Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED
Subject Code: S11

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED1
S11aaSupport career0
S11aa01Earlier support behavior1
S11aa02Change in support behavior0
S11aa03Later support behavior0
S11abCurrent support behavior8
S11ab01Amount of support provided3
S11ab02People supported2
S11ab03Kinds of support provided1
S11acAttitudes to own support behavior3
S11ab02aEmotional0
S11ab02bFinancial3
S11ab02cPractical2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S11
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED
Subject code: S11

StudyLee (1985): study US 1979
TitleProbing Behavioral Patterns of Structuring Daily Life.
SourceHuman Relations, 1985, Vol. 38, 457 - 476
Public23-49 aged adults, USA, followed 1 year, 1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelLife space structure
Page in Source 473
Our classificationSOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED, code S11
Operationalization
4 Time use/enjoyment based on 9 day time use diary:
a) Home based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at home; low, average or inconsistent time spent 
at work
b) Work based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at work but not at home
c)Conjoint: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at both home and work 
d) Diffuse: high quantity and high quality time is 
neither spent at work nor at home, but significant time 
was spent in other types of places like other's homes, 
restaurants, or places of recreation.
Remarks
Average of sores on T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aDM=
M  Total  Men  Women    
a  5,9    6,2  5,8 
b  5,2    5,3  4,8
c  5,9    5,8  5,9
d  5,3    5,5  5,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier support behavior
Subject code: S11aa01

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelEarly multiple role occupancy
Page in Source 265
Our classificationEarlier support behavior, code S11aa01
Operationalization
Number of roles occupied beyond marriage and 
motherhood.These included frequent contact with 
relatives, neighbors and/or friends, regular church 
attendance, club memership and volunteering. (indicator 
of social integration)

Assessed at T1 (1956)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=+
T1 roles               T2 happiness          
- low                  Ma = 2,30
- high                 Ma = 2,62

Ma controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelCharity work
Page in Source 38,39,54,55,57
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
Not specified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.31 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.05 p < .05
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
    - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
    - Widowed
    - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance 
  - Religious denomination

When additionally controlled for education, family 
income, labor force participation and spouse in 
labor force:
B=    +.36 (p<.05)
beta= +.06 (p<.05)

Plus additionally controlled for hours worked, 
occupational status, job security and 
unemployment:
B=    +0.33 (p<.05)
beta= +0.04 (p<.05)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.36 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.06 p < .05
Beta and previous B additionally controlled for:
- education
- family income
- labor force participation
- spouse in labor force
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.33 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.04 p < .05
Beta and previous B additionally controlled for:
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelExperiential knowledge of members of the group
Page in Source 292
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a. I contribute to my own knowledge and experience to 
the other members
b. I help the members of the group a lot
through my own knowledge and experience
c. The knowledge and experience I acquired as a result 
of my situation contribute to the group at least the 
same as the knowledge of a professional

Rated on a numerical scale: 
Item a:after reversing the scale 1=never to 5=always
Items b and c:1=certainly wrong to 
6=certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.85
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelTips for coping methods
Page in Source 292
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a: I give the group members "tips"on how to cope with 
daily situations
b: The group offers me "tips"on how to cope with daily 
situations

Rated on a 5-point numerical scale After reversing the 
scale:1=never; 5=always
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.66
Remarks
Question concern helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelHelp to family
Page in Source 19, 17,16
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
Help to family: if respondent has provided help to 
family, friends or neighbors in the last month.
Cared for sick: if respondent has cared for sick or 
disabled adult in last month.
Observed distributionHelp to family: M = 0.17 SD = 0.38 N = 32517 Cared for sick: M = 0.07 SD = 0.26 N = 32517

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.10 p < .01
Help to family.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=-.05 p < .10
Cared for sick.

b's controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelProvides help
Page in Source 1164
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
1:  No (reference)
0: Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.18 p < .10
YES (vs no)

OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-marital status
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.99 ns
OR additionally controlled for country
 
OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelCare
Page in Source 11, 15
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
a care for spouse/partner
b cared for by spouse partner
Observed distributionMales & Females: a: M=0.03 sd=0.17 b: M=0.03 sd=0.17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
   MALES                 FEMALES
a: b=+.02 SE=.07 ns      b=+.01 SE=.08 ns
b: b=-.49 SE=.10 p<.01   b=-.18 SE=.10 p<.10

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Number of children of different age groups
- Employment status
- Total hours worked
- Total hours worked spouse/partner
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelSocial service activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled social-service activities (helping others, 
community service)  They were also asked what they did 
"yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.62 (01)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns        females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns        females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns        females: r= ns 
preretired   males: r=-.57 (01)  females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current support behavior
Subject code: S11ab

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelCaregiving
Page in Source 265-266
Our classificationCurrent support behavior, code S11ab
Operationalization
0 not currently caregiver
1 current caregiver

Caregiving includes respondents’reports of providing 
assistance to ill, handicapped, of older relatives, 
including spouse and adult children, and in a few cases 
“fictive’ kin in the form of a close neighbor or 
friend.
Observed distributionCaregivers: N= 53, Non-caregiver: N=240

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=- ns
T2 caregiving by T2 happiness

Unaffected by:
- T1 happiness (so no change in happiness)
- T1 religious involvement
- T1 volunteering
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=
                    T2 happiness
T1 self-esteem      caregivers  non-caregivers
- low               Ma = 2,34   Ma = 2,70 (10)
- high              Ma = 2,96   Ma = 2,76
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=
                    T2 happiness
T1 Multiple role occupancy
                    caregivers  non-caregivers
- low               Ma = 2,58   Ma = 2,25 (05)
- high              Ma = 2,48   Ma = 2,65
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa= ns
T2 caregiving by T1 happiness (30 years ago)

Ma controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of support provided
Subject code: S11ab01

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelCare
Page in Source 270,275,280,284,288,293
Our classificationAmount of support provided, code S11ab01
Operationalization
Hours spent on care.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 90%, 1: 4%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 1%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 89%, 1: 5%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: *%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 89%, 1: 4%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: *%, 17-24: *%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.2  M = 0.3 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.2  M = 0.4 hrs         -0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.2  M = 0.2 hrs          0.0 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of support provided
Subject code: S11ab01

StudyLee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25.1%
Respondents N =403

Correlate
Author's labelAid given
Page in Source 220,221
Our classificationAmount of support provided, code S11ab01
Operationalization
Aid given to children was measured by an set of items, 
identical to the set of items measuring aid received 
(see next page)with the addition of “help with 
babysitting”
Observed distributionMean 4.4 SD 3.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=-.06
MALES
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.00
Beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-number of children
-interaction
-aid received
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=-.01
FEMALES
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=-.13
Beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-number of children
-interaction
-aid received


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of support provided
Subject code: S11ab01

StudyMitchell (1985): study US 1974
TitleFamily Helping Behavior and the Elderly: A Two-Dimensional Approach.
SourceFree Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 1985, Vol. 13, 21 - 26
Public65+ aged, with children, USA, 1974
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2147

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived active help given to (grand)children
Page in Source 25
Our classificationAmount of support provided, code S11ab01
Operationalization
Perceived active help given to (grand)children for:
-Illness
-Running errands
-Housekeeping
-Money matters
-Taking them places
(1 = don't do, 2 = do)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and People supported
Subject code: S11ab02

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelDependent children/parents
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationPeople supported, code S11ab02
Operationalization
Self-report:
a) having children that are dependent on you
1: yes
0: no
b) having parents that are dependent on you
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributiona) 55.3%, b) 6.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.15 ns
DEPENDENT CHILDREN (vs no dependent children)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.19 p < .10
DEPENDENT PARENTS (vs no dependent parents)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Household income
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Unemployed
- Sociability
- Marital status
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and People supported
Subject code: S11ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelHelping neighbours
Page in Source 164
Our classificationPeople supported, code S11ab02
Operationalization
Full items not reported; questions on helping 
neighbours.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Financial
Subject code: S11ab02b

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelRemittances
Page in Source 116
Our classificationFinancial, code S11ab02b
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Of which how much did you remit to your home village 
.. Yuan
Observed distributionM=2760

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.01 ns
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Household income
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Financial
Subject code: S11ab02b

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =632

Correlate
Author's labelspending
Page in Source 1
Our classificationFinancial, code S11ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on two questions on how much one spends in a 
typical month on:
A for oneself
  - bills and expenses
  - gifts for themselves
B for others
  - gifts for others
  - donation to charity
Observed distributionpersonal M=$1713.91, SD=1895.65; prosocial M=$145.96, SD=306.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
SPENDING FOR ONESELF
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.03 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- spending for others
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.04 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
SPENDING FOR OTHERS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.11 p < .01
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.11 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- spending for one-self
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.10 p < .03
Beta additonally controlled for:
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Financial
Subject code: S11ab02b

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelspending
Page in Source 2
Our classificationFinancial, code S11ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions on percentage of money from 
the bonus one has spent for:
A ONE-SELF
  - bills and expensed
  - rent or mortgage
  - buying something for themselves
B OTHERS
  - buying something for someone else
  - donating to charity
Observed distributionpersonal M=63.44, SD=38.20; prosocial M=$12.19, SD=18.35
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
% BONUS SPEND FOR ONE-SELF
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=-.48 ns
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=-.55 p < .05
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- % spend to others
- income
- T1 happiness indicating CHANGE in happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
% BONUS SPEND FOR OTHERS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.67 p < .01
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.70 p < .01
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.81 p < .02
Beta controlled for:
- % spend for one-self
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE of happiness)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.96 p < .02
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.81 p < .03
Beta additonally controlled for:
- bonus amount


Correlational finding on Happiness and Practical
Subject code: S11ab02c

StudyOshio (2011): study JP 2007
TitleGender Differences among Elderly Japanese: Importance of Family and Social Relations for Life Satisfaction.
SourceRIETI Discussion Paper Series 11-E-051, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, JAA, (RIETI), Hitotsubashi University, 2011, Japan
URLhttp://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/dp/11e051.pdf
Public50-75 aged, Japan, 2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3063

Correlate
Author's labelProvision of nursing care to parents and parents-in-law
Page in Source 7, 23
Our classificationPractical, code S11ab02c
Operationalization
Self report on whether nursing care is provided to at 
least one of the parents or parents-in-law.
1: provision of nursing care
0: non provison of nursing care (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.92 ns
Men:
parents     (provision vs non-provision)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.09
Women       (provision vs non-provision )
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.14 ns
Men:
parents-in-law     (provision vs non-provision)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.44 p < .01
Women
parents-in-law (provision vs non-provision)

OR controlled for:
-age
-educational attainment
-house ownership
-occupational status
-survey areas


Correlational finding on Happiness and Practical
Subject code: S11ab02c

StudyDeBoer & VanCampen (2007): study NL 2004
TitleInformele Helpers en o zo Gelukkig. (Informal Caregivers are happy; up to a point!)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.; "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 72 - 76.
Public16+aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelInfomal helpers
Page in Source 73
Our classificationPractical, code S11ab02c
Operationalization
Selfreport of average number of hours per week spend on 
unpaid help to sick or handicapped family-members, 
friends or neighbours.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
Hours unpaid help per week
0:     M=3,60
1:     M=3,71
2:     M=3,78
3:     M=3,82
4:     M=3,81
5:     M=3,77
6:     M=3,69
7-8:   M=3,57
9-10:  M=3,41
11-20: M=3,21
21-40: M=2,97
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Kinds of support provided
Subject code: S11ab03

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelBonus amount
Page in Source 2
Our classificationKinds of support provided, code S11ab03
Operationalization
amount of bonus in $
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.18 ns
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.03 ns
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for:
- % bonus spend for others


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own support behavior
Subject code: S11ac

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with kin
Page in Source Extra info
Our classificationAttitudes to own support behavior, code S11ac
Operationalization
Direct question: "Is it important for   people living 
in town to keep up contacts with their rural kin or is 
it better to concentrate on their family in town? Why?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDMt=
Happiness level in Mt' (0-10):
rural: information   males: 7.5   females: 7.2
       help me              7.0            8.0
       help them            7.3            7.4
       norm                 6.7            7.3
       other                8.2            6.8
town:  help          males: 7.6   females: 6.8
       demand               6.9            8.0
       unknown              8.5            7.9
       other                7.1            7.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own support behavior
Subject code: S11ac

StudyAntonucci et al. (1998): study US 1980
TitleNegative Effects of Close Social Relations.
SourceFamily Relations, 1998, Vol. 47, 379 - 384
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/585268
Public50-95 aged, married, with children, USA,1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =366

Correlate
Author's labelNetwork too demanding
Page in Source 381
Our classificationAttitudes to own support behavior, code S11ac
Operationalization
Respondents were asked:
about how often do you feel that people in your network 
make to many demonds on you?
0: never
1: seldom
2: sometimes
3: often.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.15 p < .10
women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.19 p < .05
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.11 ns
women

Beta's controled for:
- personal characteristics:
  - age
  - education
  - health compared to others
- network sturcture:
  - size of inner cicrle
  - size of middle circle
  - size of outer circle
- negative social support:
  - network doesn't understand
  - network gets on nerve
  - want more dependable network.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own support behavior
Subject code: S11ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with contribution to others life
Page in Source 112
Our classificationAttitudes to own support behavior, code S11ac
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about how much you 
are really contributing to other people's lives?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ moslty 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.43


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, life gives me a lot of pleasure
B On the whole, I am very satisfied with my life today
C Things are getting just worse for me as I get older
D All in all, I find a great deal of happiness today
E I have a lot to be sad about
F Nothing ever turn out for me the way I want it

Scoring
4 strongly agree
3
2
1 strongly disagree

Computation: simple addition. Possible range 6-24
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
1 no
2 rarely
3 sometimes
4 most of the time
5 yes
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied do you feel about your life as a whole...?"
8 delighted
7 very pleased
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are these days.....?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 pretty happy
4 not too happy
3 a bit unhappy
2 pretty unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, are you satisfied with your life or not?
4 satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a seven step quality of life ladder was marked with a smiling face and marked ''GOOD'. The bottom marked with a frowning face and the word 'BAD'
[ 7 ] Good, picture of smiling face
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Bad, picture of frowning face
(Pictures not reproduced here)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDEDH11HELPING
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDEDS10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED
S11ab02aEmotionalP04bbForgiving
S11ab02aEmotionalP04ddThankfull
S11ab02bFinancialH11abCurrent helping
S11ab02cPracticalH11ab01Care giving

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings