Findings on Happiness and SPORTS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SPORTS
Subject Code: S12

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S12SPORTS0
S12aaSports career0
S12aa01Earlier involvement in sports2
S12aa02Change involvement in sports1
S12aa03Later involvement in sports0
S12abCurrent involvement in sports6
S12ab01Active involvement in sports28
S12ab02Passive involvement in sports7
S12ab03Skilledness in sports2
S12ab04Kind of sport practiced3
S12acAttitudes to sports2
S12ac01Perceived usefulness of sports4
S12ac02Satisfaction with sporting6
S12ac03Enjoyment of sports events1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SPORTS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S12
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier involvement in sports
Subject code: S12aa01

StudyGehmacher (1992d): study AT 1989 /1
TitleSport, Gesundheit und Lebenszufriedenheit.(Sport, Health and Life Satisfaction.)
SourceEhalt, H.C.;Weiss, O.;Eds.: "Sport zwischen Disziplienerung und Neuen Sozialen Bewegungen", Böhlau, 1992, Vienna, Austria, 170 - 184
PublicMilitary male cadres, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1350

Correlate
Author's labelSporting in youth
Page in Source 161
Our classificationEarlier involvement in sports, code S12aa01
Operationalization
Questions about sportactivities at age 14-20
0. no sport
1. some sport for pleasure or health
   (gymnastics, jogging)
2. regular condition sporting
3. regular achievement sporting

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-5-arpc= ns
rpc controled for age, health, psychological 
coping capacity and current sporting.

Path analysis does not suggest that sporting in 
youth adds to happiness trough better health or 
psychological capacity. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier involvement in sports
Subject code: S12aa01

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelSport activity in childhood
Page in Source (18)
Our classificationEarlier involvement in sports, code S12aa01
Operationalization
Retrospective report of frequency of sporting and 
involvement in competition
0. seldom or never
1. one or two times a week
3. more often, but no competition
4. involved in sport-competition

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.11
1. M'=2.59
2. M'=2.70
3. M'=2.14
4. M'=2.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change involvement in sports
Subject code: S12aa02

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelParticipating actively in sports
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationChange involvement in sports, code S12aa02
Operationalization
1: Doing sports at least once a week
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 42.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in sports 
participation

B controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- education
- having a car and telephone
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- marital status
- cultural participation
- religious participation
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelActive social life
Page in Source 20
Our classificationCurrent involvement in sports, code S12ab
Operationalization
Attending at least once a week (yes or no) in:
a Cultural events
b Entertainment events
c Sport
d Visiting friend, relative
e Voluntary work
f Church services

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
                                male   female
Attending cultural events       +,370  +,614
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-
Attending entertainment events  -,101 -,068
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Sport                           +,427  +,502
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Visiting friend, relative       +,224  +,374
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Engaging in voluntary work      +,155  +,186
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Attending church services       +,212  +,350

B's controlled for
-sex
-nationality
-age
-marital status
-education
-East/West-germany

B denotes p[oints difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelPractices sports
Page in Source 39-40
Our classificationCurrent involvement in sports, code S12ab
Operationalization
0: Never practices sports
1: practices
Observed distribution0: M = 0,325 SD = 0,468
Remarks
In original: Never practices. Reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.054 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.032 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly sport activities
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent involvement in sports, code S12ab
Operationalization
1 participate at least once a month to sport activities
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=215148 M=0.47 sd=0.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- other social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in daily exercise
Page in Source 253
Our classificationCurrent involvement in sports, code S12ab
Operationalization
Self report on whether to participate in daily exercise 
or not. Text is not reported.
1: participation in daily exercise
0: non-participation in daily exercise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=1.4 p < .05
CI95 [1.1-1.7]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelSport
Page in Source 39
Our classificationCurrent involvement in sports, code S12ab
Operationalization
Measure not reported
1 Not
2 Average 
3 Above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR= ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Above   0,72    0,84       1,05       1,07 
Average 1       1          1          1 
Not     1,11    0,94       1,14       1,11

Control variables are:
- amount of hours of active hobbies
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelExercising
Page in Source 79
Our classificationCurrent involvement in sports, code S12ab
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGehmacher (1992d): study AT 1989 /1
TitleSport, Gesundheit und Lebenszufriedenheit.(Sport, Health and Life Satisfaction.)
SourceEhalt, H.C.;Weiss, O.;Eds.: "Sport zwischen Disziplienerung und Neuen Sozialen Bewegungen", Böhlau, 1992, Vienna, Austria, 170 - 184
PublicMilitary male cadres, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1350

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent sporting
Page in Source 177
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Questions about current sportactivities
0. no sport
1. some sport for pleasure or health
   (gymnastics, jogging)
2. regular condition sporting
3. regular achievement sporting

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-5-aDM=+ ns
0. M=3.14
1. M=3.19
2. M=3.29
3. M=3.28
   
O-SLu-c-sq-n-5-arpc= ns
rcp controled for age, health, coping capacity and 
sporting in youth.

Path-analysis suggests that current sporting does 
not affect happiness directly, but fosters it 
slightly through effects on health  (+.08) and 
coping capacity (+.02).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent sporting
Page in Source (20)
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
0. no sporting
1. some or much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical fittness activities
Page in Source 52,54
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Direct question:"Do you undertake physical fittness 
activities at least weekly? No, I have sufficient 
physical movement/No/Yes".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.13
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, community size, 
education, professional status, marital status, 
income, body weight, healthy eating habits, weight 
control, alcohol consumption, psychosomatic 
complains, illness and satisfaction with health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /5
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =890

Correlate
Author's labelSports activity
Page in Source 235
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Single direct question on sports played in the last 12 
months:  
3 often
2 sometimes
1 not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
In both categories the cheerfull claim more sport 
activities
Exceptions: 
- young      55% sometimes
- pensioners 65% sometimes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit älterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelinvolvement in sports
Page in Source 43
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
frequency of involvement in sports:
daily
.
.
.
.
.
never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=18
%satisfied with life:
daily:66
never48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyIannotti et al. (2009): study ZZ Developed nations 2008
TitleInterrelationships of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-based Sedentarry Behavior and Social and Psychological Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 54, 191 - 198
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00038-009-5410-z
Public11, 13 and 15 aged, 41 nations, 2008-2009
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =204534

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical Activity
Page in Source 191,192,194
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question on number of days Ss had 
engaged in physical movement or muscular extertion for 
at least 60 minutes during the last week
0 days
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 days
Remarks
The question was preceded by a definition of 
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and examples

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.15 p < .0001
North America
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.10 p < .0001
Western Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.11 p < .0001
Eastern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.16 p < .0001
Northern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.16 p < .0001
Southern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in exercise
Page in Source 51
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
In the last 3 months, how often did you do vigorous 
exercise or sports?
1) Never
2) Occasionally (2-3 times a month)
3) Regularly (about once a week)
4) Often (a few times a week)
5) Every day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=3.77 p < .05
Significant positive association between 
partcipation in exercise and happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in outdoor engagement and sports
Page in Source 44
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 87% (N=1518) Italy: 78% (N=600)
Remarks
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.00 p < .1.000
Germany: CI95 [0.6-1.6]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.45 p < .163
Italy: CI95 [0.9-2.4]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelVoluntary activities
Page in Source 7-16
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Kind of voluntary organizations actively involved in:
a: church, religious
b: sports, recreation
c: arts, music, educational
d: labor union
e: political party
f: environmental
g: professional
h: charity

0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionRange 0-1 a: M= 0,13, SD=0,33 b: M= 0.10, SD=0.30 c: M= 0.07, SD=0.25 d: M= 0.04, SD=0.19 e: M= 0.04, SD=0.19 f: M= 0.03, SD=0.17 g: M= 0.04, SD=0.20 h: M= 0.06, SD=0.23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,4 p < .05
Church                  B: 1,41, t: 6,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.95 p < .05
Sports                  B: 0,95, t: 4,21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,4 p < .05
Arts                    B: 1,43, t: 5,69
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 ns
Labor union             B: 1,41, t: 6,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 ns
Politics                B: 0,95, t: 4,21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.65 ns
Environment             B: 0,65, t: 1,61
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.35 ns
Professional            B: 0,35, t: 1,13
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,8 p < .05
Charity                 B: 1,78, t: 6,13

B's controlled for:
- member of any voluntary organization
- active in any voluntary organization
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B's estimated individually in separate equations 
(model a)
Not different when estimated jointly (models c and 
d)

B is points greater happiness on range 10-100 of 
people who participate in that kind of 
organization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyAussen et al. (2008): study NL Rotterdam 2007
TitleGeluk in Rotterdam. Het Effect van Vrijetijds Voorzieningen op het Geluk in Wijken. (Happiness in Rotterdam. The Effect of Leisure Time Facilities on the Happiness in Neighbourhoods).
SourceBachelor Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/aussen_s_2008.pdf
Public16-75 aged, general public, City of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4420

Correlate
Author's labelparticipation in sportfacilities
Page in Source 36,86, 97
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Frequency of active sport participation
a year
0: 0
1: 1-50
2: 51-100
3: 101-150
4: 151-200
5: 201-250
6: 251-300
7: 301-365
Remarks
Included were sportcentra,tenniscourts, swimmingpools 
etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abr=+.06 p < .01
N=2694
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abrpc=+.04 ns
rpc controlled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyDeJonge et al. (2009): study NL 2006
TitleLiving a Happy, Healthy and Satisfying Life.
SourceStatisics Netherlands, 2009, Netherlands
URLHTTP://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/3/43705841.pdf
Public12+ aged, The Netherlands, 2006-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labeltoo little physical exercise
Page in Source 2
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of physical excersice compared to Dutch norm 
for healthy excercise
1: To little physical excercise
0: Gets enough physical exercise
Remarks
Norm by Kemper (2000)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% happy:
1. 88.3%
2. 90.8%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=0.8 p < .01
OR controled for other life-style variables
- drinking
- smoking
- overweight

Additionally controled for:
- age                    OR = 0,8 (01)
- self perceived health  OR = 0,8 (01)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=-
1. 87.3%
2. 90.3%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dOR=0.7 p < .01
OR controled for other life-style variables
- drinking
- smoking
- overweight

Additionally controlled for:
- age                    OR = 0,7 (01)
- self perceived health  OR = 0,8 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelSport participation
Page in Source 62
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Sport participation?
1 no sports
2 one sport
3 two sports
4 three sports
5 four sports
6 five sports

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.10 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.19
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of times a week sporting
Page in Source 62
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Number of times sporting a week
1 no sport participation
2 once a week
3 twice a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.13 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelActual sporting
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelParticipating in sports
Page in Source 232
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: not at all / once / more than once in 
the past week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.19
Females : G = +.24
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.06
Females : G = +.46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBaltatescu (2003): study RO Oradea 2003
TitleSport Participation and Subjective Well-Being of Adolescents: Mediation of Self-Esteem and Leisure Satisfaction.
SourcePowerpoint presentation International Congress "Health through Movement for the Next Generation", 2003, Oradea, Romenia
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/baltatescue_sm_2003.pdf
PublicHigh school students, Oradea, Romenia,
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelsports participation
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question: text not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.01
Beta controled for:
- self esteem
- satisfaction with leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelExercise
Page in Source 19,24
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
1 = not at all
2 = light
3 = medium to high
Observed distributionM = 1.22 SD = 0.57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.23 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelRegular practice of healthy exercise
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: Do you regularly 
exercise?
1: No    
2: Yes 

Criteria: 3 or more times a week, 30 minutes or more 
per session, and mild intensity practice at least, in 
self-reports of type, frequency, duration and intensity 
of the activities performed.
Observed distributionCriteria-guided: 1= 54,1% 2= 45,9% Exercisers: Those responding "Yes" and reaching criteria Non-exercisers: Those responding "No" or not reaching criteria

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bDM=+ ns
1: M= 7,02 SD= 2,05
2: M= 7,33 SD= 1,55
Difference:   +0,31
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bd=.17
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cDM=+ p < .05
1: M= 7,23 SD= 1,55
2: M= 7,64 SD= 1,15
difference:   +0,41
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cd=.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of exercise practice
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How many days per week do you exercise?
1: 3 to 4
2: 5 to 6
3: 7
Observed distribution1: 71,3% 2: 25,5% 3: 3,2%
Remarks
Exercisers only (3 or more times a week)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,30 SD= 1,52
2: M= 7,25 SD= 1,54
3: M= 8,67 SD= 2,31
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1: M= 7,66 SD= 1,12
2: M= 7,46 SD= 1,07
3: M= 8,67 SD= 2,31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of the practice per session
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: During how much time 
per day do you exercise when you do it?
1: 30 to 45 minutes
2: 45 to 60 minutes
3: More than 60 minutes
Observed distribution1: 30,9% 2: 43,6% 3: 25,5%
Remarks
Exercisers only (30 minutes or more per session)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,17 SD= 1,85
2: M= 7,27 SD= 1,34
3: M= 7,63 SD= 1,50
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1: M= 7,52 SD= 1,27
2: M= 7,78 SD= 1,04
3: M= 7,54 SD= 1,22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of practice
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How intense is usually your practice?
1: Mild (it is a little hard but I don't get tired at 
any time)
2: High (I'm doing a hard work but I do not feel myself 
breathlessness nor I get too much tired)
3: Very high (I feel I am working very hard, almost 
reaching my limits)
4: Extremely high (I feel myself breathlessness and my 
heart is like exploding)
Observed distribution1: 48,9% 2: 43,6% 3: 7,4% 5: 0%
Remarks
Exercisers only (at least mild intensity practice)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,41 SD= 1,38
2: M= 7,34 SD= 1,71
3: M= 6,71 SD= 1,70
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= p < .07
1: M= 7,63 SD= 1,18
2: M= 7,80 SD= 1,08
3: M= 6,71 SD= 1,11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyPerneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998
TitleHealth and Happines in Young Swiss Adults.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 171 - 178
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000015314.97546.60
PublicUniversity students, Switzerland, 1998.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1257

Correlate
Author's labelPractices sports once per week or more often
Page in Source 174
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
1- No
2- Yes
Observed distribution1: 29,9%, 2: 69,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=+ p < .001
% happy (all or most of the time)
1: 53,3
2: 67,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of days doing vigorous exercise
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on number of days doing vigorous exercise, 
including  running or aerobics.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.03 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelHealth habits
Page in Source 834
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Jogging, running, swimming, golfing or other 
strenuous exercise for 15 minutes or more
Rated 1: never to 6 daily
Observed distributionM = 4.21

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelPlaying sports
Page in Source 34
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Question: infrequently or never / some / frequently.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.14
Males   : G = +.04 (ns)
Females : G = +.24 (01)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG=+.10 ns
Males   : G = +.07 (ns)
Females : G = +.16 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelParticipating in games or sports activities
Page in Source 49
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: not at all / once / several times / 
every day / more than once a day, during last week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= +
Index of Positive Affects   : G' = +.15 (05)
- Males                     : G' = +.20 (01)
- Females                   : G' = +.10 (01)

Unrelated to Index of Negative Affects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelPlaying sports
Page in Source 283
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
0 No sports 
1 Sports

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= + p < . s
L-shaped curve: significant relationship among the 
more unhappy students only.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=+ s
L-shaped curve: significant relationship among the 
more unhappy students only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab01

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelPractice sports
Page in Source 24,47
Our classificationActive involvement in sports, code S12ab01
Operationalization
Take part in physical activities :
5 - daily
4 - several times a week
3 - several times a month
2 - several times a year or less often
1 - never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=+.12 ns
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- sociable
- workaholic
- hours of leisure
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Workers: B= +.11
Nonworkers: B= +.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelWatching sports
Page in Source 34
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
Question: infrequenly or never / some- times / 
frequently

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.19
Males   : G = +.08 (ns)
Females : G = +.33 (01)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG=+.20
Females : G = +.30 (05)
Males   : G = +.15 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelTalking about sports
Page in Source 34
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
Question: infrequently or never / some- times / 
frequently

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= +
Males   : G = +.29 (ns)
Females : G = +.33 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG= +
Males   : G = +.23 (ns)
Females : G = +.39 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelReading sports page
Page in Source 34
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
Question: not at all / sometimes / thoroughly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= +
Males   : G = +.26 (ns)
Females : G = +.29 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG= +
Males   : G = +.13 (ns)
Females : G = +.28 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelSubscribe/read sports magazines
Page in Source 34
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
Question: yes / no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= + ns
Males   : G = +.11 (ns)
Females : G = +.25 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG= + ns
Males   : G = +.01 (ns)
Females : G = +.19 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelBehavioral involve- ment in sports
Page in Source 32
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
5-item index of questions on playing sports, watching 
sports, talking about sports, reading sports page, and 
sub- scribe/read sportsmagazines.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG=+.23
Stronger among females.
Lower among males.
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.24
Stronger among females.
Lower among males.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelKnowledge about sports
Page in Source 32
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
Measurement by having respondents match a 12-item list 
of famous sports perso- nalities with their appropriate 
sports sphere.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG=+.07
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive involvement in sports
Subject code: S12ab02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelAttending games or sports activities
Page in Source 48
Our classificationPassive involvement in sports, code S12ab02
Operationalization
Closed question: not at all / once / several times / 
every day / more than once a day during last week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= +
Index of Positive Affects   : G' = +.19 (01)
- Unaffected by sex         
- High S.E.S.               : G' = +.15 (05)
- Low S.E.S.                : G' = +.07 (ns)

Unrelated to Index of Negative Affects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Skilledness in sports
Subject code: S12ab03

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelAthletics
Page in Source 26
Our classificationSkilledness in sports, code S12ab03
Operationalization
Rating of skill in and devotion to ath- letics on 
7-point scales by (student) captains of various 
athletic clubs and by a staff member.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.39


Correlational finding on Happiness and Skilledness in sports
Subject code: S12ab03

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelAthletics
Page in Source 27
Our classificationSkilledness in sports, code S12ab03
Operationalization
Class-master rating of skill in and de- votion to 
athletics on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of sport practiced
Subject code: S12ab04

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelType of exercising activities
Our classificationKind of sport practiced, code S12ab04
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What type of activities do you usually perform?
1: Mild impact (walk, yoga...)
2: Moderate impact (fast walk/jogging, pilates...)
3: High impact (football, aerobic/steps...)
4: Very high impact (spinning, weightlift...)
Observed distribution1: 13,8% 2: 47,9% 3: 29,8% 4: 8,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
1: M= 7,23 SD= 1,09
2: M= 7,04 SD= 1,71
3: M= 7,86 SD= 1,51
4: M= 7,25 SD= 1,04
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1: M= 7,38 SD= 0,77
2: M= 7,58 SD= 1,18
3: M= 7,89 SD= 1,34
4: M= 7,50 SD= 0,76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of sport practiced
Subject code: S12ab04

StudySnyder & Kivlin (1975): study US 1973
TitleWomen athletes and aspects of psychological well-being and body image.
SourceResearch Quarterly, 1975, Vol. 46, 191 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1080/10671315.1975.10615323
PublicFemale athletes and controls, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-ResponseSample II: 35%
Respondents N =603

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an athlete
Page in Source 195
Our classificationKind of sport practiced, code S12ab04
Operationalization
0. Controls: a class of sociology
   students.
1. Athletes: participants in National
   Championship or Olympic tryout in
   1972.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-4-aG=+.39 p < . 01
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-dG=+.32 p < . 01
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-cG=+.32 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of sport practiced
Subject code: S12ab04

StudySnyder & Kivlin (1975): study US 1973
TitleWomen athletes and aspects of psychological well-being and body image.
SourceResearch Quarterly, 1975, Vol. 46, 191 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1080/10671315.1975.10615323
PublicFemale athletes and controls, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-ResponseSample II: 35%
Respondents N =603

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a gymnast
Page in Source 197
Our classificationKind of sport practiced, code S12ab04
Operationalization
0. Basketball players 
1. Gymnasts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-dG=+.22 ns
Computed for athletes only.
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-cG=+.12 ns
Computed for athletes only.
A-AOL-g-sq-v-4-aG=+.17 ns
Computed for athletes only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to sports
Subject code: S12ac

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Olympic Games
Page in Source 371
Our classificationAttitudes to sports, code S12ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when the Olympic Games take 
place?
Observed distributionN= 0:20%, 1:7%, 2:9%, 3:9%, 4:8%, 5:13%, 6:9%, 7:8%, 8:8%, 9:4%, 10:2%,DKNA:4%
Remarks
N=2153

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 4.8  M = 3.6             +1.2
top 3:  M = 4.5  M = 3.2             +1.3 
top 5:  M = 4.2  M = 2.6             +1.6
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1654
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to sports
Subject code: S12ac

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with soccer world- or european championships
Page in Source 372
Our classificationAttitudes to sports, code S12ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when soccer-world or 
european championships take place?
Observed distributionN= 0:17%, 1:7%, 2:5%, 3:6%, 4:6%, 5:11%, 6:9%, 7:10%, 8:11%, 9:9%, 10:8%,DKNA:2%
Remarks
N=2153

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 5.8  M = 4.7             +1.1
top 3:  M = 5.5  M = 4.4             +1.1 
top 5:  M = 5.2  M = 4.0             +1.2
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1654
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of sports
Subject code: S12ac01

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelSports seen as a wayto relax
Page in Source 35
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of sports, code S12ac01
Operationalization
Question: disagree / not sure / agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= + ns
Males   : G = +.15 (ns)
Females : G = +.08 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG= + ns
Males   : G = +.06 (ns)
Females : G = +.13 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of sports
Subject code: S12ac01

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelSports seen as a waste of time
Page in Source 35
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of sports, code S12ac01
Operationalization
Question: disagree / not sure / agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= - ns
Males   : G = -.36 (01)
Females : G = -.08 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG= - ns
Males   : G = -.26 (ns)
Females : G = -.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of sports
Subject code: S12ac01

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelSports seen as help against worries and pressures of the day
Page in Source 35
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of sports, code S12ac01
Operationalization
Question: disagree / not sure / agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= + ns
Males   : G = +.13 (ns)
Females : G = +.03 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG= + ns
Males   : G = +.02 (ns)
Females : G = +.03 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of sports
Subject code: S12ac01

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelAffective involve ment in sports
Page in Source 32
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of sports, code S12ac01
Operationalization
4-item index of agree/disagree state- ments on sports 
are a way to relax, sports are a waste of time, little 
satisfaction received from sports and sports are a help 
against worries and pressures.
Question: disagree /  not sure / agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG=+.15
Stronger among males
Lower among females
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.16
Unaffected by sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with sporting
Subject code: S12ac02

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with active sport
Page in Source 338
Our classificationSatisfaction with sporting, code S12ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: active sport.
Observed distributionN= 0:2%, 1:2%, 2:2%, 3:3%, 4:4%, 5:7%, 6:10%, 7:13%, 8:22%, 9:15%, 10:17%, DKNA:4%
Remarks
N=1709

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.0  M = 6.9             +1.1
top 3:  M = 7.7  M = 6.7             +1.0 
top 5:  M = 7.5  M = 5.9             +1.6
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 419, Others: 8-0 N=1290
Top 3: 10-8 N= 900, Others: 7-0 N= 809
Top 5: 10-6 N=1380, Others: 5-0 N= 329


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with sporting
Subject code: S12ac02

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical activities satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationSatisfaction with sporting, code S12ac02
Operationalization
Physical activities satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.19 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with sporting
Subject code: S12ac02

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 1999
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical activities satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationSatisfaction with sporting, code S12ac02
Operationalization
Physical activities satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-ar=+.16 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with sporting
Subject code: S12ac02

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction derivedfrom sports
Page in Source 234
Our classificationSatisfaction with sporting, code S12ac02
Operationalization
Single direct questions on both satisfaction and 
dissatisfaction with sports.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.18 p < .01
dissatisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with sporting
Subject code: S12ac02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction from sports
Page in Source 35
Our classificationSatisfaction with sporting, code S12ac02
Operationalization
Question whether one receives little satisfaction from 
sports: disagree / not sure / agree.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=-.25 ns
Unaffected by sex
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= -
Males   : G = -.33 (01)
Females : G = -.25 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with sporting
Subject code: S12ac02

StudySnyder & Spreitzer (1974): study US Ohio 1973
TitleInvolvement in Sports and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal of Sport Psychology, 1974, Vol. 5, 28 - 39
PublicAdults, general public, City of Toledo, Ohio, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response46%
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelLittle satisfaction received from sports
Page in Source 35
Our classificationSatisfaction with sporting, code S12ac02
Operationalization
Question: disagree / not sure / agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG= -
Males    G = +.02 (ns)
Females  G = -.25 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=-.25 ns
Unaffected by sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Enjoyment of sports events
Subject code: S12ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfation with other big sport events
Page in Source 373
Our classificationEnjoyment of sports events, code S12ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when other big sport events 
take place?
Observed distributionN= 0:19%, 1:7%, 2:7%, 3:8%, 4:8%, 5:13%, 6:9%, 7:9%, 8:8%, 9:4%, 10:2%,DKNA:6%
Remarks
N=2153

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 4.7  M = 3.7             +1.0
top 3:  M = 4.5  M = 3.4             +1.1 
top 5:  M = 4.3  M = 2.7             +1.6
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1654
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"......generally feel in good spirits..."
(Full text not reported)
4 most of the time
3 much of the time
2 some of the time
1 seldom.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

We want to know how you feel. Please indicate on the scale below.
10 means that you are doing well, 0 means that you are doing badly
10 you are doing well
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 doing badly
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Questions indicated both happiness and a sense of contentment and well-being (Full questions not reported)

Summation: not reported

Name: `Happiness subtest' of Washburn's `Social Adjustment Scale'.
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-cSelf report on single question:

" Find much happiness in life....?"
(Full lead item not reported)
d most of the time
4 much of the time
3 some of the time
2 seldom
1 never
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

".....very satisfied with life....."
(Full question not reported)
4 most of the time
3 much of the time
2 some of the time
1 seldom
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general these days, how happy or unhappy would you say you are, on the whole...?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole now, are you.....?
5 very happy
4 quite happy
3 more happy than unhappy
2 more unhappy than happy
1 quite unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
1 not happy at all
2 not too happy
3 happy
4 very happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"........life-satisfaction........."
(Full text not reported)
1 -
2
3
4
5 +
(Response options: not reported)
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLS-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering the whole situation, how satisfied are you with your daily life?
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, are you currently satisfied with your life.......?
1 not satisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(Originally presented horizontally)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied.
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
SNRStatistic Not Reported


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S12SPORTSN05afSuccess in sports
S12SPORTSN12ab02Sporting in nation
S12ab01Active involvement in sportsA01ab01Physical activity

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings