Findings on Happiness and STIMULANTS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and STIMULANTS
Subject Code: S13

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S13STIMULANTS1
S13aaUser career0
S13aa01Earlier use of stimulants9
S13aa02Change in use of stimulants2
S13aa03Later use of stimulants4
S13abCurrent use of stimulants7
S13ab01Use of alcohol28
S13ab02Use of amphetamines1
S13ab03Use of barbiturates3
S13ab04Use of cocaine1
S13ab05Use of coffee0
S13ab06Use of heroine0
S13ab07Use of marihuana, hash4
S13ab08Use of tobacco25
S13acAttitudes to own use of stimulants0
S13ac01Satisfaction with use of stimulants0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and STIMULANTS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S13
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and STIMULANTS
Subject code: S13

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBeen offered drugs
Page in Source 261
Our classificationSTIMULANTS, code S13
Operationalization
Have you experienced been offered drugs
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2134 Ever in your life: N = 347

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.72
95% CI for difference:   [0.06 ; 0.26]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelpsychotropic drugs
Page in Source 198
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
"Have you ever tried any of the following drugs ?"
1: no drugs
2: one of the following drugs:
  2b: hash
  2c: LSD
  2d: Psilosybin (magic mushrooms)
  2e: Amphetamine (speed)
  2f: Cocaine
  2g: Methadone
  2h: Heroine, morphine
  2i: Tranquilizers mixed with alcohol
Observed distributionN: All:6277; %:2:42,9; 2b:55,7; 2c:3,0; 2d:5,1; 2e:14,3; 2f:6,0; 2g:1,4; 2h:2,8; 2i:4,7
Remarks
because the catagories are overlapping, N and 
percentages sum to over 100%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.90
2:  Mt=7.45
2b: Mt=7.64
2c: Mt=7.20
2d: Mt=7.40
2e: Mt=7.38
2f: Mt=7.35
2g: Mt=6.53
2h: Mt=6.69
2i: Mt=6.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.63
2:  Mt=7.08
2b: Mt=7.28
2c: Mt=6.56
2d: Mt=7.03
2e: Mt=6.91
2f: Mt=7.04
2g: Mt=6.21
2h: Mt=6.40
2i: Mt=6.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.21
2:  Mt=6.74
2b: Mt=6.89
2c: Mt=6.51
2d: Mt=6.65
2e: Mt=6.61
2f: Mt=6.76
2g: Mt=6.14
2h: Mt=6.11
2i: Mt=6.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsmoking
Page in Source 194
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you smoke?"
1: No, I have never smoked
2: No, I stopped more than a year ago
3: No, I stopped less than a year ago
4: Yes, now and then
5: Yes, daily
Observed distributionN: a All:4590; 1:31,1%; 2:11,9%; 3:4,3%; 4:6,3%; 5:46,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 p < .00
1: Mt=7.84
2: Mt=7.94
3: Mt=7.93
4: Mt=7.75
5: Mt=7.60
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.54
2: Mt=7.75
3: Mt=7.40
4: Mt=7.39
5: Mt=7.25
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.06 p < .00
1: Mt=7,13
2: Mt=7,26
3: Mt=7.19
4: Mt=6,98
5: Mt=6,88


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsmoking per day (cigarettes equivalents)
Page in Source 196
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
"On the average, how much do you smoke a day? 
(cigarette equivalents)?"
1: 0 (cigarettes)
2: 1-2
3: 3-5
4: 6-10
5: 11-20
6: 21-40
7: > 40
Observed distributionN: 1:48,6%; 2:2,4%; 3:3,4%; 4:8,9%; 5:29,8%; 6:6,7%; 7:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.86
2: Mt=7.58
3: Mt=7.89
4: Mt=7.84
5: Mt=7.71
6: Mt=6.86
7: Mt=7.23
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.08 p < .00
1: Mt=7.56
2: Mt=7.29
3: Mt=7.39
4: Mt=7.48
5: Mt=7.36
6: Mt=6.60
7: Mt=6.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.16
2: Mt=6.88
3: Mt=6.98
4: Mt=6.99
5: Mt=6.98
6: Mt=6.34
7: Mt=7.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelpsychotropic drugs
Page in Source 190
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
"Have you ever tried any of the following drugs ?"
a: no drugs
b: hash
c: LSD
d: Psilosybin (magic mushrooms)
e: Amphetamine (speed)
f: Cocaine
g: Methadone
h: Heroine, morphine
i: Tranquilizers mixed with alcohol
Observed distributionN: a:1083, b:367, c:17, d:18, e:49, f:17, g:6, h:6, i:7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=7.80
 b: Mt=7.69
 c: Mt=6.91
 d: Mt=8.05
 e: Mt=8.01
 f: Mt=7.06
 g: Mt=6.66
 h: Mt=7.91
 i: Mt=7.14
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.51
 b: Mt=7.25
 c: Mt=6.48
 d: Mt=6.66
 e: Mt=7.50
 f: Mt=6.33
 g: Mt=6.25
 h: Mt=7.09
 i: Mt=6.43
All Mt=7.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=6.99
 b: Mt=6.94
 c: Mt=6.03
 d: Mt=6.66
 e: Mt=6.84
 f: Mt=5.89
 g: Mt=5.84
 h: Mt=5.00
 i: Mt=5.36
All Mt=6.91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's smoking in third trimester of pregnancy
Page in Source 176
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Mother's smoking in third trimester of pregnancy as 
reported in medical file
1: less than 3 cigarettes a day
2: 3-10 cigarettes a day
3: more than 10 cigarettes a day
Observed distributionN: all:4260, 1:56.4%, 2:29.7%, 3:13.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.74
2: Mt=7.76
3: Mt=7.64
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.01 p < .4518
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.43
2: Mt=7.46
3: Mt=7.24
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 p < .2042
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1: Mt=7.04
2: Mt=7.03
3: Mt=6.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 p < .1261


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelAge ecstasy initiation
Page in Source 97
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question related to first time use 
ecstasy:
0 never (reference)
1 under 16
2 16 or over

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bb=2.16 p < .01
under 16:      (vs never) CI95 [1,34-5,09]
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bb=1.18 ns
16 or over:    (vs never) CI95 [0,81-1,72]

b's controlled for:
- sociodemographic factors
  - sexe
  - age
  - relative income
- subjective wellbeing
  - considered suicide in the last year
  - felt sad and hopeless
  - health in the last month
- use of stimulants
  - times drunk last month
  - use of cannabis
  - age first use of cocaine
- country


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelAge of first use of stumulants
Page in Source 95
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
self report on questions about first time use alcohol, 
cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy :
0 never (reference)
1 under 16
2 16 or over

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%= ns
Alcohol users under 16  83% happy (vs never)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%= p < .05
Cannabis used under 16 80% happy (vs never)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%= ns
Cocaine users under 16  74% happy (vs never)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%= p < .01
Ecstasy users under 16  70% happy (vs never)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 2
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
a: Never (reference)
b: Past
c: Current

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=- p < .01
Past (vs. never):    OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.899-0.922] 
Current (vs. never): OR= 0.8 
CI99[0.747-0.779] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa01

StudyBrenner (1967): study US 1963
TitlePatterns of Alcohol Use, Happiness and the Satisfaction of Wants.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1967, Vol. 28, 667 - 675
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1963
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete
Respondents N =1499

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an ex-drinker
Page in Source 671
Our classificationEarlier use of stimulants, code S13aa01
Operationalization
Alcohol users vs ex-drinkers (those who always 
abstained excluded)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.28
Pretty happy        : G' = -.46
Very happy          : G' = -.17
Not too happy       : G' = +.02
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.35 p < . 01
Very happy      : G' = -.51 (05)
Pretty happy    : G' = -.43 (01)
Not too happy   : G' = +.00 (ns)
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=-.12 ns
Not doing too well in getting the things they want 
                       : G' = +.17 (ns)
Doing pretty well           : G' = -.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa02

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in level of drinking
Page in Source 311,323
Our classificationChange in use of stimulants, code S13aa02
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
How often have you used alchoholic beverages?
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.01 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by  T1-T2 CHANGE in 
drinking 

Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  - age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - marital status 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa02

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in smoking
Page in Source 331
Our classificationChange in use of stimulants, code S13aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in smoking
a: quit smoking
b: started smoking
c: kept smoking
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
smoking
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.14 ns
Quit smoking
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.25 ns
started smoking
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.04 ns
kept smoking

Beta's controlled for change in:
- static variables
  - age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - marital status 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelDaily cigarette use
Our classificationLater use of stimulants, code S13aa03
Operationalization
Direct question asking respondent how often he smoked 
cigarettes during the last year. Scale: 1 = nearly 
every day; 0 = less than daily use. Assessed at T3, T4 
and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
               Daily cigarette use
Happiness      T3         T4        T5
T1       tau = -.08 (05)  -.05      -.08 (05)
T2       tau = -.03       -.03      -.03
T3       tau = -.01       -.00      -.04
T4       tau = -.02       -.00      -.04
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol use
Our classificationLater use of stimulants, code S13aa03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T3, T4 and T5 asking 
respondent how often he has used alcoholic beverages 
(for other than medical purposes) during part or all of 
the last year. 1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 3 = 
3 - 10 times a year; 
4 = once or twice a month; 5 = once or twice a week; 6 
= nearly every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
              Alcohol use
Happiness     T3        T4        T5
T1      tau = -.05      -.04      -.04
T2      tau = -.00      -.02      -.03
T3      tau = -.02      -.04      -.02
T4      tau = +.01      -.06      -.05
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelMarijuana use
Our classificationLater use of stimulants, code S13aa03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T3, T4 and T5 asking 
respondent how often he used marijuana (for other than 
medical purposes) during part or all of the last year. 
1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 3 = 3 - 10 times a 
year; 
4 = once or twice a month; 5 = once or twice a week; 6 
= nearly every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Marijuana use
Happiness     T3        T4        T5
T1      tau = -.06      -.05      -.05
T2      tau = -.06      -.08 (05) -.05
T3      tau = -.01      -.06      -.02
T4      tau = -.02      -.04      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later use of stimulants
Subject code: S13aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelDrug use
Our classificationLater use of stimulants, code S13aa03
Operationalization
A mean of three items asking how often during the past 
year respondent had used amphetamines, barbiturates, 
and LSD for other than medical purposes. 1 = never; 2 = 
once or twice a year; 
3 = 3 - 10 times a year; 4 = once or twice a month; 5 = 
once or twice a week; 6 = nearly every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Drug use
Happiness     T3        T4        T5
T1      tau = -.06      -.06      -.11 (01)
T2      tau = -.00      -.06      -.03
T3      tau = -.02      -.03      -.03
T4      tau = -.01      -.04      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent drug use
Page in Source 19
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
Self-report on using (illicit) drugs
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionM = 0.05, SD = 0.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.46 p < .05
OLRC controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- sex
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelExcessive drinking/drug abuse of someone near
Page in Source 261
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
Have you experienced excessive drinking/drug abuse of 
someone near
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1707 Ever in your life: N = 747

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.11
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.10
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.91
ever in your life:       M = 3.73
95% CI for difference:   [0.11 ; 0.25]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelUse of hypnotics
Page in Source 21
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on use of hypnotics
Question not reported
Error Estimates1 week retest: r = +.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=-.13 p < .05
males  : r = -.28 (001)
females: r = -.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study ZZ East Asia 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
PublicProstitutes and prostitute's clients, Yunnan, China, 2003, Thailand, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =754

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent drug use
Page in Source 19
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
Self-report on using (illicit) drugs
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution1) Yunnan female sex workers. M = .04, SD = 0.20 2) Yunnan male sex clients. M = 0.14, SD = 0.35 3) Thai female sex workers. M = 0.01, SD = 0.13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC= ns
Yunnan female sex workers (N = 188)

OLRC = -13.06, ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC= ns
Yunnan male sex customers (N = 283)

OLRC = 1.65, ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC= ns
Thai female sex workers (N = 283)

OLRC = >999.

OLRC's controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
a: Never (reference)
b: Past
c: Current

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=- p < .01
Past (vs. never):    OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.899-0.922] 
Current (vs. never): OR= 0.8 
CI99[0.747-0.779] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelDrug Abuse
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.13 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.08 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current use of stimulants
Subject code: S13ab

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelHedonistic activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent use of stimulants, code S13ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled hedonic activities. They were also asked what 
they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.38 (ns)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol consumption
Page in Source 52
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Four item index of direct questions on beer and wine 
consumption during the past week. Rated on a 6-point 
scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelalcohol consumption and health
Page in Source 456
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
number of drinks consumed last week
1: 0 drinks
2: 1-2 drinks
3: 3-4 drinks
4: 5-8 drinks
5: 9-16 drinks
6: 17-32 drinks
7: 33-64 drinks
8 > 64 drinks
Observed distributionN: All:3660; %:1:26,8; 2:12,1; 3:11,9; 4:16,3; 5:16,7; 6:11,2; 7:3,9; 8:1,0
Remarks
the correlations and M's do give only the relation 
between alcohol consumption and health
based on the question:
"How much beer, wine and liquor did you drink totally 
during the last weekday(Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday or 
Thursday)?
-ordinary beer (number of bottles)
-strong beer (number of bottles)
-red or white wine (number of glasses)
-dessert wine (number of glasses)
-liquor(number of drinks)"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+,01 ns
1: Ms=7.50
2: Ms=7.78
3: Ms=7.91
4: Ms=7.83
5: Ms=7.96
6: Ms=7.65
7: Ms=7.33
8: Ms=6.21
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.04 p < .03
1: Ms=7.63
2: Ms=7.88
3: Ms=7.79
4: Ms=7.73
5: Ms=7.78
6: Ms=7.60
7: Ms=6.70
8: Ms=6.69
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.02 ns
1: Ms=7.51
2: Ms=7.84
3: Ms=8.01
4: Ms=7.91
5: Ms=7.88
6: Ms=7.69
7: Ms=7.41
8: Ms=6.83


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelacohol consumption
Page in Source 188-192
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
NUMBER OF DRINKS   
during last weekend :  
Friday, Saturday, Sunday 
1a: 0                 
2a: 1-2                
3a: 3-4                
4a: 5-8               
5a: 9-16              
6a: 17-32             
7a: > 32  
during last weekday :
Monday,Tuesday, Wednesday of Thursday
1b: 0
2b: 1-2
3b: 3-4
4b: 5-8 
5b: 9-16
6b: > 16
consumed last week:
1c: 0
2c: 1-2
3c: 3-4
4c: 5-8
5c: 9-12
6c: 17-32
7c: 32-64
8c: > 64
Observed distributionN a:All:4571; %:1a:25,9; 2a:16,0; 3a:16,5; 4a:19,7; 5a:15,2; 6a:5,5; 7a:1,1 N b All:4547; %:1b:60,0; 2b:25,5; 3b:8,2; 4b:4,4; 5b:1,4; 6b:0,5 N c All:3671; %:1c:26,8; 2c:12,1; 3c:11,9; 4c:16,3; 5c:16,7; 6c:11,2; 7c:3,9; 8c:1,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.02 ns
weekend(a)
1a: Mt=7.64
2a: Mt=7.79
3a: Mt=7.94
4a: Mt=7.86
5a: Mt=7.81
6a: Mt=7.29
7a: Mt=5.54
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .00
weekday(b)
1b: Mt=7.79
2b: Mt=7.79
3b: Mt=7.83
4b: Mt=7.28
5b: Mt=6.60
6b: Mt=5.69
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
last week(c)
1c: Mt=7.65
2c: Mt=7.84
3c: Mt=7.98
4c: Mt=7.75
5c: Mt=7.98
6c: Mt=7.80
7c: Mt=7.04
8c: Mt=6.69
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.04 ns
weekend(a)
1a: Mt=7.33
2a: Mt=7.63
3a: Mt=7.58
4a: Mt=7.54
5a: Mt=7.38
6a: Mt=6.93
7a: Mt=5.49
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.09 p < .00
weekday(b)
1b: Mt=7.49
2b: Mt=7.46
3b: Mt=7.44
4b: Mt=6.86
5b: Mt=6.05
6b: Mt=5.45
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
last week(c)
1c: Mt=7.38
2c: Mt=7.68
3c: Mt=7.60
4c: Mt=7.56
5c: Mt=7.58
6c: Mt=7.34
7c: Mt=6.65
8c: Mt=6.15
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.05 p < .01
weekend(a)
1a: Mt=6.99
2a: Mt=7.15
3a: Mt=7.25
4a: Mt=7.03
5a: Mt=6.99
6a: Mt=6.59
7a: Mt=4.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.10 p < .00
weekday(b)
1b: Mt=7.10
2b: Mt=7.06
3b: Mt=7.03
4b: Mt=6.30
5b: Mt=5.70
6b: Mt=5.56
7b: Mt=
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
last week(c)
1c: Mt=7.01
2c: Mt=7.25
3c: Mt=7.25
4c: Mt=7.11
5c: Mt=7.16
6c: Mt=6.99
7c: Mt=6.13
8c: Mt=5.74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelalcohol consumption
Page in Source 180-184
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
NUMBER OF DRINKS   
during last weekend :  
Friday, Saturday, Sunday 
1a: 0                 
2a: 1-2                
3a: 3-4                
4a: 5-8               
5a: 9-16              
6a: 17-32             
7a: > 32  
during last weekday :
Monday,Tuesday, Wednesday of Thursday
1b: 0
2b: 1-2
3b: 3-4
4b: 5-8 
5b: 9-16
6b: 17-32
7b: > 32
consumed last week:
1c: 0
2c: 1-2
3c: 3-4
4c: 5-8
5c: 9-12
6c: 17-32
7c: 32-64
8c: > 64
Observed distributionN weekend: 1a:302, 2a:283, 3a:220, 4a:327, 5a:227, 6a:86, 7a:12 N weekday: 1b:807, 2b:414, 3b:129, 4b:67, 5b:30, 6b:7, 7b:2 N last week: 1c:252, 2c;160, 3c:117, 4c:206, 5c:233, 6c:140, 7c:59 8c:11,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.03 ns
weekend      
1a: Mt=7.58  
2a: Mt=7.88  
3a: Mt=7.88  
4a: Mt=7.76  
5a: Mt=7.81  
6a: Mt=7.83  
7a: Mt=8.34   
All Mt=7.78
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.00 ns
weekday
1b: Mt=7.78
2b: Mt=7.81
3b: Mt=7.71
4b: Mt=7.73
5b: Mt=7.59
6b: Mt=8.93
7b: Mt=6.25
All Mt=7.78
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.03 ns
last week
1c: Mt=7.58
2c: Mt=7.93
3c: Mt=8.01
4c: Mt=7.73
5c: Mt=7.81
6c: Mt=7.89
7c: Mt=7.80
8c: Mt=7.50
All Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 ns
weekend
1a: Mt=7.34
2a: Mt=7.56
3a: Mt=7.71
4a: Mt=7.43
5a: Mt=7.35
6a: Mt=7.24
7a: Mt=6.67
All Mt=7.45
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 ns
weekday
1b: Mt=7.48
2b: Mt=7.49
3b: Mt=7.29
4b: Mt=7.50
5b: Mt=7.25
6b: Mt=7.86
7b: Mt=6.25
All Mt=7.45
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.00 ns
last week
1c: Mt=7.35
2c: Mt=7.66
3c: Mt=7.74
4c: Mt=7.46
5c: Mt=7.48
6c: Mt=7.70
7c: Mt=7.11
8c: Mt=6.81
All Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
weekend
1a: Mt=6.88
2a: Mt=7.06
3a: Mt=7.21
4a: Mt=6.88
5a: Mt=6.83
6a: Mt=6.86
7a: Mt=6.66
All Mt=6.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
weekday
1b: Mt=7.03
2b: Mt=6.85
3b: Mt=6.78
4b: Mt=6.94
5b: Mt=6.91
6b: Mt=7.50
7b: Mt=7.50
All Mt=6.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
last week:
1c: Mt=6.89
2c: Mt=7.11
3c: Mt=7.23
4c: Mt=7.09
5c: Mt=6.83
6c: Mt=6.99
7c: Mt=6.74
8c: Mt=6.81
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelUse ofalcohol
Page in Source 21
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on use of alcohol
Question not reported
Error Estimates1 week retest: r = +.66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=-.15 p < .001
All
males  : r = -.19 (05)  
females: r = -.16 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelUse of alcohol
Page in Source 94
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about how often use of 
alcohol in last 4 weeks 
0 never
1 once
2 2-4 times
3 5 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%=- ns
% happy
-never      85% 
-once       85% 
-2-4 times  84% 
-5 and more 79%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelTimes drunk in the last 4 weeks
Page in Source 94-97
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of times drunk in the last 4 weeks
0: never (reference)
1: once
2: 2-4 times
3: 5 times or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%=
% happy
- never             84,5
- once              85,5
- 2-4 times         83,5
- 5 times or more   79,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 49 nations, mid 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelDrinking
Page in Source 129
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Yearly consumption of alcohol per head
Remarks
Data on alcohol consumption are drawn from: World 
Drinking Trend, 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Drinking and happiness in 49 nations mid 1990s
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyVanBeuningen & Moonen (2013a): study NL 2007
TitleGezondheid Belangrijker voor Geluk dan Leefstijl. (Health More Important for Happiness then Lifestyle.)
SourceBevolkingstrends, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), April 2013, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/F9E3C2DC-BB64-4DD5-AA51-2AA359F34AF6/0/20130401bb15art.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2007,2008,2009
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =27358

Correlate
Author's labelHeavy drinker
Page in Source 2,4,8
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of drinking: heavy drinker has had in the 
last half year at least 1 time per week 6 or more 
glasses of alcohol
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-d
males   r = -.01
females r = -.02
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-d
18 to 25 years:    r =  0,02
25 to 45 years:    r = -0,04
45 to 65 years:    r = -0,02
65 years or older: r =  0,01
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dOR=0,77 p < .01
sexe or = 1,12 p<.01
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dOR=1,12
age 18-25 vs. 65 plus or = 0,70 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelUse of alcohol
Page in Source 35
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about  having been drunk or 
under the influence last month.
Summed rating:
1: no problem behavior
2: some
3: rather 
4: serious 
5: very serious

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
1:no problem behavior   M=7,8
2:some                  M=7,7
3:rather                M=7,6
4:serious               M=7,8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyDeJonge et al. (2009): study NL 2006
TitleLiving a Happy, Healthy and Satisfying Life.
SourceStatisics Netherlands, 2009, Netherlands
URLHTTP://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/3/43705841.pdf
Public12+ aged, The Netherlands, 2006-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labelDrinking
Page in Source 2
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of alcohol use
1. Does not drink
2. Drinks moderately
3. Drinks heavily

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+/-
% happy:
1. 86.1%
2. 91.1%
3. 89.6%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=0,5 p < .01
Does not drink (vs drinks moderately

OR controled for other life-style variables
- too little excercise
- smoking
- overweight

OR additionally controlled for:
- age
- self perceived health
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=1,0 ns
Drinks heavily (vs drinks moderately)

OR controled for other life-style variables
- too little excercise
- smoking
- overweight

After additionally control for:
- age                 OR = 0,9 (ns)
- self rated health   OR = 0,9 (ns)

OR 0.8 when additionally controled for self 
perceived health
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+/-
1. 86.7%
2. 89.7%
3. 89.2%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dOR=0,6 p < .01
Does not drink (vs drinks moderately)

OR controled for other life-style variables
- too little excercise
- smoking
- overweight

After additionally control for:
- age                 OR = 0,6 (01)
- self rated health   OR = 0,7 (01)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dOR=1.1 ns
Drinks heavily (vs drinks moderately)

OR controled for other life-style variables
- too little excercise
- smoking
- overweight

After additionally control for:
- age                 OR = 1,0 (ns)
- self rated health   OR = 1,0 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of alcohol
Page in Source 28
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Closed question on amount of consumption, rated on a 
6-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1994
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of alcohol consumption
Page in Source q jm81
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
How often did you consume alcohol during last 30 days?
1 once 
2 2-3 times within last 30 days 
3 once a week 
4 2-3 times per week
5 4-6 times per week
6 every day
- NR
Observed distributionN: 1: 22,3%; 2: 33,8%; 3: 23,2%; 4: 14,8%; 5: 3,4%; 6: 2,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hrs=.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1994
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol consumption
Page in Source q jm80
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Did you consume any alcohol within last 30 days? 
1 yes
2 no
- NR
Observed distributionN: 1: 41,7%; 2: 42,5%; NR: 15,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hDM=
1: M = 3,03
2: M = 2,96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol Consumption
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
individual consumes alcohol
Observed distributionM = 0.52 SD = 0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.07 p < .05
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelDrinking
Page in Source 795-797
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
1 Drinker
0 Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.15 p < .05
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.15 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelDrinker
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of alcohol consumption. Question not 
reported.
1: drinker
0: not
Observed distributionM = 0.46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - income
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public6000+ adults, aged 15 to 75, Ukraine
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =11922

Correlate
Author's labelDrinker
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
1: drinks alcohol
0: not
Observed distributionM = 0,46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controled for:
- gender
- married state
- widowed state
- separated state
- chronic disease
- drinker
- smoker
- height
- unemployed
- inactive
- household size
- log income
- years of schooling
- pensioner


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol
Page in Source 2
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
1 None (reference)
2 < 7 drinks per week
3 >= 7 drinks per week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=+ p < .01
<7 drinks (vs. none):   OR= 1.2
CI99[1.166-1.198]
>= 7 drinks (vs. none): OR= 1.2
CI99[1.211-1.252]

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyElse-Quest et al. (2005): study US 1992
TitleContext Counts: Long-Term Sequelae of Premarital Intercourse of Abstinence.
SourceJournal of Sex Research, 2005, Vol. 42, 102 - 112
Public18-59 aged, USA, 1992
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response21.4 %
Respondents N =3425

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol consumption in the past year
Page in Source 6
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 daily

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-v-5-ar=-.05 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol consumption
Page in Source 834
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviours in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Use of alcoholic beverage (beer, wine or liquor)
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 3.70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelAlcoholism
Page in Source 57
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.14 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.11 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBorgatta et al. (1982): study US 1978
TitleAlcohol Use and Abuse, Life Crisis Events, and the Elderly.
SourceResearch on Aging, 1982, Vol. 4, 378 - 408
URLhttp://roa.sagepub.com/content/4/3/378
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0164027582004003007
Public18+ aged general population USA, 1978 -1980
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2969

Correlate
Author's labelProblem Drinkers
Page in Source 392
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Self report on two questions on current drinking:
a: Do you ever have occasion to use any alcoholic 
beverages such as liquor, wine or beer, or are you a 
total obstainer? 

If yes 
b:  Do you sometime drink more than you think should?
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributiona: 73%, b: 27%
Remarks
This way of asking a question is more innocuous and 
nonthreating.

Originally reported as correlattion with being Unhappy. 
Sign of correlation reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.06 p < .05
ALL
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.07 p < .05
Younger than 65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.07 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.03 p < .05
Older than 45
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.01 ns
Older than 65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.00 ns
Beta's controled for
- gender
- urbanity
- education
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBorgatta et al. (1982): study US 1978 /1
TitleAlcohol Use and Abuse, Life Crisis Events, and the Elderly.
SourceResearch on Aging, 1982, Vol. 4, 378 - 408
URLhttp://roa.sagepub.com/content/4/3/378
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0164027582004003007
Public18+aged general public, USA 1978-80
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2994

Correlate
Author's labelProblem drinking (PRDRUNK)
Page in Source 392
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
a: Do you ever have occasion to use any alcoholic 
beverages such as liquor, winer or beer, or are you a 
total abstrainer?
- yes
- no
b: Do you sometimes drink more than you think you 
should?
- yes
- no
Problem drinker is 'yes' on both questions
Observed distributiona : 73%, b: 27% Problem drnkers 37%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.06
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.07
65- aged
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.07 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.03
45+ aged
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.05 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.01
65+ aged
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=0 ns
Beta's controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- church attendance
- race
- satisfaction with family
- satisfaction with health
- life crisis events
- income
- belief that people are fair and helpful
- smoking
- urbanity

Correlations reported with Unhappiness, sign 
changed by WDH-team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol usage
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Repeated yes / no question on usage during the past 
day; during one month.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol use
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T3, T4 and T5 asking 
respondent how often he has used alcoholic beverages 
(for other than medical purposes) during part or all of 
the last year. 1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 3 = 
3 - 10 times a year; 4 = once or twice a month; 5 = 
once or twice a week; 6 = nearly every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
                   Alcohol use
                    T3        T4        T5
Happiness
T1          tau = -.05      -.04      -.04
T2          tau = -.00      -.02      -.03
T3          tau = -.02      -.04      -.02
T4          tau = +.01      -.06      -.05
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBrenner (1967): study US 1963
TitlePatterns of Alcohol Use, Happiness and the Satisfaction of Wants.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1967, Vol. 28, 667 - 675
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1963
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete
Respondents N =1499

Correlate
Author's labelUsing alcoho
Page in Source 671
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Closed question on consumption of alcohol. Total 
abstainers (always abstained and ex-drinkers) vs 
alcohol users.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.16 p < . 05
Very happy      : G' = +.42 (05)
Pretty happy    : G' = +.12 (ns)
Not too happy   : G' = +.03 (ns)
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=+.06 ns
Discontented: G' = -.08 (ns)
Contented   : G' = +.06 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBrenner (1967): study US 1963
TitlePatterns of Alcohol Use, Happiness and the Satisfaction of Wants.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1967, Vol. 28, 667 - 675
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1963
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete
Respondents N =1499

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of alcohol consumption
Page in Source 671
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Closed question on using alcohol and amount of alcohol 
ordinarily consumed at one sitting.










Small amount vs medium or large (total abstainers 
excluded).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.09 ns
Very happy      : G' = +.24 (ns)
Pretty happy    : G' = +.06 (ns)
Not too happy   : G' = -.01 (ns)

C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=+.01 ns
Total abstrainer / small amounts /  medium or 
large amounts

U-shaped curve: those drinking small amounts being 
most happy.

Doing pretty wel in getting the things they 
want                              : G = +.01 (ns)
- with no problems due to drinking: G = +.04 (ns)

Not doing too well                : G = -.03 (ns)
- with no problems due to drinking: G = +.08 (ns)

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.06 ns
No problems due to drinking : G' = +.04 (ns)
Problems due to drinking    : G' = -.44 (01)

Doing pretty well in getting the things they 
want                        : G = -.09 (ns)
- with no problems          : G = -.04 (ns)
- with problems             : G = -.28 (ns)

Not doing too well          : G = +.12 (ns)
- with no problems          : G = +.52 (01) - with 
problems             : G = -.48 (05)
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=+.08 ns
No problems due to drinking:   G' = +.11 (ns)
Problems due to drinking   :   G' = -.25 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of amphetamines
Subject code: S13ab02

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelAmphetamine usage
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationUse of amphetamines, code S13ab02
Operationalization
Repeated yes / no question on usage during the past 
day; during one month.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.05 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of barbiturates
Subject code: S13ab03

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelBarbiturate usage
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationUse of barbiturates, code S13ab03
Operationalization
Repeated yes / no question on usage during the past 
day; during one month.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.02 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.38 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of barbiturates
Subject code: S13ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelMarijuana use
Our classificationUse of barbiturates, code S13ab03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T3, T4 and T5 asking 
respondent how often he used marijuana (for other than 
medical purposes) during part or all of the last year. 
1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 3 = 3 - 10 times a 
year; 4 = once or twice a month; 5 = once or twice a 
week; 6 = nearly every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
                   Marijuana use
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1         tau = -.06      -.05      -.05
T2         tau = -.06      -.08 (05) -.05
T3         tau = -.01      -.06      -.02
T4         tau = -.02      -.04      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of barbiturates
Subject code: S13ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelDrug use
Our classificationUse of barbiturates, code S13ab03
Operationalization
A mean of three items asking how often during the past 
year respondent had used amphetamines, barbiturates, 
and LSD for other than medical purposes. 
1 = never; 2 = once or twice a year; 
3 = 3 to 10 times a year; 4 = once or twice a month; 5 
= once or twice a week; 6 = nearly every day. Assessed 
at T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
                Drug use
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1     tau  = -.06      -.06      -.11 (01)
T2     tau = -.00      -.06      -.03
T3     tau = -.02      -.03      -.03
T4     tau = -.01      -.04      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of cocaine
Subject code: S13ab04

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelUse of cocaine
Page in Source 94-97
Our classificationUse of cocaine, code S13ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about having used 
cocaine:
0 never (reference)
1 experimental
2 former
3 occasional
4 regular

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%=- ns
% happy:
-never         85% 
-experimental  84% 
-former        81% 
-occasional    77% 
-regular       79%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of marihuana, hash
Subject code: S13ab07

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelCannabis
Page in Source 94-97
Our classificationUse of marihuana, hash, code S13ab07
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about having used 
cannabis:  
0 never (reference)
1 experimental
2 former
3 occasional
4 regular

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%=- p < .05
% happy:
-never         86%  
-experimental  85%  
-former        85%  
-occasional    85%  
-regular       79%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of marihuana, hash
Subject code: S13ab07

StudySmucker Barnwell et al. (2006): study ZZ Anglo-America 2001
TitleCannabis, Motivation, and Life Satisfaction in an Internet Sample.
SourceSubstance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 2006, Vol.1, 1 - 9
DOIDOI:10.1186/1747-597X-1-2
Public18+ aged, cannabis users and non-users, USA and Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =487

Correlate
Author's labelCanabis use
Page in Source 6
Our classificationUse of marihuana, hash, code S13ab07
Operationalization
1: daily users (7 days a week)
0: non-users   (never)

Selection according to questions whether or not they 
had ever tried cannabis. 
- those who indicated "no" comprise the non user group, 
(0: non users);
- those indicated using cannabis seven days a week 
comprise the frequent cannabis user group, (1: daily 
users).
Observed distributionN= 1:243, 0: 244

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=- p < .94
daily users M=20,9 SD=4,9
non-users   M=21,3 SD=4,9
-difference   -0,4
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM= p < .86
non-medical daily users M=21,2 (N=168)
non-users               M=21,2 (N=244)
-difference                0,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of marihuana, hash
Subject code: S13ab07

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelUse of drugs
Page in Source 35
Our classificationUse of marihuana, hash, code S13ab07
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about the frequency of use of 
hard-and softdrugs.
Summed rating
1: no problem behavior 
2: some
3: rather 
4: serious 
5: very serious
Observed distributionin % 1: 90.98, 2: 8.64; 3: 0.39; 4: 0.00; 5: 0.00

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
  1 no problem behavior  M=7,7
  2 some                 M=7,2
  3 rather               M=8,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of marihuana, hash
Subject code: S13ab07

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelMarijuana usage
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationUse of marihuana, hash, code S13ab07
Operationalization
Repeated yes / no question on usage during the past 
day; during one month.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.35 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking habits
Page in Source 52
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Two item index of direct questions on smoking habits.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsmoking and health
Page in Source 458
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Single question:
"On the average, how much do you smoke a day ? 
(cigarette equivalents)?"
1: 0 cigarettes
2: 1-2
3: 3-5
4: 6-10
5: 11-20
6: 21-40
7: > 40
Observed distributionN: All: 4563; %:1:48,6; 2:2,4; 3:3,4; 4:8,9; 5:29,8; 6:6,7; 7:0,2
Remarks
the correlations and M's do give only the relation 
between use of cigarettes and health

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.08 p < .00
1: Ms=7.81
2: Ms=7.59
3: Ms=7.69
4: Ms=7.89
5: Ms=7.59
6: Ms=6.84
7: Ms=5.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.07 p < .00
1: Ms=7.78
2: Ms=7.61
3: Ms=7.61
4: Ms=7.65
5: Ms=7.61
6: Ms=6.65
7: Ms=6.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.10 p < .00
1: Ms=7.90
2: Ms=7.75
3: Ms=7.79
4: Ms=7.79
5: Ms=7.59
6: Ms=6.91
7: Ms=6.95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsmoking
Page in Source 194
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you smoke?"
1: No, I have never smoked
2: No, I stopped more than a year ago
3: No, I stopped less than a year ago
4: Yes, now and then
5: Yes, daily
Observed distributionN: a All:4590; 1:31,1%; 2:11,9%; 3:4,3%; 4:6,3%; 5:46,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 p < .00
1: Mt=7.84
2: Mt=7.94
3: Mt=7.93
4: Mt=7.75
5: Mt=7.60
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.54
2: Mt=7.75
3: Mt=7.40
4: Mt=7.39
5: Mt=7.25
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.06 p < .00
1: Mt=7,13
2: Mt=7,26
3: Mt=7.19
4: Mt=6,98
5: Mt=6,88


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsmoking per day (cigarettes equivalents)
Page in Source 196
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Single question:
"On the average, how much do you smoke a day? 
(cigarette equivalents)?"
1: 0 (cigarettes)
2: 1-2
3: 3-5
4: 6-10
5: 11-20
6: 21-40
7: > 40
Observed distributionN: 1:48,6%; 2:2,4%; 3:3,4%; 4:8,9%; 5:29,8%; 6:6,7%; 7:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.86
2: Mt=7.58
3: Mt=7.89
4: Mt=7.84
5: Mt=7.71
6: Mt=6.86
7: Mt=7.23
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.08 p < .00
1: Mt=7.56
2: Mt=7.29
3: Mt=7.39
4: Mt=7.48
5: Mt=7.36
6: Mt=6.60
7: Mt=6.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.16
2: Mt=6.88
3: Mt=6.98
4: Mt=6.99
5: Mt=6.98
6: Mt=6.34
7: Mt=7.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 186
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you smoke"
1: no, I have never smoked
2: no, I stopped more than a year ago
3: no, I stopped less than a year ago
4: yes, now and then
5: yes, daily
Observed distributionN 1:516, 2:236, 3:51, 4:85, 5:574

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.01 ns
 1: Mt=7.85
 2: Mt=7.64
 3: Mt=7.60
 4: Mt=7.94
 5: Mt=7.74
All Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.04 ns
 1: Mt=7.56
 2: Mt=7.49
 3: Mt=7.20 
 4: Mt=7.56
 5: Mt=7.35
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
 1: Mt=7.04
 2: Mt=6.78
 3: Mt=7.26
 4: Mt=6.94
 5: Mt=6.90
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelon the average, how much do you smoke a day
Page in Source 188
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Single question:
"On the average, how much do you smoke a 
day?"(cigarette equivalents)
1: 0
2: 1-2
3: 3-5
4: 6-10
5: 11-20
6: 21-40
7: > 40
Observed distributionN: 1:835, 2:28, 3:60, 4:144, 5:318, 6:74, 7:12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 ns
 1: Mt=7.76
 2: Mt=8.13
 3: Mt=8.21
 4: Mt=7.89
 5: Mt=7.78
 6: Mt=7.10
 7: Mt=7.29
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.03 ns
 1: Mt=7.48
 2: Mt=7.33
 3: Mt=7.91
 4: Mt=7.49
 5: Mt=7.40
 6: Mt=6.89
 7: Mt=7.29
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
 1: Mt=6.96
 2: Mt=6.88
 3: Mt=6.96
 4: Mt=7.10
 5: Mt=6.91
 6: Mt=6.53
 7: Mt=7.09
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 40
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Full question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02
STANDARD OLS
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.7
INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLE REGRESSION

Instrument for happiness:
- regional yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 70 countries, mid 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 131
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Number of cigarettes smoked per year per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Average happiness by number of cigarettes smoked 
per year per capita in 64 nations mid 1990s
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyVanBeuningen & Moonen (2013a): study NL 2007
TitleGezondheid Belangrijker voor Geluk dan Leefstijl. (Health More Important for Happiness then Lifestyle.)
SourceBevolkingstrends, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), April 2013, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/F9E3C2DC-BB64-4DD5-AA51-2AA359F34AF6/0/20130401bb15art.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2007,2008,2009
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =27358

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 2,4,8
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Self report of smoking (question: do you smoke 
sometimes?)
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-d
males   r = -.10
females r = -.07
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-d
18 to 25 years:    r = -0,08
25 to 45 years:    r = -0,12
45 to 65 years:    r = -0,07
65 years or older: r = -0,08
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dOR=0,57 p < .01
sexe or = 1,16 p<.05
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dOR=0,55 p < .01
age 18-25 vs. 65 plus 0,64 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyDeJonge et al. (2009): study NL 2006
TitleLiving a Happy, Healthy and Satisfying Life.
SourceStatisics Netherlands, 2009, Netherlands
URLHTTP://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/3/43705841.pdf
Public12+ aged, The Netherlands, 2006-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 2
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Selfreport
O: Does not smoke
1: Smokes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=-
% happy:
0: 90.5
1: 85.0
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=0.5 p < .01
OR controled for other life-style variables
- too little excercise
- drinking
- overweight

After additionally control for:
- age                 OR = 0,6 (01)
- self rated health   OR = 0,6 (01)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=-
0: 90.3
1: 83.3
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dOR=0.5 p < .01
OR controled for other life-style variables
- too little excercise
- drinking
- overweight

After additionally control for:
- age                 OR = 0,5 (01)
- self rated health   OR = 0,6 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 147
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
0: not smoking
1: smoking
Observed distribution0: 67,6% 1: 32,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
Smoking (vs. not smoking)
Beta controlled for
-gender
-ethnic groups
-education
-age
-overweight
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment
-religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 35
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Do you smoke cigarettes at all?"
   1: yes, I smoke every now and then
   2: yes, I smoke every day
   3: no, I do not smoke

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.06
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+.47
Instrument for happiness:
- last ten days cloud cover deviation

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelCigarette smoking
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Single direct question on number of cigarettes per day.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.06 p < . 001
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.06 p < . 001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of tobacco
Page in Source 28
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Direct question on number of cigars, cigarettes and 
pipes smoked per day.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1994
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking habits
Page in Source q im71
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Do you smoke? 
1 yes
2 no
- NR
Observed distributionN: 1:28,7% 2:55,7% NR:15,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hDM=
1: M = 2,98
2: M = 2,99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
individual smokes
Observed distributionM = 0.26 SD = 0.44

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.17 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyPerneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998
TitleHealth and Happines in Young Swiss Adults.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 171 - 178
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000015314.97546.60
PublicUniversity students, Switzerland, 1998.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1257

Correlate
Author's labelSmokes cigarettes
Page in Source 174
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
1- No
2- Yes
Observed distribution1: 72,1%, 2: 27,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=- p < .013
% happy (all or most of the time)
1: 65,2
2: 57,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 795-797
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
1 Smoker
0 Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=-.03 ns
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.04 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelSmoker
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Selfreport on smoking.
1: smoker
0: not
Observed distributionM = 0.28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=-.08 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - income
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public6000+ adults, aged 15 to 75, Ukraine
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =11922

Correlate
Author's labelSmoker
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
1: smoker
0: not
Observed distributionM = 0,28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.08 p < .01
Beta controled for:
- gender
- married state
- widowed state
- separated state
- chronic disease
- drinker
- smoker
- height
- unemployed
- inactive
- household size
- log income
- years of schooling
- pensioner


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether smoked (daily or occasionally), 
used to smoke (daily or occasionally), or had never 
smoked. Those who reported smoking were asked where 
they had smoked in the last 7 days.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.10 p < .01
Smokes now           (vs not)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.04 p < .01
Smoked ever, not now (vs not)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking
Page in Source 2
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
a: Never (reference)
b: Past
c: Current

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=- p < .01
Past (vs. never):    OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.899-0.922] 
Current (vs. never): OR= 0.8 
CI99[0.747-0.779] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyLepper (1998): study US California 1993
TitleUse of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006872027638
PublicRetirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =971

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking habits
Page in Source 372,375,377
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Self report on whether or not the subjects smokes 
cigarettes
0=no
1=yes
Error EstimatesCorrelation between self and other reports of smoking : r=+.87 p<0.0001) Test for difference in mean ns (t.=0.90)
Remarks
Only measured in wave 1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---mq-v-16-at.=-2.8 p < .0059
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-at.=-2.3 p < .0256
M-AO---mqr-*-0-at.=-2.8 p < .0419


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelUse of tobacco
Page in Source 834
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Smoking cigarettes
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 1.30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of tobacco
Subject code: S13ab08

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelDaily cigarette use
Our classificationUse of tobacco, code S13ab08
Operationalization
Direct question asking respondent how often he smoked 
cigarettes during the last year. Scale: 1 = nearly 
every day; 0 = less than daily use. Assessed at T3, T4 
and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
                   Daily cigarette use
               T3          T4          T5
Happiness
T1     tau = -.08 (05)   -.05        -.08 (05)
T2     tau = -.03        -.03        -.03     
T3     tau = -.01        -.00        -.04 
T4     tau = -.02        -.00        -.04     
All _ not significant, unless indicated otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

When you think of the things you want from life, how would you say that you're doing in getting the things you want.....?"
2 pretty well
1 not too well
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
0 minimum score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 maximal score
Numbers presented on a horizontal line scale.
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single questions:

"Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?"
I was happy
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?
I enjoyed life...
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale. Score reversed.
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL---mq-v-16-aSelf report on three questions:

A During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time
B Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?"
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mixed
5 happy
6 happy
7 very happy
C Taking all together, how would you say things are these days?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-cy-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Generally, how happy have you been with your personal life during the past 12 month?
1 unhappy most of the time
2 sometimes fairly unhappy
3 generally satisfied, pleased
4 very happy most of the time
5 extremely happy
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you right now?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bSelf report on single question:

Do you consider your life as a whole
1 happy
0 unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

To what extent do you think of yourself as a happy person?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
- don't know
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration: how satisfied are you with your life in general at the present time.....?
1 not satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
4 very satisfied
5 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hSelf report on single question:

To what extend are you satisfied with your life in general at the present time?
1 not at all satisfied
2 less than satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 rather satisfied
5 fully satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbSelfreport on single question

To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general these days?
5 fully satisfied
4 rather satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 fully dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

Are you satisfied with your life as a whole?
1 yes
0 no
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for correlation of happiness with a variable that is unrelated to the independent variable, e.g. for b of happiness with body length in an analysis of the relation between happiness and lottery playing, assuming that there is no relation between body length and lottery playing. Aims to eliminate reversed causality and spurious correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_variable
http://homepage.univie.ac.at/Christine.Zulehner/iv.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S13STIMULANTSC09ab02lStimulants
S13STIMULANTSM07ac02Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)
S13ab01Use of alcoholC01CHILDREN
S13ab01Use of alcoholM07ac02aAlcoholic (f10)
S13ab01Use of alcoholN12ab01aAlcohol consumption in nation
S13acAttitudes to own use of stimulantsH03af01Acceptance of happiness elevating drugs

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings