not dbe rushed on run late
-Reducing me expertations of what I can accomplish in a 
single day
- Adding to, reporganizing or diversifying my practice 
of medicine
-Delegating more responsibility to others to perform 
work-related tasks
- Cuttung down on the number of patients i see
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Blocking 3.22, Organizing 4.48, Reducing 3.39, Reorganizing 2.59, Responsibility 3.51, Cutting 1.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudyHarder (1969): study US 1969
TitleSelf-Actualization, Mood, and Personality Adjustment in Married Women.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1969, USA
URLhttp://pocketknowledge.tc.columbia.edu/home.php/viewfile/12851
PublicMarried females, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelTime competence
Page in Source 50
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
23-item index measuring whether one "lives fully in the 
here and now and is able to tie past and future to the 
present in meaningful continuity" (Time Competence 
scale, from Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory; 
see Shostrom, 1964).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudyWessman (1973): study US 1957
TitlePersonality and the subjective experience of time.
SourceJournal of Personality Assessment 1973, Vol. 37, 103 - 114
DOIDOI:10.1080/00223891.1973.10119839
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelExperience and use of time
Page in Source 109-111
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
80-item questionnaire, representing the 10 most 
positively and 10 most negati- vely loaded items on 
each of 4 orthogo- nal bi-polar factors (Ricks - Epley 
- Wessman Temporal Experience Question- naire).

a.  Immediate time pressure:
    20-item index measuring relaxed
    mastery and adaptive flexibility vs
    harassed lack of control.

b.  Long-term personal direction:
    20-item index measuring discontin-
    uity and lack of direction vs con-
    tinuity and steady purpose.

c.  Efficient time utilization:
    20-item index measuring procrastin-
    ation and inefficiency vs efficient
    scheduling.

d.  Personal inconsistency:
    20-item index measuring consistency
    and dependability vs inconsistency
    and changeability.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-rc-ro-0-ar= ns
a.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br= ns
a.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.48 p < .05
b.
O-HP-g-rc-ro-0-ar=+.48 p < .05
b.
O-HP-g-rc-ro-0-ar= ns
c.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br= ns
c.
O-HP-g-rc-ro-0-ar= ns
d.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br= ns
d.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelOrganization of time
Page in Source 117-119
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
Temporal Behavior Questionnaire, in which 201 ways of 
experiencing, arrang- ing, and estimating time in work, 
daily activities, and fantasies were rated in terms of 
the degree to which the subject was characteristically 
disposed or not disposed to engage in them. Several 
scales derived.

a. Unfilled vs filled time perspective. 
b. Life is felt as dicrete vs    continuous.

c. Procrastinating and inefficient vs punctual and 
efficient use of time.
Remarks
The group of subjects was divided into two, ac- cording 
to their mean 'daily average mood' (AFF 3.1). Only 
significant correlations with average mood level were 
presented.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
a. Unfilled vs filled time perspective. The 
happy men commit and hold themselves to 
responsibilities and they plan and schedule their 
time far in advance.
The unhappy men shy away from long-term 
responsibilities and keep the future open and 
uncommitted. They are anxious about the unknown 
future.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
b. The happy men are aware of enduring themes and 
patterns in their life, and have a strong sense of 
their own identity.
The unhappy men experience event vs as discrete, 
and life as a series of abrupt transformations. 
For them time is broken, chopped up, and without 
direction.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
c. The happy men work efficiently without wasting 
time and energy. They can manage each day to do  
everything they want to do.
The unhappy men never begin or finish a task on 
time. They procrastinate too long, and feel 
themselves working below capacity.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withdaily schedule
Page in Source 292
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= - p < . s
High school students only: U-shaped curve: 
students of 'average' happiness having least 
problems with their daily schedule
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=- s
High school students only: U-shaped curve: 
students of 'average' happiness having least 
problems with their daily schedule


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-organization
Subject code: T01ac

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in daily schedule
Page in Source 292
Our classificationCurrent time-organization, code T01ac
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= - p < . s
High school students only
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=- s
High school students only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelRepairs
Page in Source 270,277,280,286,288,295
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 53%, 1: 33%, 2: 8%, 3: 2%, 4: 1%, 5: 1%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: -% , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 42%, 1: 29%, 2: 15%, 3: 6%, 4: 3%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 1%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: -%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 71%, 1: 16%, 2: 6%, 3: 1%, 4: 1%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: -%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0/+
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.7  M = 0.7 hrs          0.0  hrs
top 3:  M = 0.7  M = 0.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.7  M = 0.7 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.1  M = 1.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.1  M = 1.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.1  M = 1.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.5  M = 0.4 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.5  M = 0.4 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.4  M = 0.4 hrs          0.0 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelStudying
Page in Source 270,276,279,285,288,294
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Hours spent on studying.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 69%, 1: 14%, 2: 4%, 3: 2%, 4: 1%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 8%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: -% , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 74%, 1: 11%, 2: 6%, 3: 2%, 4: 1%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 2%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 76%, 1: 10%, 2: 5%, 3: 3%, 4: 1%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 1%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 0.9 hrs         +0.5 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.2  M = 0.9 hrs         +0.3 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.1  M = 0.9 hrs         +0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.8  M = 0.5 hrs         +0.3 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.6  M = 0.5 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.6  M = 0.4 hrs         +0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.5  M = 0.4 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.5  M = 0.4 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.4  M = 0.4 hrs         +0.0 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelShopping
Page in Source 270,272,279,281,288,290
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Hours spent on shopping.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 31%, 1: 59%, 2: 8%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -% , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 21%, 1: 40%, 2: 28%, 3: 6%, 4: 1%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 91%, 1: 3%, 2: 2%, 3: *%, 4: -%, 5: *%, 6-10: -%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.8  M = 0.8 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.8  M = 0.8 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.8  M = 0.8 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.2 hrs         +0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.3  M = 1.2 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.3  M = 1.2 hrs         +0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.1  M = 0.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.1  M = 0.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.1  M = 0.1 hrs          0.0 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment and schooling
Page in Source 270,271, 279,280, 288,289
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Self reported average hours spend on work or schooling 
on working days, Saturdays, Sundays.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 27%, 1: 3%, 2: 3%, 3: 2%, 4: 3%, 5: 3%, 6-10: 48%, 11-16: 9%, 17-24: - , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 71%, 1: 3%, 2: 4%, 3: 2%, 4: 3%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 11%, 11-16: 2%, 17-24: -, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 83%, 1: 3%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: 2%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 4%, 11-16: 1%, 17-24: -, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 5.8  M = 5.8 hrs         0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 5.8  M = 5.8 hrs         0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 5.9  M = 5.4 hrs        +0.5 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs        -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.5  M = 1.7 hrs        -0.2 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.5  M = 1.6 hrs        -0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.6  M = 0.7 hrs        -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.6  M = 0.7 hrs        -0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.7  M = 0.7 hrs         0.0 hrs

Hapiness
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyEriksson et al. (2007): study DE 1995
TitleTemporal Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 80, 511 - 533
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0005-z
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13919

Correlate
Author's labelDiscretionary time
Page in Source 523
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Logarithm of discretionary time

Discretionairy time is hours in a week (168) left after 
subtracting hours people strictly NEED to devote to: a) 
paid labour, b) unpaid household labour and c) personal 
care.

Hours SPENT assessed using whole-day recall of time 
spent on pre-coded activities

Hours strictkly NEEDED estimated from general 
population
- Work hours required for earning poverty level income
- Half median hours spend on household work
- Mean hours spent on personal care minus ine standard 
deviation
Remarks
Different from 'spare time', which is the time left 
after subtracting hours actually SPENT on these 
activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.29 p < .05
B (+.288) controlled for: 
- log household income
- log wage rate
- socio-demographic characteristics
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.29 p < .05
B (+.288) additionally controlled for
- log spare time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLee (2003): study KR 2000
TitleDaily Contextual Variations in Levels of Adolescent Happiness.
SourceThe Korean Journal of Development Psychology, 2003, Vol. 16, 193 - 209
PublicMiddle school students, South Korea, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response24
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labeldaily activity
Page in Source 200
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Time spend on activities:
A study 
B active leisure
C passive leisure
D interpersonal relationship
E living maintenance

Assessed using experience sampling during one week. 
When beeped Ss answered the open question:'What do you 
do right now'. Responses were later classified in these 
5 categories.
Higher scores mean more time spend on this activity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
     M     SD
A   1.06   .87
B   1.91   .98
C   1.69   .99
D   1.66  1.05
E   1.27   .96
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B>C,D>E>A


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyIannotti et al. (2009): study ZZ Developed nations 2008
TitleInterrelationships of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-based Sedentarry Behavior and Social and Psychological Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 54, 191 - 198
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00038-009-5410-z
Public11, 13 and 15 aged, 41 nations, 2008-2009
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =204534

Correlate
Author's labelScreen-based media use
Page in Source 191,192,195
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Self report of hours spend per day on:
A: Using a computer during free time (excluding time 
spent doing homework)
B: Watching television (including videos)

Computation: average hours per day on A and B

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.09 p < .0001
North America
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.03 p < .01
Western Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
Eastern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.09 p < .0001
Northern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.06 p < .0001
Southern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= p < .0001
North America < westernEurope < Eastern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyIannotti et al. (2009): study ZZ Developed nations 2008
TitleInterrelationships of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-based Sedentarry Behavior and Social and Psychological Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 54, 191 - 198
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00038-009-5410-z
Public11, 13 and 15 aged, 41 nations, 2008-2009
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =204534

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical Activity
Page in Source 191,192,194
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question on number of days Ss had 
engaged in physical movement or muscular extertion for 
at least 60 minutes during the last week
0 days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 days
Remarks
The question was preceded by a definition of 
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and examples

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.15 p < .0001
North America
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.10 p < .0001
Western Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.11 p < .0001
Eastern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.16 p < .0001
Northern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.16 p < .0001
Southern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelRelational time
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
0 Not 
1 Once a month or weekly

a: family
b: friends
c: colleagues
d: church
e: service organisation
Observed distributionRange 1-4 a: M= 3.48, SD 0.81 b: M= 3.27, SD 0.89 c: M= 2.48, SD 1.19 d: M= 2.24, SD 1.24 e: M= 1.91, SD 1.14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.0 p < .05
Time spent with family       B:1,00, t: 6.76
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.78 p < .05
Time spent with friends      B:0.78, t: 5.17
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.27 p < .05
Time spent with colleagues   B:0.27, t: 2.54
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.24 p < .05
Time spent with church       B:0.24, t: 2.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.79 p < .05
Time spent with service org. B:0.79, t:6.83

B is points greater happiness on range 10-100 of 
people who spend once a month or weekly time on 
that kind of relational activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelTied to property
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Questions on current time-use
Full items not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelDiscounting and self-control
Page in Source 36
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions.
A: "I often work on things that will only pay off in a 
couple of years"
B: "With everything I do, I am only concerned about the 
immediate consequences (a period of a couple of days or 
weeks)"
C: "Do you find it difficult to control your 
expenditures?"
D: "I have good control of my investments and their 
returns"
E: "Do you have little self-control or are you very 
disciplined?"

Rated as:
1: totally disagree
.
.
7: totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.11
Working on things that will only pay in a couple 
of years
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.05
Interest only in short-run consequences
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.29
Difficulties in controlling expenditures
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.17
Good control of investments and their return
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.03
Level of self-control (discipline)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=-1.9
Working on things that will only pay in a couple 
of years
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=-1.9
Interest only in short-run consequences
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-1.7
Difficulties in controlling expenditures
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+2.6
Good control of investments and their return
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+9.8
Level of self-control (discipline)

Instrument for happiness:
- last ten days cloud cover deviation

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelDigital life
Page in Source 346,370,371
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
A digital life index was computed by counting the 
response to 3 questions:
- how often respondents view webpages
- read emails
- send messages on their mobile phones.
Value of index ranges from 0 to 3.
Observed distributionall: 0:29,4%,1:20,5%,2:6,6%,3:43,5% married subjects only: 0:33,0%,1:22,0%,2:6,8%,3:38,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=-.03 ns
all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=-.02 ns
married subjects only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.08 ns
all
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.06 ns
married subjects only
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.09 p < .05
all
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.11 p < .05
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
all
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
Betas controlled for
Demographic variables:
- gender
- age
- education
- income
Lifestyle
- global
- spirituality
Value priorities:
- having
- relating
- being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelGender and Time Use Groups
Page in Source 16, 18, 19, 21, 22
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Time Use Groups:

a FT work; PT unpaid work
b Long work; PT unpaid work
c FT unpaid work
d FT paid work; FT unpaid work
e PT paid work; PT unpaid work
f PT or no (paid) work; FT unpaid work
g Leisure rich
h FT education/training
Observed distributionMales: N= a:24512 b:12714 c:2877 d:0 e:0 f:0 g:15187 h:3393 Total:58683 Females: N= a:16370 b:6357 c:0 d:2741 e:11580 f:9356 g:20064 h:4222 Total:70690
Remarks
FT=full time   PT=part time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
     Males 
All: M=5.29
  a: M=5.25
  b: M=5.25
  c: M=5.18
  d: M=/   
  e: M=/   
  f: M=/   
  g: M=5.40
  h: M=5.38
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
     Females
All: M=5.28
  a: M=5.25
  b: M=5.18
  c: M=/
  d: M=5.15
  e: M=5.30
  f: M=5.16
  g: M=5.39
  h: M=5.29
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
MALES   (N=58674/10085)
(reference: a)
a: reference
b: B=-.05 p<.01
c: B=-.61 p<.10
d: /
e: /
f: /
g: B=-.05 p<.05
h: B=+.17 p<.01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)
(reference: e)        
a: B=-.04 p<.10
b: B=-.05 ns
c: /
d: B=-.02 ns
e: reference
f: B=-.04 ns
g: B=-.03 ns
h: B=+.12 p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelIndex of time use specialisation
Page in Source 10, 11
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
MALES                 FEMALES 
b=+.23 SE=.10 p<.05   b=-.13 SE=.10 ns

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Number of children of different age groups
- Employment status
- Total hours worked
- Total hours worked spouse/partner
- Percentage share of housework
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelVacation
Page in Source 136,137
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Three or more days off from work
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: one week before vacation
T3: The week after vacation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+ p < .05
T1 = one week before  M=5,30
T3 = one week after   M=5,43
Difference =            +0,13, t=3.29

Vacation satisfaction explains 3% extra variance 
in T3 happiness in addition to T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of vacation days in past year
Page in Source 833
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Self reported number of vacation days in the past year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.16 p < .02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelTask of physicians
Page in Source 833
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Self report of % time spend on
a: administration
b: teaching 
c: house staff supervising
d: research
e: patients care
f: inpatients seen last 2 weeks
g: outpatients seen last 2 weeks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
% administration
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
% teaching
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.18 p < .05
% time supervising house staff
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.08 ns
% time doing research
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
% time providing direct patient care
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.06 ns
% time inpatients seen last 2 weeks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.06 ns
% number of outpatients seen in past 2 weeks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLee (1985): study US 1979
TitleProbing Behavioral Patterns of Structuring Daily Life.
SourceHuman Relations, 1985, Vol. 38, 457 - 476
Public23-49 aged adults, USA, followed 1 year, 1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelLife space structure
Page in Source 473
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
4 Time use/enjoyment based on 9 day time use diary:
a) Home based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at home; low, average or inconsistent time spent 
at work
b) Work based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at work but not at home
c)Conjoint: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at both home and work 
d) Diffuse: high quantity and high quality time is 
neither spent at work nor at home, but significant time 
was spent in other types of places like other's homes, 
restaurants, or places of recreation.
Remarks
Average of sores on T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aDM=
M  Total  Men  Women    
a  5,9    6,2  5,8 
b  5,2    5,3  4,8
c  5,9    5,8  5,9
d  5,3    5,5  5,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelEase-contentment activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled ease-contentment activities (simple comforts, 
security, relaxation).  
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=-.60 (01)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelGrowth activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled personal growth activities (new skills and 
new experiences). 
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.38 (ns)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.20 p < .05
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelInstrumental activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled instrumental activities (economic or 
occupation
productivity or achievement, social status, household 
chores) 
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.43 (05)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns 
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.33 (ns)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns    
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns 
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.27 p < .01
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current time-usage
Subject code: T01ad

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelActivity-scope
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent time-usage, code T01ad
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to report their regular or 
scheduled total activities 
on a 33 point checklist

Rating from no participation (0) to frequent 
participation (3). 

Ratings were summed and divided by 33.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.52 (05)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.56 (05)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r=+.34 (ns)
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.18 p < .05
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend alone
Subject code: T01ad01

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent alone
Page in Source 83
Our classificationTime spend alone, code T01ad01
Operationalization
Self report of mean time spent alone.
Rating scale from 1 'no time' to 10 '8 hours per day'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.12 p < .05
                Mean time spent alone         
a 10% least happy         5.8     
b 27% close to average    5.0      
c 10% most happy          4.4
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend commuting
Subject code: T01ad02

StudyStutzer & Frey (2008): study XZ Germany West 1985
TitleStress that Doesn''t Pay: The Commuting Paradox.
SourceThe Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 2008, Vol. 110, 339 - 366
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2008.00542.x
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =270150

Correlate
Author's labelCommuting
Page in Source 184
Our classificationTime spend commuting, code T01ad02
Operationalization
Average daily commuting time (minutes, one way)
Observed distributionAverage daily commuting time is 23 minutes one way (standard deviation 19 min). Median commuting time is 20 minutes, first quartile is 10 min, fourth quartile is 30 min.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 p < .00
B=-0.0070
(t-value= -7.27)
1st quartile <10 min: life satisfaction=7.24
4th quartile >30 min: life satisfaction=7.00
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=0.01 p < .00
B=0.030e-3 
(t-value= 4.11)
Commuting time squared

B's controlled for:
-Age
-Age2
-Gender
-Years of Education (ln)
-Children (Yes/No)
-Singel (with/without partner)
-Married (Yes/No)
-Seperated (with/without partnert)
-Divorced (with/without partner)
-Widowed (with/without partner)
-Spouse living abroad
-Number of household members
-Employed
-Self-employed
-Western/Eastern Germany
-Child of the Head of Household (vs. not)
-EU foreigner/Other Foreigner
-Year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend on leisure
Subject code: T01ad04

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelHobbies and leisure
Page in Source 270,278,279,287,288,296
Our classificationTime spend on leisure, code T01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport of hours spent on hobbies and leisure
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 9%, 1: 28%, 2: 28%, 3: 14%, 4: 10%, 5: 5%, 6-10: 5%, 11-16: 1%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 7%, 1: 13%, 2: 19%, 3: 14%, 4: 14%, 5: 11%, 6-10: 15%, 11-16: 4%, 17-24: *, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 6%, 1: 7%, 2: 14%, 3: 13%, 4: 14%, 5: 12%, 6-10: 24%, 11-16: 6%, 17-24: *, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0/-
On working days
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 2.2  M = 2.3 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 2.2  M = 2.3 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 4:  M = 2.3  M = 2.1 hrs         -0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On Saturdays
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 3.9  M = 3.8 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 3.9  M = 3.9 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 4:  M = 3.8  M = 3.9 hrs         -0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On Sundays
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 4.9  M = 4.8 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 4.9  M = 4.8 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 4:  M = 4.8  M = 4.9 hrs         -0.1 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 4: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend socializing
Subject code: T01ad05

StudyLee (2003): study KR 2000
TitleDaily Contextual Variations in Levels of Adolescent Happiness.
SourceThe Korean Journal of Development Psychology, 2003, Vol. 16, 193 - 209
PublicMiddle school students, South Korea, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response24
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal contact
Page in Source 201
Our classificationTime spend socializing, code T01ad05
Operationalization
Time spend on interpersonal contact:
A alone 
B family 
C friend
D others 

Assessed using experience sampling during one week. 
When beeped Ss answered the open question:'Who are you 
with right now'. Responses were later classified in 
these 4 categories.
Higher scores mean more time spend on this 
interpersonal contact

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
Boys

    M     SD
A 1.21    1.00
B 1.58    1.00
C 1.54    1.07
D 1.32     .92
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C> A,D
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM= p < .05
Girls

    M    SD
A 1.28   .88
B 1.52   .98
C 1.31  1.03
D 1.27   .80
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B> A,C,D
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During study activity

   M       SD
A 0.87    .72
B 1.04    .90
C 1.04    .95
D 1.21    .84
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
D>B,C>A
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During active leisure activity
 
   M       SD
A 0.87    .72
B 1.04    .90
C 1.04    .95
D 1.21    .84
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C>A
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During passive leisure activity 

   M       SD
A 1.75   1.01
B 2.03    .92
C 2.05   1.01
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C>A
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During activity meeting with other people

   M        SD
A 1.33    1.09
B 1.89    1.15
C 1.70    1.07
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= ns
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During living maintenance activity

   M        SD
a 1.09     .94
b 1.29     .95
c 1.43     .97
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C>A


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend socializing
Subject code: T01ad05

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent with family, friends, and romantic partner
Page in Source 83
Our classificationTime spend socializing, code T01ad05
Operationalization
Self report of mean time spent with family, friends, 
and romantic partner. 
Rating scale from 1 'no time' to 10 '8 hours per day'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.12 p < .05
              Mean time spent with family,
              friends, and parttner        
a 10% least happy         3.6     
b 27% close to average    4.5      
c 10% most happy          5.1
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a < b < c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend socializing
Subject code: T01ad05

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelStructure of activities - services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationTime spend socializing, code T01ad05
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month concerning the:
a: number of days per week at the Club
b: number of hours per week at the club
c: attendance in area meetings
d: number of hours per week in task
e: attendance in Club recreation
f: attendance in other recreation
g: time spent in leisure activities
h: time spent socializing
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09 ns
Number of days per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
Number of hours per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in area meetings
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
Number of hours per week in task
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in Club recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .01
Time spent in leisure activities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.08 ns
Attendance in other recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Time spent in socializing
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
Any of the above services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend socializing
Subject code: T01ad05

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelExpressive activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationTime spend socializing, code T01ad05
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled interpersonal- expressive activities 
(intimacy, friendship and sociability)
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r=-.42 (05)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.17 ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend with family
Subject code: T01ad05a

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelFamily time
Page in Source 79
Our classificationTime spend with family, code T01ad05a
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.16 p < .00
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelWork Hours
Page in Source 83
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Single question:
How many hours each week do you normally spend on this 
work?
1: 0-9
2: 10-19
3: 20-29
4: 30-39
5: 40-49
6: 50+
Observed distributionN = 1 : 94, b : 121, c : 186, d : 200, e : 200, f : 200, g : 200

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .078
1: Mt =77.45, SD =21.55
2: Mt =74.96, SD =17.33
3: Mt =78.76, SD =16.57
4: Mt =75.70, SD =16.85
5: Mt =76.65, SD =14.78
6 :M  =79.65, SD =15.32
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyZuzanek (2006): study CA 2001
TitleAdolescent Time use and Well-Being from a Comparative Perspective.
SourceSociety and Leisure, 2006, Vol. 28, 379 - 423.
Public12-19 aged, Ontario, Canada, 2001/2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20,7
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelweekly hours of paid work
Page in Source 401
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Hours of work reported in time diaries kept on one day 

0 no work reported
1 1-10 hours
2 11-20 hours
4 more than 21 hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-?-5-aDM=±
no work reported     M = 3.92
1-10 hours           M = 4.02
11-20 hours          M = 3.91
more than 21 hours   M = 3.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelWork-care combinations
Page in Source 33
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Self report on the number of working and caring hours 
per week:
a: only working
b: only caring
c: caring and working <25h
d: caring >24h, working <25h
e: caring <25h, working >24h
f: caring and working >24h
g: no work no care
Observed distributiona: 45.3% b: 15.2% c: 4.5% d: 7.4% e: 9.8% f: 3.9% g: 14% Total N = 5732

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.26 p < .01
ONLY WORKING (vs. no work, no care)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.25 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.27 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.26 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.29 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.16 p < .01
ONLY CARING (vs. no work, no care)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.13 p < .05
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.15 p < .01
CARING AND WORKING <25h (vs. no work, no care)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.09 p < .01
CARING >24h, WORKING <25h (vs. no work, no care)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 p < .1
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.21 p < .01
CARING <25h, WORKING >24h (vs. no work, no care)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.19 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.22 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.21 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.23 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.09 p < .05
CARING AND WORKING >24h (vs. no work, no care)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.08 p < .1
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .05
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
CONTROL VARIABLES:
Set A:
- fit between preferred and actual working hours
- importance of having children/success in a job
- marital status
- age 
- age squared/100
- number of children 0-15 years
- unemployment rate
- born in east-Germany
- foreigner status
- education
- age youngest child
- objective health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set B: (N = 70859)
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- extraversion
- openness to experience
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set C:
- birth cohort
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set D: 
- interaction: hours match*work orientation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set E:
- interaction: hours match*work-care combinations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Interaction effect with fit between preferred and 
actual working hours: underworked respondents 
score lower on SWB (vs good fit & home centered).

Fixed effects analysis yields similar results.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelCare
Page in Source 270,275,280,284,288,293
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Hours spent on care.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 90%, 1: 4%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 1%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 89%, 1: 5%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: *%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 89%, 1: 4%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: *%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.2  M = 0.3 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.2  M = 0.4 hrs         -0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold work
Page in Source 270,273,279,282,288,291
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Selfreport of hours spent on household work.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 14%, 1: 45%, 2: 23%, 3: 9%, 4: 4%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 2%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: - , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 11%, 1: 28%, 2: 32%, 3: 15%, 4: 7%, 5: 3%, 6-10: 2%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 22%, 1: 34%, 2: 25%, 3: 10%, 4: 4%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 1%, 11-16: *%, 17-24:-*, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0/-
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.5  M = 1.6 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.6  M = 1.6 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.6  M = 1.7 hrs         -0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/0
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.9  M = 2.0 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 2.0  M = 2.0 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 2.0  M = 2.0 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.5 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.4  M = 1.5 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs         -0.2 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 4: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelChildcare
Page in Source 270,274,279,283,288,292
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Selfreport on hours spent on childcare.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 75%, 1: 5%, 2: 5%, 3: 3%, 4: 2%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 5%, 11-16: 2%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 73%, 1: 4%, 2: 3%, 3: 3%, 4: 2%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 6%, 11-16: 4%, 17-24: 1%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 73%, 1: 3%, 2: 3%, 3: 2%, 4: 1%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 7%, 11-16: 5%, 17-24: 1%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.0  M = 1.1 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.1  M = 1.0 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.1  M = 1.0 hrs         +0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/+
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs         -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.7  M = 1.5 hrs         +0.2 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.6  M = 1.4 hrs         +0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/+
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.5  M = 1.7 hrs         -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.7  M = 1.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.7  M = 1.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment and schooling
Page in Source 270,271, 279,280, 288,289
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Self reported average hours spend on work or schooling 
on working days, Saturdays, Sundays.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 27%, 1: 3%, 2: 3%, 3: 2%, 4: 3%, 5: 3%, 6-10: 48%, 11-16: 9%, 17-24: - , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 71%, 1: 3%, 2: 4%, 3: 2%, 4: 3%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 11%, 11-16: 2%, 17-24: -, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 83%, 1: 3%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: 2%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 4%, 11-16: 1%, 17-24: -, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 5.8  M = 5.8 hrs         0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 5.8  M = 5.8 hrs         0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 5.9  M = 5.4 hrs        +0.5 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs        -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.5  M = 1.7 hrs        -0.2 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.5  M = 1.6 hrs        -0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.6  M = 0.7 hrs        -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.6  M = 0.7 hrs        -0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.7  M = 0.7 hrs         0.0 hrs

Hapiness
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelWorking hours
Page in Source 147
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
If paid job: self-report of hours worked per week.
1: 1-20
2: 21-40
3: 41-60
4: >60
Observed distributionIf paid job, average working hours per week: Native Dutch: 31,02 Surinames/ Antilleans: 33,40 Marocceans: 33,83 Turks: 34,33

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.04 p < .10
Working hours 1-20 (vs.>60)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
Working hours 21-40 (vs.>60)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.01 ns
Working hours 41-60 (vs.>60)

Beta's controlled for
-gender
-ethnic groups
-education
-age
-smoking
-overweight
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment
-religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 2002
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15450

Correlate
Author's labelNumbers of hours worked per week
Page in Source 1607
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Self report on single question on number of hours 
worked per week
Precise text not presented
Observed distributionM = 42.21, SD = 14.72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fr=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 1987
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 1987 - 1988
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13007

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of hours worked per week
Page in Source 1609
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Self report on single question on number of hours 
worked per week
Precise text not presented
Observed distributionM = 38.71, SD = 15.24

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-br=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelSocial service activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled social-service activities (helping others, 
community service)  They were also asked what they did 
"yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.62 (01)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns        females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns        females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns        females: r= ns 
preretired   males: r=-.57 (01)  females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spent on work and care
Subject code: T01ad06

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelProductive hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationTime spent on work and care, code T01ad06
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
working or doing housework; doing volunteer work for 
church, relatives, yard, care, repairing and other such 
activities.
Observed distributionM = 41, 3 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.10 p < .05
T1 productive hours by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.05 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 productive hours by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.04 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.03 ns
T1 productive hours by T3 life satisfaction.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.01 ns
Beta's controled for:
- selfrated health
- sexual enjoyment
- social activity hours
- organizational activity
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 productive hours by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness, 
Change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=
T1 productive hours by T2-T3 CHANGE in happiness, 
change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend on work tasks
Subject code: T01ad07

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelwork activities
Our classificationTime spend on work tasks, code T01ad07
Operationalization
a patient contact > 70 %
b patient contact , 70 %
c research > 20%
d research < 20%
e education > 20%
f education < 20%
g management > 20%
h  management < 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
patient contact > 70 %   M=7.6
patient contact < 70 %   M=7.6

research        > 20%    M=7.6
research        < 20%    M=7.0

education       > 20%    M=7.7
education       < 20%    M=7.4

management      > 20%    M=7.7
management      < 20%    M=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own time-behavior
Subject code: T01af

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelWork Responsibility
Page in Source 58,76
Our classificationAttitudes to own time-behavior, code T01af
Operationalization
Factors derived from topics mentioned in response to 
open questions on responsibilities, concerns and 
resources
A Work responsiblities
b Effective environment difficulties
c Leisure time
d How do you feel about the amount of time you have to 
do the things you want to do?

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Remarks
Factor 8.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fit between actual and desired time-use
Subject code: T01af01

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelHours match
Page in Source 32-33
Our classificationFit between actual and desired time-use, code T01af01
Operationalization
Self report on preference for number of hours work a 
week, minus the self report on actual amount of hours 
work a week.
a: underworked: working at least 3 hours less than 
preferred 
b: fit: =<3 hours of difference between preference and 
real muber of working hours.
c: overworked: working more than 3 hours more than 
preferred

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.20 p < .01
UNDERWORKED (vs. hours actual fit preferred)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.20 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=.21 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.19 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.19 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .01
OVERWORKED(vs. hours actual fit preferred):
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.08 p < .10
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
CONTROL VARIABLES:
Set A:
- number of hours per week working and caring
- importance of having children/success in a job
- marital status
- age 
- age squared/100
- number of children 0-15 years
- unemployment rate
- born in east-Germany
- foreigner status
- education
- age youngest child
- objective health

Set B: (N = 70859)
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- extraversion
- openness to experience

Set C:
- birth cohort

Set D: 
- interaction: hours match*work orientation

Set E:
- interaction: hours match*work-care combinations

Interaction effect with workcare orientations: 
only underworked work-centered and adaptive women 
and women with unplanned careers (drifters) score 
lower on SWB (vs women with a good fit & home 
centered)


Interaction effect with work-care combinations: 
only overworked women who
work without caring duties and women combining 
work and care but working more than 24 hours a 
week score significantlylower on SWB (vs women not 
working nor caring and good fit).


Fixed effects analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fit between actual and desired time-use
Subject code: T01af01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in family area
Page in Source 566, 567
Our classificationFit between actual and desired time-use, code T01af01
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend with 
family
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend with family
Remarks
T1-T2 1 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.25 p < .001
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.23 p < .002
Direction of difference; Ss who spend more hours 
with family than expected became less happy.

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
Unaffected by age, income, health, SES and 
retirement duration


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fit between actual and desired time-use
Subject code: T01af01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations: associations
Page in Source 567
Our classificationFit between actual and desired time-use, code T01af01
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in 
voluntary associations
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in voluntary 
associations
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1 year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.06 p < .221
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .464
Direction of difference: Ss that spend more time 
with voluntary associations than expected did not 
get happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness

Negative in poor health category (r=-.21) and aged 
in poor health (r=-.39)
No correlation among healthy (r=.+.03)and older 
(r=+.08) Ss 
Positive in healthy and recent retired Ss (r=.23)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fit between actual and desired time-use
Subject code: T01af01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in community area
Page in Source 567
Our classificationFit between actual and desired time-use, code T01af01
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in the 
community
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in the 
community
Remarks
T1-T2 difference: 1 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.12 ns
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .221
Direction of difference; Ss with spend more time 
than expected became slightly less happy

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with enough time for everything
Page in Source 356
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when you have enough time 
for everything you have to do.
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:2%, 4:2%, 5:4%, 6:7%, 7:13%, 8:24%, 9:21%, 10:23%, DKNA:2%
Remarks
N=1926

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.9  M = 7.8             +1.1
top 3:  M = 8.6  M = 7.4             +1.2 
top 5:  M = 8.3  M = 6.8             +1.5
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 466, Others: 8-0 N=1460
Top 3: 10-8 N=1004, Others: 7-0 N= 922
Top 5: 10-6 N=1540, Others: 5-0 N= 385


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for more time with family
Page in Source 198, 200-201, 299
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Would you like to spend more time, less time or the 
same amount of time with your family?
1=much less, 5=much more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.17 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.13 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.04 ns
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for more personal time
Page in Source 198,200-201,299
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Self report on single question 
"Would you like to have more personal time, less 
personal time or about the same amount of personal 
time?"
1=much less, 5=much more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.26 p < .001
All
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.21 p < .01
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.34 p < .001
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelTime enjoyment satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Selfreport on time enjoyment satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.29 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelUse of time and learning related satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Selfreport on use of time and learning related 
satisfaction.
Full questionaire not report.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.26 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 1999
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelTime enjoyment satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Selfreport on time enjoyment satisfaction. 
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-ar=+.32 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyCasas et al. (2003): study ES Cataluna 1999
TitleStrategies to Achieve Goals Related to TV or Computer Activities: Their Correlates with Adolescents' Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 5th Conference of the International Society for Quality - of - Life Studies, July 2003, Frankfurt, Germany
URLhttp://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2005/CASAS.PDF
Public12-16 aged, secondary schools pupils, Catalunya, Spain, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =968

Correlate
Author's labelEnjoying time
Page in Source 11
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Full text not reported.
Rated
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-ar=+.38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with time use
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Happiness with time rated on a 11 point scale 0 very 
unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM= 7,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.52


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyLee (1985): study US 1979
TitleProbing Behavioral Patterns of Structuring Daily Life.
SourceHuman Relations, 1985, Vol. 38, 457 - 476
Public23-49 aged adults, USA, followed 1 year, 1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelLife space structure
Page in Source 473
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
4 Time use/enjoyment based on 9 day time use diary:
a) Home based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at home; low, average or inconsistent time spent 
at work
b) Work based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at work but not at home
c)Conjoint: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at both home and work 
d) Diffuse: high quantity and high quality time is 
neither spent at work nor at home, but significant time 
was spent in other types of places like other's homes, 
restaurants, or places of recreation.
Remarks
Average of sores on T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aDM=
M  Total  Men  Women    
a  5,9    6,2  5,8 
b  5,2    5,3  4,8
c  5,9    5,8  5,9
d  5,3    5,5  5,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelmaternal discontent
Page in Source 568
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A: I don't enjoy the child(ren) as much as I would like 
to.
B: I would like to spend more time with my child(ren).

Rated: 3= selects 2=not sure 1=rejects
Observed distributionM= 1,71; SD 0,76
Error Estimatesalpha =.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelWant to spend less time on work around the house
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= - p < . 05
Among females 44 % of the dissatisfied and 27 %
of the satisfied want to spend less time on
work around the house
No relationship among males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time-use
Subject code: T01af02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent in disliked activities
Page in Source 212
Our classificationSatisfaction with time-use, code T01af02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single questions about
a: disliked activities
b: amount of time spent doing these things

Scores added in an index

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.18 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure hours
Subject code: T01af03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelfeelings during leisure hours
Page in Source 266
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure hours, code T01af03
Operationalization
Single question:
" How do you feel during your leisure hours?"
1: very bad
2: bad 
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: 1:3, 2:18, 3:99, 4:677, 5:654

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.52 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.66
 2: Mt=3.89
 3: Mt=5.18
 4: Mt=7.45
 5: Mt=8.70
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.53 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.25
 2: Mt=3.20
 3: Mt=4.90
 4: Mt=7.10
 5: Mt=8.38
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.49 p < .00
 1: Mt=2.50
 2: Mt=3.89
 3: Mt=4.88
 4: Mt=6.55
 5: Mt=7.83
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure hours
Subject code: T01af03

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure time
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure hours, code T01af03
Operationalization
Question: ' How satisfied are with your leisure time?'
Rated on an 11 point scale ranging from 0 to 10.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.24       +.32       +.23       +.26
1980
1984      +.23       +.32       +.21       +.26
1988      +.25       +.38       +.24       +.31

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure hours
Subject code: T01af03

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTime to travel satisfaction
Page in Source 192
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure hours, code T01af03
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+ p < .005
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.29 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.33 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.30 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.25 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.31 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.29 p<.005


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aSelf report on repeated questions (experience sampling)

How happy did you feel at the moment you were beeped?
0 not happy
1 probably not happy
2 probably happy
3 happy
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-aSelfreport on single question, asked 21 times in a period of 10 weeks (experience sampling)

How would you characterize your mood or impulse of the last instant....?
3 happy
2 neutral
1 sad

Summation: average of 21 scores.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aInterviewer-rating of cheerful appearance on 8 aspects

A The look is
2) open
1) evasive
- impossible to say
B The corners of the mouth turn
2) up
1) down
- impossible to say
C The posture is
2) relaxed, at ease
1) rather tense
- impossible to say
D The movements are
2) relaxed, at ease
1) limited, withdrawn
- impossible to say
E The eyes are
2) big, open
1) small, screw up
- impossible to say
F The elbows are kept
2) not close to the body
1) close to the body
- impossible to say
G The lips are more
2) broad, full
1) thin, pent up
- impossible to say
H All in all the subject looks
2) quite cheerful
1) not very cheerful
- difficult to say

Scoring: sum of aspect ratings

Name: `Allensbacher Ausdruckstest'
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bRating by several clinicians on the basis of interviews and tests during 5 days

Balance of mood in everydat life
1 unpleasant
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 pleasant
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

We want to know how you feel. Please indicate on the scale below.
10 means that you are doing well, 0 means that you are doing badly
10 you are doing well
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 doing badly
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-CO-c-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview:

Content analysis of interview protocols by 3 independent rates.
1 no satisfaction expressed
2
3
4 mild contentment
5
6
7 overall joy in living

Summation: scales we summed
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: I wish I had a different kind of life
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2
3
4.
5: strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-FH-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... how happy you feel ....."
(full question not reported)
1
2
3
4
5

Scale labels not reported
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 could not be better
6
5
4
3
2
1 could not be worse

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version).
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2. unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking; how would you say, you are these days.....?
1 very happy
2 pretty happy
3 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general these days, how happy or unhappy would you say you are, on the whole...?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are these days.....?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 pretty happy
4 not too happy
3 a bit unhappy
2 pretty unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-g-rc-ro-0-aClinical rating by six staff psychologists, who had studies the subject intensively.

Ss were ranked for 'happiness'

Rating scale not reported
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

To what extend do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"........life-satisfaction........."
(Full text not reported)
1 -
2
3
4
5 +
(Response options: not reported)
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview:

Content analysis of tapes of a focused interview by three independent raters. `Sense of life satisfaction' was scored on a seven-point scale.

Rating options;
1 deep regret for the course of life
2
3
4
5
6
7 complete satisfaction with one's life, no regret

Scores of raters were averaged.
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question :

"These days my life is .....".
4 just great
3 more than satisfactory
2 less than satisfactory
1 miserable
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Are you generally satisfied with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
4 rather satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for correlation of happiness with a variable that is unrelated to the independent variable, e.g. for b of happiness with body length in an analysis of the relation between happiness and lottery playing, assuming that there is no relation between body length and lottery playing. Aims to eliminate reversed causality and spurious correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_variable
http://homepage.univie.ac.at/Christine.Zulehner/iv.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
D%aDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED PERCENTAGES, See also D%
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MCTMultiple Comparison Test, variant not specified
Possible variants: Scheffe, Tukey, Student/Newman/Keuls, Bonferoni (BMCT)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level Correlate nominal, Happiness: metric
MWWILCOXON (MANN-WHITNEY) TWO SAMPLE TEST
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + ½n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ ½n1(n1 + 1); ½n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

Meaning:
At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = ½n1n2 <-> W = ½ n1(Ne + 1) « no association.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
T01TIME N04ag05Pace of life
T01aa01aEarlier future orientationL07aa01aPresence of earlier goals (life-planning)
T01aa02Change in time-behaviorF01aa02a Change working hours of mother
T01ab02Perceived speed of timeP04cySpeedy, hurried
T01ab03Perceived time-pressureP01ab27Earlier hurriedness
T01ab03Perceived time-pressureP04cySpeedy, hurried
T01ab04aOrientation on the pastD01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES
T01ab04cOrientation on the futureP07ab01Planning mindedness
T01ab04cOrientation on the futureH12HOPE
T01acCurrent time-organizationP07PLANNING
T01adCurrent time-usageA01abCurrent activity level
T01adCurrent time-usageE02ad02Hours work
T01ad02Time spend commutingA02ac10Traveling
T01ad02Time spend commutingW04ab05Distance to work
T01ad03Time spend at homeL09ab02eWork-life balance
T01ad03Time spend at homeM13ad02Mood at home
T01ad04Time spend on leisureL03ac02eHobbies
T01ad04Time spend on leisureA02ac03Leisure
T01ad05Time spend socializingA02ac07Socializing
T01ad05Time spend socializingF06acCurrent contacts with friends
T01ad05aTime spend with familyF01adFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
T01ad05aTime spend with familyL09ab02eWork-life balance
T01ad05aTime spend with familyT01ad03Time spend at home
T01ad06Time spent on work and careA02ac11bPaid work
T01ad06Time spent on work and careW05agPerceived conflict between work and home life
T01ad07Time spend on work tasksW04abCurrent work-conditions
T01ad07Time spend on work tasksA02acSpecific activities
T01aeRelative time useA02acSpecific activities
T01afAttitudes to own time-behaviorA02adAttitudes to own activity pattern
T01af01Fit between actual and desired time-useT01af02Satisfaction with time-use
T01af01Fit between actual and desired time-useW04ab06Load of work
T01af01Fit between actual and desired time-useW05ac02Preferred work-conditions
T01af01Fit between actual and desired time-useW05agPerceived conflict between work and home life
T01af02Satisfaction with time-useA02ad04Time spend on disliked activities
T01af03Satisfaction with leisure hoursL03ad03aSatisfaction with time for leisure

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings