Findings on Happiness and SUICIDE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SUICIDE
Subject Code: S14

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S14SUICIDE1
S14aaSuicidal career0
S14aa01Earlier suicidal behavior1
S14aa02Change in suicidal behavior0
S14aa03Later suicidal behavior2
S14abCurrent suicidal behavior0
S14ab01Suicidal intentions4
S14ab02Suicidal attempts0
S14acAttitudes to own suicidal behavior0
S14adAttitudes to suicide in general2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SUICIDE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S14
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and SUICIDE
Subject code: S14

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ 1980
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 27 nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide
Page in Source 45
Our classificationSUICIDE, code S14
Operationalization
Number of suicides per million inhabitants
Remarks
data: WHO 1987, UN 1985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.03
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier suicidal behavior
Subject code: S14aa01

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelHaving ever contemplated suicide
Page in Source 209
Our classificationEarlier suicidal behavior, code S14aa01
Operationalization
Closed question: no vs yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-ar= -
normals     : r = -.28 (01)
handicapped : r = -.11 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later suicidal behavior
Subject code: S14aa03

StudyKoivumaa-Honkanen et al. (2003): study FI 1976
TitleSelf-Reported Happiness in Life and Suicide in Ensuing 20 Years.
SourceSocial Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2003, Vol. 38, 244 - 248
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00127-003-0625-4
PublicAdults, Finland, 1976-1995
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response16%
Respondents N =29067

Correlate
Author's labelsuicides
Page in Source 246
Our classificationLater suicidal behavior, code S14aa03
Operationalization
The Finnish Cause of Death Registry was used to 
identify suicides between 1975 and 1990.
1 committed suicide after 1975
0 did not commit suicide after 1975

T1: 1975, T2: 1981, T3: 1990
Observed distribution1: 0.62% (N=182, Male=149, Female=33) 0: 99.38%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jD%=+ p < .01
% happy (sum of: cannot say,faily happy, very 
happy)
1= 81.9% 
2= 92.2%
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-j
Age-adjusted hazard ratio of suicide(HRs)
- 1976-1985: 35.13 [95CI 6.39-193.14]
- 1986-1995: 4.72  [95CI 1.00-22.31]

Risk of suicide incresed linealy with decreasing 
happiness
- very happy   :  1.0  (reference group)
- faily happy  :  2.73 [95CI 1.43-5.23]
- cannot say   :  4.64 [95CI 2.30-9.34]
- faily unhappy:  6.69 [95CI 3.24-13.78]
- very unhappy :  10.84 [95CI 3.93-29.94]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later suicidal behavior
Subject code: S14aa03

StudyTamakoshi et al. (2000): study JP 1989
TitleDepressive Mood and Suicide among Middle-Aged Workers: Findings from a Prospective Cohort Study in Nagoya, Japan.
SourceJournal of Epidemiology, 2000, Vol. 10, 173 - 178
Public40-54 aged male workers, Japan, followed 4,5 years 1989-1995
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4,5% non-response at T1
Respondents N =18450

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide
Page in Source 176
Our classificationLater suicidal behavior, code S14aa03
Operationalization
1: Died between T1 and T2 due to suicide
0: Other
Observed distributionN= 1: 9, 0: 18441
Remarks
T1-T2 difference: 4,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-a
T1 happiness by T1-T2 suicide
OR is relative risk of suicide, adjusted for age
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-aOR=4.34 ns
T1 most/all times unhappy  CI 95[0.73-26.01]
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-aOR=1.61 ns
T1 sometimes unhappy       CI 95 [0.36-7.20]
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-aOR=1.00 ns
T1 never unhappy           (reference category)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicidal intentions
Subject code: S14ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsuicide
Page in Source 254
Our classificationSuicidal intentions, code S14ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you sometimes contemplate suicide ?"
1: no 
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: 1: 1312, 2:60, 3:67

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.28 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.95
 2: Mt=6.71
 3: Mt=5.41
All Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.40 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.68
 2: Mt=6.21
 3: Mt=4.30
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.28 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.13
 2: Mt=5.91
 3: Mt=4.78
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicidal intentions
Subject code: S14ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelcontemplating suicide
Page in Source 264
Our classificationSuicidal intentions, code S14ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you sometimes contemplte suicide?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4573; 1:4131; 2:178; 3:264
Remarks
In the original text the answer was recersed and the 
correlation was wrongly positive

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.35 p < .00
1: Mt=7.99
2: Mt=6.23
3: Mt=5.01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.35 p < .00
1: Mt=7.66
2: Mt=5.91
3: Mt=4.60
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.31 p < .00
1: Mt=7.23
2: Mt=5.45
3: Mt=4.85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicidal intentions
Subject code: S14ab01

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide
Page in Source 97
Our classificationSuicidal intentions, code S14ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: considered suicide in 
last 12 months:
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bb=-.22 p < .01
CI 95 [0,13-0,38]

b's controlled for:
- sociodemographic factors
  - sexe
  - age
  - relative income
- subjective wellbeing
  - felt sad and hopeless
  - health in the last month
- use of stimulants
  - times drunk last month
  - use of cannabis
  - age first use of cocaine
  - age first use ectacy
- country


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicidal intentions
Subject code: S14ab01

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelHaving contemplated suicide during past month
Page in Source 209
Our classificationSuicidal intentions, code S14ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: no vs yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-ar= - p < . 05
normals     : r = -.34 (01)
handicapped : r = -.21 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to suicide in general
Subject code: S14ad

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptance of suicide
Page in Source 42
Our classificationAttitudes to suicide in general, code S14ad
Operationalization
Average response to survey question:
Please tell me for suicide whether it can 
 1: never be justified
 .
 .
10: always be justified
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2 1990-92, Ann Arbor, 
Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.43
Happy Life Years by Acceptance of suicide in 42 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.16
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to suicide in general
Subject code: S14ad

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelacceptance of suicide
Page in Source 22
Our classificationAttitudes to suicide in general, code S14ad
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2: items 312 and 313

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.29
Average happiness by acceptance of suicide in 42 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.03
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-aSelf report on single question:

I am not satisfied with my life
1 all the time
2 most of the time
3 sometimes
4 never

Item in Zung's Depression Scale
O-HL---sq-nt-11-bSelf report on single question

Various items using the term happiness

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale

Scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing

Scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jSelfreport on single question

Do you feel your life at present is…?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 cannot say
2 fairly sad
1 very sad
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question :

"These days my life is .....".
4 just great
3 more than satisfactory
2 less than satisfactory
1 miserable
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

Are you satisfied with your life as a whole?
1 yes
0 no
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S14SUICIDEN07ab02dSuicide rate
S14SUICIDEN09ac07bSuicide in region

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings