Findings on Happiness and SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Subject Code: S09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS3
S09aaStatus career0
S09aa01Earlier socio-economic status9
S09aa03Later socio-economic status1
S09abCurrent socio-economic status 67
S09ab01'Objective' socio-economic status75
S09ab02Subjective social rank20
S09acStatus consistency4
S09adAttitudes to social status4
S09ad01Concern about socio-economic status0
S09ad02Satisfaction with own status4
S09aa02Change in socio-economic status2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Subject code: S09

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Social Group
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, code S09
Operationalization
1: Family Social Group I
2: Family Social Group II
3: Family Social Group III
4: Family Social Group IV
5: Family Social Group V
6: Not included in any family social group
Observed distributionN: 1:61, 2:17, 3:141, 4:560, 5:267, 6:218,
Remarks
Family Social Group as defined by 
the Danish Institute of Social Research
Family Social Group I is the highest on the social 
ladder
The unemployed are in Group 6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.05 ns
1: Family Social Group I   Mt=7.83
2: Family Social Group II  Mt=8.24
3: Family Social Group III Mt=7.73
4: Family Social Group IV  Mt=7.79
5: Family Social Group V   Mt=8.04
6: Not included in         Mt=7.26
All                        Mt=7,75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.03 ns
1: Family Social Group I   Mt=7.38
2: Family Social Group II  Mt=7.94
3: Family Social Group III Mt=7.58
4: Family Social Group IV  Mt=7.43
5: Family Social Group V   Mt=7.60 
6: Not included            Mt=7.18
All                        Mt=7,44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.05 ns
1: Family Social Group I   Mt=6.85
2: Family Social Group II  Mt=7.20
3: Family Social Group III Mt=7.11
4: Family Social Group IV  Mt=6.95
5: Family Social Group V   Mt=7.24 
6: Not included in         Mt=6.50
All                        Mt=6,95


Correlational finding on Happiness and SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Subject code: S09

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelSocial group
Page in Source 60
Our classificationSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, code S09
Operationalization
1: Social Group I
2: Social Group II
3: Social Group III
4: Social Group IV
5: Social Group V
6: Not included in any social group
Observed distributionN: 1:88, 2;29, 3:144, 4:477, 5:191, 6:239
Remarks
(Socialeconomic group 1:entrepreneurs with at least 21 
employees, higher university degree;
Social group 5:unskilled workers, Unemployed in Group 
6)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .01
1: Social Group I   Mt=7.98
2: Social Group II  Mt=7.93
3: Social Group III Mt=7.71 
4: Social Group IV  Mt=7.83
5: Social Group V   Mt=8.04
6: Not included     Mt=7.25
                All Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .05
1: Social Group I   Mt=7.59  
2: Social Group II  Mt=7.85
3: Social Group III Mt=7.60
4: Social Group IV  Mt=7.40
5: Social Group V   Mt=7.50
6: Not included     Mt=7.13
                All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.05 ns
1: Social Group I   Mt=6.85
2: Social Group II  Mt=7.15
3: Social Group III Mt=7.05
4: Social Group IV  Mt=6.98
5: Social Group V   Mt=7.25 
6: Not included     Mt=6.51
                All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Subject code: S09

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelfamily social group
Page in Source 66
Our classificationSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, code S09
Operationalization
family social group
1: not included in any family social group
2: family social group V
3: family social group IV
4: family social group III
5: family social group II
6: family social group I
Observed distributionN all: 4437, 1 :434, 2:479; 3:2117; 4:704; 5:90; 6:613
Remarks
The family social groupis connected with the social 
group as defined in Seq.nr.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < .00
1: Mt=6.71
2: Mt=7.68
3: Mt=7.81
4: Mt=8.00
5: Mt=8.03
6: Mt=8.00
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.13 p < .00
1: Mt=6.39
2: Mt=7.21
3: Mt=7.51
4: Mt=7.73
5: Mt=7.84
6: Mt=7.70
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.12 p < .00
1: Mt=6.34
2: Mt=6.71
3: Mt=7.08
4: Mt=7.30
5: Mt=7.33
6: Mt=7.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelStatus
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
Socio-economic status based upon:
- skill level and specialization of a persons job
- prestige score related to a certain occupation 
(general desirability or goodness of an occupation)
Remarks
Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale 
(Treiman, 1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.16
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT level of status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.09
CURRENT happines by PAST level of status (one year 
ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.06
Status (two years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.09
Status (three years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02
Status (four years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.01 ns
CURRENT happines (T) by CHANGE in status (T-1 to 
T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.01 ns
Positive change only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 ns
Negative change only

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- houzehold income
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelSocial background variables
Page in Source 252,253
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
a. Fathers occupation low and normal
   family (reference)
b. Father's education
c. Mother's education
d. Fathers occupation intermediate
e. Fathers occupation high
f. Fathers occupation independent
g. Social status low
i. Number of siblings
Observed distributionFathers education: 2,46 Mothers education: 2,25 Number od siblings: 5,02.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.06 ns
Fathers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.03 ns
Mothers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.05 ns
Fathers occupation intermediate
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 ns
Fathers occupation high
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.02 ns
Fathers occupation independent
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Social status low
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Number of siblings

OPRC's controlled for:
-schooling 
-intelligence
-gender and family status
-labour market status
-health status

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote whether the 
correlation is positive or negative and the 
relative differences in correlation (not 
significant) between social background variables 
and happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyGuillen-Royo & Velazco (2012): study PE 2005
TitleHappy Villages and Unhappy Slums? Understanding Happiness Determinants in Peru.
SourceSelin, H.; Davey, G; Eds.: "Happiness Across Cultures. Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures Across Cultures. The History of Non-Westeren Science 6.", Springer, 2012, New York, USA, 253 - 270
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_18
PublicGeneral public, Peruvian corridor region, Peru, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =251

Correlate
Author's labelRelative in official position
Page in Source Table 9
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.36 ns
B controlled for: 
-View on happiness
 -satisfaction
 -satisfaction * non-urban
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.36 p < .1
B controlled for: 
-View on happiness
 -virtue
 -virtue * non-urban
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=.32 ns
B controlled for: 
-View on happiness
 -stoicism
 -stoicism * non-urban

All B's also controlled for:
 -age
 -marital status
 -gender
 -chronic illness
 -household expenditure
 -average expenditure
 -non-urban


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier socioeconomic status
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
Question about the socio-economic status asked 11 years 
ago, at T1(1969)
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=
T1 socio-economic status by T5 happiness (11 year 
interval)
Males:   r= -.06 (ns)        
Females: r= -.04 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 209
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
Index including father's occupational status, father's 
education, mother's education, possessions in the home, 
number of books in the home, number of rooms per person 
in the home. 
S.E.S. assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.00
Happiness T1
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.00
Happiness T2
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.01
Happiness T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelPre-retirement SES
Page in Source 31
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
Duncan index for longest job.
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.01 ns
T1 occupational status by T2 happiness (post 
retirement)

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement
  - health  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                       
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.01 ns
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income
 
Same for blacks and whites.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelFamily's socioeconomic level
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
Index consisting of six equally weighted components: 
father's occupational status; father's educational 
level; mother's educational level; number of rooms per 
person in home; number of books in home; checklist of 
other possesions in the home. Scale:1.00 to 8.00. 
Assesed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+ ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of spouse
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
Direct questions:
 
- Educational level of spouse (AB or better) 
  a. in 1940.

- Occupational level of spouse
  b. 1940
  c. 1950
  d. 1960
Remarks
Earlier level of spouce (1940, 1950, 1960) by present 
happiness of subject (1972).
    
     

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .02
1940 education of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi=+ p < .02
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .03
1940 occupation of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 occupation of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 occupation of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier occupation level
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier socio-economic status, code S09aa01
Operationalization
1 Managerial, professional, art
0 Sales, clerical, homemaker
Remarks
Assessed in 1940, 1950, 1960 and 1972.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .05
1940 level by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 level by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 level by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1972 level by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa02

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelChange of social class
Page in Source 8
Our classificationChange in socio-economic status, code S09aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: exact question unknown.

Rated:
1 Lowest
:
10 Highest

Unknown how change is examined.
Remarks
Order reversed by World Database of Happiness team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 p < .01
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.02 p < .01
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.01 ns
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 p < .01
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa02

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelStatus
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationChange in socio-economic status, code S09aa02
Operationalization
Socio-economic status based upon:
- skill level and specialization of a persons job
- prestige score related to a certain occupation 
(general desirability or goodness of an occupation)
Remarks
Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale 
(Treiman, 1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.16
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT level of status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.09
CURRENT happines by PAST level of status (one year 
ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.06
Status (two years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.09
Status (three years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02
Status (four years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.01 ns
CURRENT happines (T) by CHANGE in status (T-1 to 
T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.01 ns
Positive change only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 ns
Negative change only

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- houzehold income
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa03

StudyAndrews (1991): study US 1980
TitleStability and Change in Levels and Structure of Subjective Well-Being: USA 1972 and 1988.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 25, 1 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00727649
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1972-1988
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2985

Correlate
Author's labelSocioeconomic status
Page in Source 24-25
Our classificationLater socio-economic status, code S09aa03
Operationalization
Respondents were assigned to one of five status 
categories based on their education and income: low, 
low/medium, medium, medium/high, high.

Respondents with inconsistent combinations of income 
and education were excluded from the analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDMt=+
socioeconomic    happiness (Ms')    change (DMt')
status:           1972   1988         1972-1988
low                7.2    7.3              +0.1 
low/medium         7.3    7.8              +0.5
medium             7.5    8.0              +0.5 
medium/high        7.7    8.3              +0.6
high               7.8    8.3              +0.5
Happiness scores rated on 1-7 point scale. Means 
transformed to 0-10 scale (Ms')


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
2       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.87      Mt=6.3
2       M=3.06      Mt=6.9
3       M=3.12      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.11      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .67      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic status
Page in Source 76
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Measure not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=+.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.87      Mt=6.9
3       M=1.97      Mt=7.0
4       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
2       M=6.46      Mt=6.1
3       M=6.83      Mt=6.5
4       M=7.13      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
2       M=3.20      Mt=7.3
3       M=3.28      Mt=7.6
4       M=3.33      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.17 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
2       M=3.34      Mt=7.8
3       M=3.38      Mt=7.9
4       M=3.37      Mt=7.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
2       M=3.34      Mt=7.8
3       M=3.38      Mt=7.9
4       M=3.37      Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.95      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.95      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .84      Mt=5.8
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
4       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.71      Mt=5.8
2       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
3       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.14      Mt=5.7
2       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.87      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .21      Mt=5.2
2       M=1.33      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.31      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.88      Mt=6.3
2       M=2.92      Mt=6.4
3       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
4       M=3.07      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.14 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study BR 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1960-1961
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2168

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.38 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.09      Mt=3.6
2       M=2.34      Mt=4.5
3       M=2.39      Mt=4.6
4       M=2.51      Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.27      Mt=3.6
2       M=5.06      Mt=4.5
3       M=5.25      Mt=4.7
4       M=5.41      Mt=4.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
2       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
3       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
4       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
3       M=7.91      Mt=7.7
4       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.70      Mt=6.7
2       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
3       M=2.39      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.69      Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .55      Mt=5.5
2       M=1.03      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.83      Mt=6.1
2       M=3.08      Mt=6.9
3       M=3.09      Mt=7.0
4       M=3.25      Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.98      Mt=6.6
2       M=2.91      Mt=6.4
3       M=2.91      Mt=6.4
4       M=2.48      Mt=4.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.07 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study CU 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged, general public, urban areas, Cuba, 1960
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =992

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high
Cantril's book did not offer enough 
information to decide whether 'income'
or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.16 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study DO 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =814

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high           
Cantril's book did not offer enough information to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measu- red.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.88 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study XZ Germany West 1957
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
PublicAdults, general public, West-Germany, 1957
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =480

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 370-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether  'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.23 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.50      Mt=4.5
2       M= .69      Mt=5.7
3       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.73      Mt=4.1
2       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
3       M=6.91      Mt=6.6
4       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.48      Mt=4.9
2       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
3       M=3.17      Mt=7.2
4       M=3.32      Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.24 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.22 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.22 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.18 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
2       M=6.73      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.81      Mt=6.5
4       M=6.75      Mt=6.4
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.85      Mt=6.2
2       M=2.98      Mt=6.6
3       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
4       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .66      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atb=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.71      Mt=5.8
2       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
3       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.14      Mt=5.7
2       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.87      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .21      Mt=5.2
2       M=1.33      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.31      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.14      Mt=5.7
2       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.87      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .21      Mt=5.2
2       M=1.33      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.31      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.71      Mt=5.8
2       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
3       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.14 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.14 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelLow social class laborers
Page in Source 253
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Self report on social class. Text is not reported.
1:low social class-laborers
0:high social class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=0.6 p < .05
CI95 [0.5-0.8]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyMitchell (1972): study HK 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 1967
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =3966

Correlate
Author's labelRespectable job
Page in Source 233
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Single direct question : "Having a respectable job 
compared with others, would you say that you :
exceed others/about the same as others/
fall short of others ?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aG=-.05 ns
Figures based on half of the sample.

L-shaped curve


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .20      Mt=5.2
2       M= .83      Mt=5.8
3       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
4       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.45      Mt=4.9
2       M=6.04      Mt=5.6
3       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
4       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.53      Mt=5.1
2       M=2.71      Mt=5.7
3       M=2.80      Mt=6.0
4       M=2.89      Mt=6.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,
    unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,
    semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .80      Mt=5.8
2       M=2.05      Mt=7.0
3       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.77      Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
2       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
4       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
2       M=3.26      Mt=7.5
3       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
4       M=3.43      Mt=8.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .08      Mt=5.1
2       M= .47      Mt=5.5
3       M= .37      Mt=5.4
4       M= .77      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.93      Mt=5.5
2       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
3       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
4       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.69      Mt=5.6
2       M=2.87      Mt=6.2
3       M=2.87      Mt=6.2
4       M=2.81      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.17 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study IN 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, India, 1962
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 368
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
4-point scale.

Cantril's book did not offer enough information to 
decide whether 'income'
or 'S.E.S' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= +
Lowest  : Mt = 3.0
Second  : Mt = 3.8
Third   : Mt = 4.3
Highest : Mt = 4.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study IN 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, India, 1962
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.42 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,
    unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,
    semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
2       M=3.34      Mt=7.8
3       M=3.40      Mt=8.0
4       M=3.40      Mt=8.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.94      Mt=6.9
3       M=2.35      Mt=7.3
4       M=2.52      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
2       M=3.34      Mt=7.8
3       M=3.40      Mt=8.0
4       M=3.40      Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
2       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
3       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
4       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
2       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
3       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
4       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.94      Mt=6.9
3       M=2.35      Mt=7.3
4       M=2.52      Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.55 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 369
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Lower / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= +
Lower   : Mt = 4.0
Middle  : Mt = 5.5
Upper   : Mt = 6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.86      Mt=6.2
2       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
3       M=2.98      Mt=6.6
4       M=2.93      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .49      Mt=5.5
2       M=1.31      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.63      Mt=6.3
2       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
2       M=2.93      Mt=6.4
3       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
4       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
2       M=6.28      Mt=5.9
3       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
4       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .25      Mt=5.3
2       M= .38      Mt=5.4
3       M= .45      Mt=5.5
4       M= .62      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.86      Mt=6.2
2       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
3       M=2.98      Mt=6.6
4       M=2.93      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .49      Mt=5.5
2       M=1.31      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.63      Mt=6.3
2       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study JP 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Japan, 1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 370
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Lower; lower middle / middle / upper middle; upper.

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= +
Upper, upper middle : Mt = 5.8
Middle              : Mt = 5.3
Lower middle, lower : Mt = 4.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study KR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1251

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.62      Mt=5.4
2       M=2.76      Mt=5.9
3       M=2.92      Mt=6.4
4       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.44      Mt=4.9
2       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
3       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
4       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.26 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.16 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.14 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.19 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelSocio Economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.50      Mt=4.5
2       M= .69      Mt=5.7
3       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.24 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.76      Mt=5.9
2       M=2.95      Mt=6.5
3       M=3.05      Mt=6.8
4       M=3.19      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .93      Mt=5.9
2       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.55      Mt=6.6
4       M=2.20      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.19 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

Study~Unicef (2001): study ZZ East Asia 2001
TitleSpeaking Out! Voices of Children and Adolescents in East Asia and the Pacific: Regional Opinion Survey.
SourceUnicef, 2001, Bangkok, Thailand
Public9-17 aged children, 17 countries/regions East Asia and Pacific 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10073

Correlate
Author's labelSES
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
1: Lower class
2: Middle class
3: Upper class
Observed distribution N = 1: 4601, 2: 3507, 3: 1625

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-eDM=+
Lower   M=3,45 CI95 [3.43-3.47] SD=0,56
Middle  M=3,51 CI95 [3.49-3.52] SD=0,53   
Upper   M=3,58 CI95 [3.56-3.61] SD=0,52
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-eBMCT=
1<2<3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2005): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleMobility and the Quality of Life.
SourceMollenkopf, H; et al; Eds.: "Enhanching Mobility in Later Life", IOS Press, 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 279 - 288
Public55+ aged, 6 European Countries, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelSES
Page in Source 280,284
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Factor based on:
A: income per person
B: overall satisfaction with financial situation
C: education
Error EstimatesFactor loadings: A: +.82; B:+.52; C: +.45

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- Age 
- Gender
- Vision
- Physical mobility
- Visumotoric coordination
- External control belief
- Urban vs rural
- Residential area
- Variety of social network
- Outdoor motivation
- Outdoor mobility
- Quality of life
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976e): study ZZ Latin America 1976 /1
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Latin America: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976c.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2059

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Class
Page in Source nn
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
1: lower
2: lower middle
3: upper and upper middle
Observed distributionN= 1:168, 2:767, 3:1108
Remarks
Measurement not reported. Probably interviewe estimate.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 5,51 [CI95 5,20-5,90]
2: M = 5,67 {CI95 5,51-5,82]
3: M = 6,91 [CI95 6,82-7,01]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.27 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
1: M = 2,05 [CI95 1,95-2,16]
2: M = 1,85 {CI95 1,79-1,91]
3: M = 2,30 [CI95 2,26-2,35]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.20 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
1: M = 6,55 [CI95 6,14-6,97]
2: M = 6,32 {CI95 6,16-6,48]
3: M = 7,70 [CI95 7,60-7,79]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.26 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Class
Page in Source nn
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
1: lower
2: lower middle
3: upper and upper middle
Observed distributionN= 1:230, 2:325, 3:315

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,13 [CI95 2,88-3,37]
2: M = 4,64 [CI95 4,41-4,88]
3: M = 5,19 [CI95 4,93-5,44]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.34 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=+
1: M = 1,37 [CI95 1,30-1,44]
2: M = 1,64 [CI95 1,56-1,71]
3: M = 1,95 [CI95 1,87-2,02]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.30 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,17 [CI95 2,90-3,44]
2: M = 5,25 [CI95 5,03-5,46]
3: M = 5,43 [CI95 5,20-5,65]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.36 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyBohn (1972): study ZZ Various nation sets 1960
TitleThe Effect of Children upon Life Satisfaction. A Thesis in Child Development and Family Relationships.
SourceUnpublished Master Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1972, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bohn_cj_1972.pdf
Public21+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, Panama and Yugoslavia, 1960
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5228

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 31
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Lower vs upper (scoring unclear).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .01
Stronger among those who have no children (01)
Lower among those who have children (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyWetsteijn (2008): study NL 2004
TitleHet Goede Leven: de Relatie tussen Geluk en Leefstijl in Nederland. (The Good Life: the Relation between Happiness and Lifestyle in the Netherlands.)
SourceMaster Thesis, 2008, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wetsteijn_j_2008.pdf
Public15-80 aged, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1693

Correlate
Author's labelSociale ladder
Page in Source 13
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Self report on single question.
(text not reported)
1: lowest social status
--
10: highest social status

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-cr=+.23 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyJelicic & Kempen (1999): study NL Goningen 1992
TitleShort Report: Chronic Medical Conditions and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly.
SourcePsychology and Health, 1999, Vol. 14, 65 - 70
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449908407314
Public57+ aged, North Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response44,5%
Respondents N =8723

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 66
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
measurement not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .95      Mt=5.9
2       M=1.90      Mt=6.9
3       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.29      Mt=7.6
2       M=3.47      Mt=8.2
3       M=3.42      Mt=8.1
4       M=3.33      Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.45      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
2       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
3       M=6.48      Mt=6.1
4       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.98      Mt=6.6
2       M=2.87      Mt=6.2
3       M=2.84      Mt=6.1
4       M=3.10      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.07 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study NG 1963
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1962-63
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.52 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study PA 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Panama, 1962
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =642

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.52 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study PH 1959
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Philipines, 1959
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.44 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PL 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =938

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.22      Mt=4.7
2       M=6.47      Mt=6.1
3       M=6.99      Mt=6.7
4       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.67      Mt=5.6
2       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
3       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
4       M=3.06      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
3       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
4       M=2.21      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.20 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.11 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1185

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.55      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.80      Mt=6.4
2       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.73      Mt=5.8
2       M=2.86      Mt=6.2
3       M=2.85      Mt=6.2
4       M=2.99      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RO 1993
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1103

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.16      Mt=3.9
2       M=2.53      Mt=5.1
3       M=2.68      Mt=5.6
4       M=2.85      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.19      Mt=3.5
2       M=5.52      Mt=5.0
3       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
4       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.42      Mt=4.6
2       M= .40      Mt=5.4
3       M= .90      Mt=5.9
4       M=1.17      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.21 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.17 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study CS 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Yugoslavia, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1523

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.22 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SI 1992
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1035

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.27      Mt=3.6
2       M=5.06      Mt=4.5
3       M=5.25      Mt=4.7
4       M=5.41      Mt=4.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.09      Mt=3.6
2       M=2.34      Mt=4.5
3       M=2.39      Mt=4.6
4       M=2.51      Mt=5.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.65      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelCommunity role
Page in Source 631
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
0: no prestigious role
1: prestigious role
 - chief headman
 - regular headman
 - policeman
 - trader
 - big farmer or landlord  
Remarks
Direction of correlation unclear in original report. 
Sign in table is negative, but text indicates positive 
relationship. Present version approved by author.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.11 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.20 p < .01
All
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.09 ns
All
 controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Voluntary retirement
- More active person
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Satisfied with job while working
- Enjoys aspects of retirement
- Retired suddenly
- Is happy as grandparents were
- Agrees:planning is key to success
- Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
- Higher modernity score
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.15 p < .05
-65 years of age
 controlled for:
- Satisfaction with health
- Perceived financial adequacy
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Looked forward to retirement
- Is happy as grandparents were
- Aged gradually


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyFernandez Ballesteros (1998): study ES 1993
TitleQuality of Life: The Differential Conditions.
SourcePsychology in Spain, 1998, Vol. 2, 57 - 65
URLhttp://www.psychologyinspain.com/content/reprints/1998/7.htm
Public65+ aged, Spain, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1014

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 63
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Score based on income and (earlier???) professional 
status
4: upper-middle class
3: middle class
2: lower-middle class
1: low class
Observed distributionN = 4: 68; 3: 216; 2: 265; 1: 184
Remarks
Housewives not included (N = 275)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-aDM=+ s
Lower-middle and lower class (compared to other 
classes) presented significantly lower scores in 
life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ES 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4147

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.94      Mt=6.5
2       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
3       M=3.11      Mt=7.0
4       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
2       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
3       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .17      Mt=5.2
2       M= .63      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .17      Mt=5.2
2       M= .63      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.94      Mt=6.5
2       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
3       M=3.11      Mt=7.0
4       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
2       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
3       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study TR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,
    unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,
    semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .13      Mt=5.1
2       M= .55      Mt=5.5
3       M= .70      Mt=5.7
4       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
2       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
3       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
4       M=3.22      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.89      Mt=5.4
2       M=6.32      Mt=5.9
3       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
4       M=6.58      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.14 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

Study~BBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 1
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
1: AB= Professional, business and white collar
2: C1= Higher skilled manual
3: C2= Lower skilled manual
4: DE= Un-skilled manual
Observed distribution1: N=206; 2: N=302; 3: N=221; 4: N=271

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=+
AB: M=3,29  CI95=3,21-3,37
C1: M=3,20  CI95=3,12-3,29
C2: M=3,29  CI95=3,20-3,37
DE: M=3,21  CI95=3,12-3,30
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=+
AB: M=7,56  CI95=7,37-7,75
C1: M=7,29  CI95=7,10-7,48
C2: M=7,56  CI95=7,33-7,79
DE: M=7,02  CI95=6,77-7,27
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBMCT= p < .05
1,2,3 > 4
2,3 > 4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyBowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001
TitleAn Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the ESRC/MRC HSRC Quality of Life Survey in Britain.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2004, Vol. 69, 1 - 36
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:SOCI.0000032656.01524.07
Public65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response23%
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 15
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Standard Omnibus Survey socio-economic
characteristics and classifications was used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.03
Beta controlled for:
- social comparisons and expectations
- personality
- health
- health values
- social capital
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyClark & D'Angelo (2013): study GB 1991
TitleUpward Social Mobility, Well-being and Political Preferences: Evidence from the BHPS.
SourceRePec Working Paper 338, 2013, Italy
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/anc/wpaper/338.html
Public18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1991-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90234

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status
Page in Source 1,9,13,14,27
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Hope-Goldthorpe scale: occupational index that reflects 
the job's reputation and classifies jobs accoording to 
their social desirability.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.21 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- hours of work
- firm size
- gender
- age
- age squared
- education
- marital status
- household size
- region
- wave dummies
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for father's social 
status.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.21 ns
Beta additionally controlled for mother's social 
status.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.07 ns
Beta additionally controlled for mobility relative 
to father.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.02 ns
Beta additionally controlled for the correlation 
between own social status and mobility relative to 
father.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.12 ns
Beta additionally controlled for mobility relative 
to mother.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.05 ns
Beta additionally controlled for mobility relative 
to mother and the correlation between own social 
status and mobility relative to mother.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyClark & D'Angelo (2013): study GB 1991 /1
TitleUpward Social Mobility, Well-being and Political Preferences: Evidence from the BHPS.
SourceRePec Working Paper 338, 2013, Italy
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/anc/wpaper/338.html
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1991-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 9,13,27
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Hope-Goldthorpe Scale: 36 categorie occupational index 
that reflects the job' s reputation and classifies jobs 
according to their social desirability.
Error Estimates0.05-0.10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- demographic variables:
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - marital status
  - household size
- work variables:
  - hours of work
  - firm size
- region 
- year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for father's social 
status.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.15 ns
Beta instead controlled for mother's social 
status.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controlled for own status higher than parents 
status (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =304

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,        unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,        semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.14      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
4       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
3       M=8.08      Mt=7.9
4       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
2       M=3.29      Mt=7.6
3       M=3.28      Mt=7.6
4       M=3.41      Mt=8.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.71      Mt=5.8
2       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
3       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.14      Mt=5.7
2       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.87      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .21      Mt=5.2
2       M=1.33      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.31      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.08 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.14 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1484

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,
    unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,
    semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyAbrams (1973): study GB 1971
TitleSubjective Social Indicators.
SourceSocial Trends, 1973, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public16+ aged, general public, urban areas, United Kingdom, 1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status
Page in Source 38
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
4 middle class                 
3 lower middel class           
2 skilled manual workers       
1 unskiled and social security

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=+
middle class                 M = 6.5
lower middel class           M = 5.6
skilled manual workers       M = 5.4
unskiled and social security M = 4.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study US 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1839

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent socio- economic status
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Interviewer estimate ....
1   DE Manual workers - unskilled,
    unemployed
2   C2 Manual workers - skilled,
    semi-skilled
3   C1 Middle, non-manual workers
4   AB Upper, upper-middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .80      Mt=5.8
2       M=2.05      Mt=7.0
3       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.77      Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
2       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
4       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
2       M=3.26      Mt=7.5
3       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
4       M=3.43      Mt=8.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
2       M=3.26      Mt=7.5
3       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
4       M=3.43      Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
2       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
4       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .80      Mt=5.8
2       M=2.05      Mt=7.0
3       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.77      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.45      Mt=8.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .97      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.17 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atb=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.11 p < .001
 controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 18 months, 1989
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 181
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Occupational prestige (by Nakao and Treas) score, from 
0 (lowest) to 100 (highest).
Remarks
T1-T2 lag: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=-.03 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 occupational 
status.

Beta controlled for:
- Form of tenure
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - sex
  - income
- housing condition
- neighborhood satisfaction
- housing type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyRohe & Basolo (1997): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleLong-Term Effects of Homeownership on the Self-Perceptions and Social Interaction of Low-Income Persons.
SourceEnvironment and Behavior, 1997, Vol. 29, 793 - 819
URLhttp://eab.sagepub.com/content/29/6/793
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0013916597296004
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 36 months, 1989-1991
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 809
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Occopational prestige (by Nakao and Treas) score, from 
0 (lowest) to 100 (highest).
Remarks
T1-T3 lag: 36 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=-.06 ns
T3-T1 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 occupational 
status.

Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- form of tenure
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - income
  - sex
- housing condition
- neighborthood satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelHusband's job status
Page in Source 1065,1070
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Social economic status of the husband:
1 Working class: husband employed in a blue-collar job
2 Middle class: husband employed in a white-collar 
husband:
Observed distributionHusband with white collar job: N=313, Husband with blue collar job: N =283

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+
Employed 
White collar husbands M = 5,90
Blue collar husbands  M = 5,69
Difference               +0,21  

Housewives 
White collar husbands M = 5,89
Blue collar husbands  M = 5,76
Difference            +   0,13
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Employed 
White collar husbands M = 1,91
Blue collar husbands  M = 1,64
Difference               +0,25        

Housewives 
White collar husbands M = 1,76
Blue collar husbands  M = 1,54
Difference               +0,22
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.00 ns
Employed women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.01
Housewives
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.00 ns
Employed women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+00 ns
Housewives

B's controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Respondents present or last job status
- Social desirability
- Time pressure

reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelPresent or last job status
Page in Source 1070
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+00 ns
Employed women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.00 ns
Housewives

b's controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Husband's job status
- social desirability
- time pressure
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.00 p < .05
Employed women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.01 p < .05
Housewives

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Husband's job status
- social desirability
- time pressure

Reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril & Roll (1971): study US 1964
TitleHopes and Fears of the American People.
SourceUniverse Books, 1971, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1964-1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1588

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 66
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Lower / lower middle / upper middle / upper


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+
Lower           :Ms = 6.3 (1964)  5.9 (1971)
Lower middle    :Ms = 6.5 (1964)  6.5 (1971)
Upper middle    :Ms = 7.0 (1964)  6.8 (1971)
Upper           :Ms = 7.4 (1964)  7.5 (1971)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyCantril (1965): study US 1959
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1549

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic level
Page in Source 378-380
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Low / middle / high
Cantril's book did not offer enough in- formation to 
decide whether 'income' or 'S.E.S.' was measured here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.25 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 574
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
Husband's occupation
0 = nonprofessional
1 = professional or managerial
Observed distribution0 = 58 %, 1 = 42%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
Betas controlled for:
- age
- education
- life-cycle stage (child < 6 or not)
- number of children

Unaffected by:
-number of roles 
-Employment 
-Interaction between Roles/employment
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.01 ns
When additional controlled for interaction 
between:
-Roles/husbands occupation 
-Employment/husbands occupation


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 178,181
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Occupational prestige scores (Nakao and Treas 1990)
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.01 ns
T2 happiness by T2 status
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change in happiness 
after purchase of house)
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Sex 
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Income
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 31-34,57
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
100: Higher professionals                     
  75: Administrators and managers       
  70: Technical employees                     
  60: Higher clerical employees            
  51: Higher sales employees                
  38: Routine clerical workers                  
  37: Skilled manual workers                   
  33: Skilled service workers                   
  32: Routine salews workers                  
  24: Ordinary semi-skilled workers     
  18: Unskilled service workers            
  14: Unskilled manual workers           
  10: Farmers                                           
    
   0: Farm labourers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.02 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
    - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
    - Widowed
    - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance
  - Denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Education
  - Family income
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Job security 
  - Earnings
  - Unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 130
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 p < .01
1                             M'=1.89  Mt'=4.5
2                                2.01      5.1
3                                2.08      5.4
4                                2.26      6.3
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.16 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyGehmacher (1987a): study AT 1987
TitleGebaude Gemeinschaft. (Builded Community).
SourceSWS Rundschau, 1987, Vol. 27, 147 - 156
URLhttp://www.sws-rundschau.at/
PublicResidents housing estates, Vienna, Austria, 1987
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational prestige
Page in Source 151
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Occupation of head of household
1. worker
2. employee or civil servant
3. own business
Remarks
 controled for: sex, age, post-materialism, physical 
health, mental health, education and satisfactions 
(with housing, leisure, social contacts and occupation)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.09
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.12
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.02 ns
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyFessel (1985): study AT 1985
TitleSoziologische und Psychologische Ursachen des Wertwandel Phnomens. (Sociological and Psychological Determinants of Value Change).
SourceResearch Report, Institut fr Empirische Sozialforschung, IFES, 1985, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/fessel_wd_1985.pdf
Public14+ aged, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1027

Correlate
Author's labelSocial rank
Page in Source 111
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1. D/E rank
2. C
3. A/B

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.14 p < .01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.08 p < .01
% often happy
1.  35
2.  55
3.  48


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualitt in sterreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut fr Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultt der Universitt Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelProfessional status of the husband
Page in Source 144,T59
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Two item index of direct questions on the professional 
status of respondent's husband.Rated on a 5-point 
scale.
Remarks
Housewives without a job, aged <60 only (N=336). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
 controlled for:communication with family, and 
three domain satisfactions (health, income, and 
partner)


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsocial group
Page in Source 64
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: Not included in any social group
2: Social Group V
3: Social Group IV
4: Social Group III
5: Social Group II
6: Social Group I
Observed distributionN all:4220, %:1:8,6, 2:18,1, 3:50,8, 4:11,6, 5:1,2, 6:9,6
Remarks
Social group/Class i = Higher Grade Professionals + 
Large Entrepreneurs
Social Class ii = Medium Entrepreneurs + Administrative 
Civil Servants
Social Class iii = Self-Employed Craft Workers + 
Ordinary State Employees + Farmers
Social Class iv = Skilled Labour + Routine Non-Manual 
Workers
Social Class v = Unskilled Labour

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.11 p < .00
1: Mt=6.48
2: Mt=7.83
3: Mt=7.83
4: Mt=7.95
5: Mt=8.09
6: Mt=7.93
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.11 p < .00
1: Mt=6.18
2: Mt=7.41
3: Mt=7.54
4: Mt=7.64
5: Mt=7.80
6: Mt=7.58
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.09 p < .00
1: Mt=6.19
2: Mt=6.96
3: Mt=6.96
4: Mt=7.19
5: Mt=7.25
6: Mt=7.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
24-point scale ranging from "owner or leader of a large 
enterprise" to "agricultural labor"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.03
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of meetings 
with relatives, number of friends, opportunities 
to make personal contacts, possibilities to decide 
on matters concerning one's own personal 
life,number of memberships in clubs and 
associations, interesting life, easyness of life, 
loneliness, feelings of being liked, feeling of 
being able to use knowledge and skills, feeling of 
chance to succeed, gets sufficient attention, 
satisfaction with income, age, gender, no. of 
communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
24-point scale ranging from "owner or leader of a large 
enterprise" to "agricultural labor"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.15
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of meetings 
with relatives, number of friends, opportunities 
to make personal contacts, possibilities to decide 
on matters concerning one's own personal 
life,number of memberships in clubs and 
associations, interesting life, easyness of life, 
loneliness, feelings of being liked, feeling of 
being able to use knowledge and skills, feeling of 
chance to succeed, gets sufficient attention, 
satisfaction with income, age, gender, no. of 
communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 156
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.11 p < .05
1                             M'=1.19  Mt'=1.0
2                                1.54      2.7
3                                1.63      3.2
4                                1.52      2.6
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.18 p < .05
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 148
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.18 p < .01
1                             M'=1.25  Mt'=1.3
2                                1.31      1.5
3                                1.38      1.9
4                                1.67      3.3
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.26 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelStatus
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Socio-economic status based upon:
- skill level and specialization of a persons job
- prestige score related to a certain occupation 
(general desirability or goodness of an occupation)
Remarks
Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale 
(Treiman, 1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.16
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT level of status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.09
CURRENT happines by PAST level of status (one year 
ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.06
Status (two years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.09
Status (three years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02
Status (four years ago)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.01 ns
CURRENT happines (T) by CHANGE in status (T-1 to 
T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.01 ns
Positive change only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 ns
Negative change only

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- houzehold income
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelCaste
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
a: Scheduled caste/tribe
b: Backeward caste
c: general caste (reference)

Full question was not reported.
Observed distributiona: 53.08%; b: 33.86%; c: 19.23%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.02 ns
Scheduled caste/tribe (vs general caste)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
Backeward caste       (vs general caste)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -marital status
 -religion
 -employment status
 -gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelClass
Page in Source 369
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Working / lower / middle / upper middle; upper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= +
Upper; upper middle : Mt = 6.8
Middle              : Mt = 5.7
Lower               : Mt = 3.2
Working             : Mt = 4.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelFamily socio-economic status
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Self report on 4 question: 
a) Does your family own a car, van or truck?
(No/Yes, one/Yes, two or more)
b) Do you have your own bedroom for yourself? 
(Yes/No)
c) During the past 12 months, how many times
did you travel away on holiday with your family? 
(Not at all/Once/Twice/More than twice)
d) How many computers does your family own?
(None/One/Two/More than two)
Observed distributionM=2.30
Remarks
Family Affluence Scale (FAS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrant (born in Italy or not)
- Gender
- Age
- Number of friends
- Friends support
- Bullying victimization


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 176
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.28 p < .01
1                             M'=1.22  Mt'=1.1  2  
                              1.50      2.5  3     
                           1.67      3.3
4                                1.95      4.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.42 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyLee et al. (1982): study KR 1980
TitlePerceptions of Quality of Life in an Industrializing Country: The Case of the Republic of Korea.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 10, 297 - 317
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00301097
PublicParents with unmarried children at home, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic resource level
Page in Source 313
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Index of socio-economic resources by summing up scores 
about family income and educational attainment.
Lowest level (those with less than $200 a month and no 
formal education); lower; middle; higher; highest 
(those with $1000 or more and college degrees)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=+
Lowest     M = 0.9
Lower      M = 1.2
Middle     M = 2.1
Higher     M = 2.9
Highest    M = 3.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 189
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.13 p < .01
1                             M'=1.49  Mt'=2.5
2                                1.65      3.3
3                                1.80      4.0
4                                1.89      4.5
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.21 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 24
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
0 = Upper white collar (reference)
b = Lower white collar
c = Self employed
d = Skilled worker
e = Non skilled worker
f = Farmer
g = Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
LOWER WHITE COLLAR (vs Upperwhite collar)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.29 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.09 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.07 ns
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.05 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
SELF EMPLOYED (vs Upper white collar)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.22 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.11 ns
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.10 ns
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.08 ns
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.06 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
SKILLED WORKERS (vs Upper White Collar)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.72 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.32 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.28 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.24 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.17 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
FARMERS (vs Upper white collar)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.61 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.18 ns
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.18 ns
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.19 ns
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.05 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
NON-SKILLED WORKERS
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.94 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.43 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.37 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.32 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.20 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational level
Page in Source 158
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Occupational level
1.farmer
2.professional/technical
3.semi-professional
4.small business operator
5.skilled worker
6.semi unskilled worker
Observed distribution Professional/technical and semi-professional 40.7% male 40.7%, female 49.6%
Remarks
Unemployed en retired persons excluded

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976e): study ZZ Latin America 1976 /1
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Latin America: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976c.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2059

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
a: white collar
b: blue collar
c: housewives
d: all others
Observed distributionN= a:640, b:473, c:533, d:397

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 6,58 [CI95 6,43-6,72]
b: M = 5,31 [CI95 5,10-5,53]
c: M = 6,35 [CI95 6,16-6,53]
d: M = 5,67 [CI95 5,48-5,86]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT=
b,d < c,a
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
a: M = 2,33 [CI95 2,27-2,39]
b: M = 1,83 [CI95 1,76-1,92]
c: M = 2,13 [CI95 2,07-2,20]
d: M = 1,96 [CI95 1,88-2,03]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dBMCT=
b,d,c < a ; b,d < c
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 7,73 [CI95 7,59-7,88]
b: M = 6,32 [CI95 6,13-6,52]
c: M = 6,84 [CI95 6,62-7,05]
d: M = 6,82 [CI95 6,64-7,00]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT=
b,d,c < a


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976e): study ZZ Latin America 1976 /1
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Latin America: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976c.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2059

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic Class
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: lower
2: lower middle
3: upper and upper middle
Observed distributionN= 1:739, 2:623, 3: 684
Remarks
Measurement not reported. Probably interviewe estimate.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 5,48 [CI95 5,31-5,65]
2: M = 6,39 [CI95 6,24-6,54]
3: M = 7,17 [CI95 7,05-7,28]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.31 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=+
1: M = 1,87 [CI95 1,81-1,92]
2: M = 2,33 [CI95 2,27-2,39]
3: M = 2,35 [CI95 2,20-2,31]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.19 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 6,28 [CI95 6,10-6,46]
2: M = 7,42 [CI95 7,28-7,57]
3: M = 7,73 [CI95 7,60-7,86]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.25 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976c): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 1976
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Africa: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976i.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, sub Sahara African countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =914

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Class
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: lower
2: lower middle
3: upper and upper middle
Observed distributionN= 1:501, 2:239, 3:172
Remarks
Measurement not repeated: probably interviewe estimate.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 4,35 [CI95 4,17-4,53]
2: M = 5,31 [CI95 5,07-5,55]
3: M = 5,44 [CI95 5,11-5,78]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.24 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=-
1: M = 1,88 [CI95 1,81-1,94]
2: M = 1,88 [CI95 1,80-1,95]
3: M = 1,84 [CI95 1,73-1,94]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=-.09 p < .75
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 4,65 [CI95 4,47-4,84]
2: M = 5,57 [CI95 5,32-5,82]
3: M = 5,62 [CI95 5,24-6,01]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.22 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976c): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 1976
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Africa: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976i.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, sub Sahara African countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =914

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic class
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: lower
2: lower middle
3: upper and upper middle
Observed distributionN= 1:541, 2:227, 3:142
Remarks
Measurement not repeated: probably interviewe estimate.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1 M = 4,45 [CI95 4,27 - 4,62]
2 M = 5,22 [CI95 4,96 - 5,48]
3 M = 5,23 [CI95 4,84 - 5,63]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.18 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=-
1 M = 1,89 [CI95 1,83 - 1,95]
2 M = 1,85 [CI95 1,77 - 1,93]
3 M = 1,68 [CI95 1,58 - 1,78]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=-.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
1 M = 4,81 [CI95 4,64 - 4,99]
2 M = 5,32 [CI95 5,05 - 5,59]
3 M = 5,07 [CI95 4,61 - 5,53]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.10 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976c): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 1976
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Africa: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976i.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, sub Sahara African countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =914

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
a: white collar
b: blue collar
c: housewives
d: all others
Observed distributionN= a:192, b:371, c:176, d:155

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 4,91 [CI95 4,59-5,24]
b: M = 4,46 [CI95 4,25-4,66]
c: M = 5,15 [CI95 4,86-5,43]
d: M = 4,03 [CI95 3,66-4,41]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT= p < .05
d,b < a,c ! d < b,a
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
a: M = 1,96 [CI95 1,86-2,06]
b: M = 1,95 [CI95 1,88-2,02]
c: M = 1,81 [CI95 1,70-1,92]
d: M = 1,53 [CI95 1,42-1,63]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dBMCT= p < .05
a,b,c > d
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 5,40 [CI95 5,73-5,08]
b: M = 4,83 [CI95 4,64-5,03]
c: M = 5,18 [CI95 4,84-5,53]
d: M = 4,12 [CI95 3,76-4,48]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT= p < .05
d,b < c,a


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
a: white collar
b: blue collar
c: housewives
d: all others
Observed distributionN= a:229, b:326, c:209, d:107

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 5,08 [CI95 4,83-5,33]
b: M = 3,66 [CI95 3,45-3,87]
c: M = 4,25 [CI95 3,90-4,60]
d: M = 3,62 [CI95 3,12-4,13]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT=
a > b,c,d
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
a: M = 1,92 [CI95 1,85-1,99]
b: M = 1,47 [CI95 1,41-1,54]
c: M = 1,59 [CI95 1,50-1,68]
d: M = 1,44 [CI95 1,31-1,57]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dBMCT=
d,b,c < a
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 5,29 [CI95 5,04-5,54]
b: M = 3,89 [CI95 3,66-4,12]
c: M = 4,53 [CI95 4,19-4,87]
d: M = 3,99 [CI95 3,50-4,49]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT=
a > b,d,c


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic class
Page in Source nn
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: lower
2: lower middle
3: upper and upper middle
Observed distributionN= 1:256, 2:322, 3:290

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 2,93 [CI95 2,72-3,14]
2: M = 5,05 [CI95 4,82-5,28]
3: M = 5,84 [CI95 5,64-6,05]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.49 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=+
1: M = 1,31 [CI95 1,25-1,37]
2: M = 1,74 [CI95 1,67-1,81]
3: M = 2,16 [CI95 2,09-2,23]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.44 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,21 [CI95 2,95-3,46]
2: M = 5,35 [CI95 5,14-5,56]
3: M = 6,05 [CI95 5,87-6,24]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.48 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyLeepin (1978): study ZZ 1974 /2
TitleLe Monde Entier Interview. (The Entire World Interviewed).
SourceLa Baloise, Groupe des Assurances, 1978, Ble, Switzerland
Public15+ aged, general public, 25 countries, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5133

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 29
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
0  lower class
1  middle class
2  upper class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-bG=+ p < .01
Asia             G=  +.50 (01)    
West Europe      G=  +.32 (01)
USA              G=  +.44 (01)
Switzerland      G=  +.38 (01)

O-HL-g-sq-v-3-btc=+ p < .01
Asia             _c= +.35 (01)
West Europe      _c= +.14 (01)
USA              _c= +.13 (01)
Switzerland      _c= +.09 (01)
G's and _c's based on equal numbers of respondents 
per social class category.

Samples in all countries of Western-Europe. 
Asia; samples in the following countries: India, 
Japan, Indonesia, Phillipines, Thailand, South 
Korea, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Signapore.



Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBakker & Landsmeer (1985): study NL 1985
TitleDe Nederlander: een Individualistisch Kuddedier. (The Dutch: Individualistic in the Herd).
SourceUnpublished Research Report, Interview B.V., 1985, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_s_1985.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1985
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelStandard of living
Page in Source Table 1.2
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
5-point income scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-u-sq-n-5-aG=+.15 p < .02


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

Study~Algemeen Dagblad (1982): study NL 1982
TitleGeluk in Nederland. (Happiness in the Netherlands).
SourceUnpublished report nr 3810 i.o.o. Algemeen Dagblad, 1982, Centrum BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~AlgemeenDagblad_1982.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1982
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelSocio-economic status
Page in Source t31
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1. D 
2. C 
3. B-2 
4. B-1
5. A

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-bD%=+
% happy
- D        81.3
- C        84.6
- B-2      84.4
- B-1      86.4
A        94.4
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-btc=+.05 ns
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-bG=+.18 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S
Page in Source 27
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Classification on the basis of (earlier) occupational 
prestige of chief wage-earner.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NL 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 197
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.25 p < .01
1                             M'=1.56  Mt'=2.8
2                                1.71      3.6
3                                1.88      4.4
4                                2.05      5.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.34 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
24-point scale ranging from "owner or leader of a large 
enterprise" to "agricultural labor"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.10
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of meetings 
with relatives, number of friends, opportunities 
to make personal contacts, possibilities to decide 
on matters concerning one's own personal 
life,number of memberships in clubs and 
associations, interesting life, easyness of life, 
loneliness, feelings of being liked, feeling of 
being able to use knowledge and skills, feeling of 
chance to succeed, gets sufficient attention, 
satisfaction with income, age, gender, no. of 
communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NO 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Norway, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 205
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.21 p < .01
1                             M'=1.96  Mt'=4.8
2                                2.11      5.5
3                                2.24      6.2 
4                                2.39      7.0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.34 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudySuhail & Chaudhry (2004): study PK 2000
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim Culture.
SourceJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 23, 359 - 376.
DOIDOI:10.1521/jscp.23.3.359.35451
Public16-80 aged, general public, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =973

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Class
Page in Source 363, 368
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
0: low
1: middle
3: high

Rating based on income and education.
Observed distributionN = 0: 347, 1: 370, 2: 183

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aDM=+
0 low    M= 4,44   SD= 1,03
1 middle M= 5,14   SD= 1,18
2 high   M= 5,69   SD= 1,03
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bDM=+
0 low    M= 6,37   SD= 2,10
1 middle M= 7,21   SD= 1,97
2 high   M= 8,14   SD= 1,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyEden et al. (1998): study SE 1992
TitleIs Disability Pension related to Quality of Life?
SourceScandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, 1998, Vol. 7, 300 - 309
Public25-59 aged disability pensioners, Kristianstad, Sweden, 1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response16.4%
Respondents N =450

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 305
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: blue collar
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=1.3 ns
Early retired due to disability
-Male CI95[0.8-4.3]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=0.6 ns
-Female CI95[0.3-1.04]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=0.6 ns
Control group
-Male CI95[0.5-4.7]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=0.6 ns
-Female CI95[0.3-1.2]


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
24-point scale ranging from "owner or leader of a large 
enterprise" to "agricultural labor"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.05
Controlled for: Income, housing density, 
education, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, no. of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, interesting life, 
easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of being 
liked, feeling of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, gets 
sufficient attention, satisfaction with income, 
age, gender, no. of communities in which lived, 
no. of memberships in clubs and associations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWu (2008): study TW 2005
TitleExamining the Appropriateness of Importance Weighting on Satisfaction Score from Range-of-Affect Hypothesis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling for Within-Subject Data.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 101 - 111
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9103-9
PublicSecondary school pupils, Taiwan, 2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4502

Correlate
Author's labelBook allowance
Page in Source 62
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1: did receive book allowance
0: did not receice book allowance
Observed distribution0=54%, 1=46%
Remarks
Students from low-income families receive a book 
allowance on the basis of a means test

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aD%=
% satisfied with life:
- received book allowance  77,7%
- did not receive          77,4%
difference                 +0,3%


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyNettle (2005b): study GB 2000
TitleSocio-Economic Status and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper 2005, New Castle University, UK.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nettle_d_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =11419

Correlate
Author's labelSocial-Economic Status
Page in Source 5, 12, 15
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Socio-economic status based on occupation using the 
Registrar General's social classes. SES ranked in a 
five-fold classification from;
1 unskilled and routine (V)
2                       (IV)
3                       (III)
4                       (II)
5 professional          (I)
Remarks
N=9592
Unemployed not included. Coding reversed (original in 
Latin numbers)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-h-sq-n-11-aDM=+
                           M
1:unskilled and routine   7,0
2:                        7,3
3:                        7,3
4:                        7,5
5:professional            7,6

.
Set Image size:   

O-V-h-sq-n-11-ar=+.07 p < .001
O-V-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+ ns
Beta's controlled for:
- Income
- Personal control
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Economic Class
Page in Source 18, 19, 21, 22
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
a Managerial and professional
b Small employers and own account
c Lower supervisory and technical
d intermediate (reference)
e Semi routine/routine
f Never worked
g Missing

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
MALES (N=58674/10085)
a: B=+.04 p<.10
b: B=+.03 ns
c: B=-.01 ns
d: intermediate
e: B=-.03 ns
f: B=+.09 p<.10
g: B=+.03 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)
a: B=-.01 ns
b: B=+.02 ns
c: B=-.03 ns
d: reference
e: B=+.01 ns
f: B=+.06 ns
g: B=-.06 p<.05

B's controlled for:
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Male/Female Time Use Groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelSocial grade
Page in Source 4
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
AB = Professional manegerial.
C1 = Sales, clerical and other non-         manual 
prof.
C2 = Skilled manual workers.
DE = Semiskilled, unskilled,      unemployed, 
pensioners.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDMt= +
AB social grade: Mt = 6.64
C1 social grade: Mt = 5.56
C2 social grade: Mt = 5.37
DE social grade: Mt = 4.73


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study GB 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1195

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 138
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.15 p < .01
1                             M'=1.64  Mt'=3.2   
2                                1.73      3.7
3                                1.88      4.4 
4                                2.01      5.1
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.22 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class of community
Page in Source 192,195
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1 Poor
2 Working class
3 Middle class
4 Upper-middle class
5 Upper class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aF=+8.1 p < .0001
Participants were beeped at random moments eight 
times a day from 7:30 am to 10:0 pm for one week. 
At each beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, 
one of which happiness)
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aAoV=-.08 p < .002
ANOVA controlling for: 
- age 
- gender
- SES
- % time in flow


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelBlue-Collar
Page in Source 28, 39, 43
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Blue-collar workers are respondents who classified 
themselves in any of the following categories: farming, 
forestry or fishing, mechanics or repair, precision 
production, operators (machine, transportation, 
handlers) and armed forces.
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution0=70,1% 1=29,9%
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bBeta=-.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by Blue-Collar (vs not 
Blue-Collar)

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-spouse death                
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBall & Robbins (1984): study US 1983
TitleMarital Status and Life Satisfaction of Black Men.
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1984, Vol. 1, 459 - 470
DOIDOI:10.1177/0265407584014004
Public18+ aged, black men, Florida, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelSocioeconomic status
Page in Source 463-465
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Index containing: education level,
family income and occupational prestige.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+ p < .NS
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= ns
Linear relation, greater spread in happiness in
lower class.
                                                 
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.19 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.19 p < .01
 controlled for: self-perceived health, age,
SES, social participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBowen & Orthner (1986): study US 1981
TitleSingle Parents in the U.S. Airforce.
SourceFamily Relations, 1986, Vol. 35, 45 - 52
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/584281
PublicSingle parents, Airforce, USA, 1981
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelmilitary rank
Page in Source 47
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
1 enlisted (soldier)
2 officer
Observed distributionenlisted: 80% officers: 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-cD%=+
% very satisfied:
1 enlisted 9
2 officers 30


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelrespondent's education
Page in Source 177-179
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
current socio-economic status was measured by 
respondent's education and family income.
Observed distributionmean 3,6; median 4.0; SD 1.4
Remarks
an average respondents were more educated than their 
mothers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.05 ns
beta controlled for:
- family composition before age 16
- mothers education
- sex, age
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelrespondent's income
Page in Source 177-179
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
family income in US in 1978
Remarks
current economic status was measured bij respondent's 
education and family income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 ns
beta controlled for:
- family composition before age 16
- mothers education
- sex, age
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBeals (1985): study US 1978
TitleGenerational Differences in Well-being for two European Groups.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicImmigrants from Europe, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =844

Correlate
Author's labelSocioeconomic status
Page in Source 80,90,93
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Index consisting of 3 items:
1. Family income.
   Yearly family income 1977 was
   ascertained with 37 categories,
   ranging from zero to over $ 80.000,-
2. Education.
   Years of education.
3. Occupational prestige.
   Duncan SEI score.
Loadings of the three items were determined by 
factor-analysis. 
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aL=+.20 p < .01
L standardized direct path coefficient in a 
LISREL-model, controlled for perceptions of 
US-life, contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends and immigration generation.
Also involved in the model are cognitive well-
being and negative affect.
           
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bL=+.07 ns
L standardized direct path coefficient in a 
LISREL-model, controlled for perceptions of 
US-life, contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends, and immigration generation.
Also involved in the model are positive and 
negative affect.
                  
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aL=+.04
Sum of indirect paths via perceptions of US-life,
contacts with relatives, contacts with friends.
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bL=-.02
Sum of indirect paths via perceptions of US-life,
and contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends.
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aL=+.24
Total of direct and indirect paths
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bL=+.05
Total of direct and indirect paths.
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-br=-.02 ns
Immigrants from Western Europe
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.13 p < .01
Immigrants from Western Europe
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.15 p < .01
Immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-br=+.02 ns
Immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Page in Source 451
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Professionals
Managers
Clericals/Salespersons
Craftspersons
Operatives/Service workers
Farmers
Unskilled Laborers
Remarks
% very happy:                   1957     1976

- Professionals                  46       38
- Managers                       46       35
- Clerical/Salespersons          40       41
- Craftspersons                  36       32
- Operatives/Service Workers     38       26
- Farmers                        29       28
- Unskilled Laborers             28       38

Effect persists after control for age and sex.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 221
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Duncan's Socioeconomic Status Index
(Duncan 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
 controlled for 1+2+3+4+5 : 
1: education, income, level of living.
2: live alone, married, children, contact with
   relatives, contact with friends, church 
   attendance, organizational membership. 
3: health problems, recent move, separated/ 
   divorced, unemployed.                       
4: retired,widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

 in different age groups:
under 30: +.05  ns     30-49   : +.06  ns
50 64   : +.07  ns     over 64 : +.03  ns
                     
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
 controlled for 1 only:
interaction with age groups: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =534

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 229
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Duncan's Socioeconomic Status Index
(Duncan 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
 controlled for education, income, live alone, 
married status, contact with relatives, contact 
with friends, church attendance, organization 
membership, separated / divorced, retired, 
widowed, place of residence, sexe, age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyLinn et al. (1986): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleFactors Associated with Life Satisfaction among Practising Internists.
SourceMedical Care, 1986, Vol. 24, 830 - 837
Public18+ aged, general public, NW-Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response7-24 %
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 95
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Socioeconomic index (Duncan 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ab=+ ns
B controlled for:
sex, education, income, health, 
divorce/separation, unemployment;
age and its interaction with health, divorce, and 
unemployment;
friends and the interaction with health, divorce 
and unemployment
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-ab=+ p < .01
B controlled for:
sex, education, income, health, 
divorce/separation, unemployment;
age and its interaction with health, divorce, and 
unemployment;
friends and the interaction with health, divorce 
and unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 141,323
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2.  intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

a  relatively low income and relatively
    high education
b relatively high income and 
    relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=4.8   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=5.1   Mt'=5.1
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
4.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
5. (high)   M=6.2   Mt'=6.5

a           M=5.3   Mt'=5.4
b           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=5.8   Mt'=6.0
3.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
4.          M=6.3   Mt'=6.6
5. (high)   M=6.7   Mt'=7.1

a           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
b           M=6.2   Mt'=6.5
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.24
1. (low)    M=5.0   Mt'=6.7
2.          M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
4.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

a           M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b           M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23
 controlled for sociodemographic variables (age, 
family income, education, race, sex).
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.12
 additionally controlled for 7 criterion 
satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSocioeconomic status
Page in Source 286
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. low income - low education
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. high income - high education

a  relatively low income - relatively high education
b  relatively high income - relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
2.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
3.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
4.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

a          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudySpreitzer & Snyder (1974): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Life Satisfaction among the Aged.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 454 - 458
Public18+ aged, married or widowed, USA,1972-73
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1547

Correlate
Author's labelObjective social class
Page in Source 455
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
3-item index containing 
- educational level
- family income
- occupational prestige.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-ar=+.14 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 331
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

A relatively low income and relatively
   high education
B relatively high income and low
   education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=0.5   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=1.1   Mt'=6.1
3.          M=1.6   Mt'=6.6
4.          M=2.3   Mt'=7.3
5. (high)   M=2.2   Mt'=7.2

A           M=1.4   Mt'=6.4
B           M=1.3   Mt'=6.3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
1. (low)    M=2.8   Mt'=4.5
2.          M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
3.          M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
4.          M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
5. (high)   M=3.6   Mt'=6.5

A           M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
B           M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
2.          M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
3.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
4.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
5. (high)   M=5.6   Mt'=7.7

6.          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
7.          M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=2.9   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
3.          M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
4.          M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
5. (high)   M=3.4   Mt'=6.0

6.          M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
7.          M=3.5   Mt'=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
2.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
4.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

6.          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
7.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWright (1978): study US 1971
TitleAre Working Women Really More Satisfied? Evidence from Several National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 301 -373
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 304-05
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Occupational level of husband:
0 Working class
1 Middle class
Remarks
Working wives with preschool children were omitted from 
the sample. (Not housewives with pre-school children).
               
              

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDMt=+.25
1971 only:
Middle class Mt'  = 8.20
Working class Mt' = 7.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+
     Housewives      Working wives
1971 G'=+.18 (01)    G'=+.12 (05)
1972 G'=+.27 (01)    G'=+.24 (01)
1973 G'=+.26 (01)    G'=+.25 (01)
1974 G'=+.19 (01)    G'=+.05 (ns)
1975 G'=+.13 (01)    G'=+.06 (ns)
1976 G'=+.18 (01)    G'=-.09 (ns)



Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyGarrity (1973): study US NorthDakota 1970
TitleSocial Involvement and Activeness as Predictors of Morale Six Months after First Myocardial Infarction.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 1973, Vol. 7, 199 - 207
PublicWhite males, heart-attack survivors, Durham, North-Carolina, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 201
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
2-item index containing occupational level and 
educational level (Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of 
Social Position; see Hollingshead, 1957)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyKivett (1976): study US 1970
TitleThe Aged in North Carolina: Physical, Social and Environmental Characteristics and Sources of Assistance. (The Guilford Study)
SourceTechnical Bullletin No.237, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1976, USA
Public65+ aged, North Carolina, USA, 1970-71
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelSocial position
Page in Source 37
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Hollingshead l965 2-factor index of social position 
(consists of educational level and occupational 
prestige).
Subjects own education rather than that of head of 
household.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-baBeta=+03 ns
 controlled for:
- urban living
- sexe
- race
- marital status
- age
- education
- occupation at age 50

Remark:The latter 2 control variables are almost 
identical with the index of SES.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bab= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 209
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Index including father's occupational status, father's 
education, mother's education, possessions in the home, 
number of books in the home, number of rooms per person 
in the home. 
S.E.S. assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.00
Happiness T1
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.00
Happiness T2
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.01
Happiness T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyPhillips (1969): study US NewHampshire 1965
TitleSocial Class, Social Participation and Happiness: A Consideration of "Interaction Opportunities" and "Investment".
SourceSociological Quarterly, 1969, Vol. 10, 3 - 21
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/4104997
Public21+ aged, general public, New Hampshire, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S
Page in Source 7-10/17
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
2-item index containing occupational level and 
educational level (Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of 
Social Position; see Hollingshead, 1957) low / medium / 
high.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG= +
Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.40 (01)
Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.16 (ns) 
High contact with friends:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.25 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.25 (ns)
Medium contact with friends:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.56 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.05 (ns)
Low contact with friends:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.42 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.16 (ns)

Knowing a high number of neighbours:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.39 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.18 (ns)
Knowing a medium number of neighbours:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.32 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.03 (ns)
Knowing a low number of neighbours:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.49 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.00 (ns)


High organizational activity:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.28 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.12 (ns)
Medium organizational activity:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.33 (05)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.09 (ns)
Low organizational activity:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.40 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.07 (ns)

High social participation:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.29 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = -.18 (ns)
Medium social participation:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.38 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = +.01 (ns)
Low social participation:
    Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.48 (01)
    Index of Negative Affects:  G' = +.20 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.30 p < . 01
Low social participation    : G' = +.69 (01)
Medium social participation : G' = +.18 (ns)
High social participation   : G' = +.21 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 40
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
3-item index on socioeconomic status containing:
- income
- educational level
- occupational prestige
rated as low(0), middle(1) and high(2)
SES.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=+
  proportion happy:
0: low SES         36.5%     AR= .47
1: middle SES      34.4      AR= .49
2: better          29.1%     AR= .55
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 97/122-123
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.17 p < . 001
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-ftc= +
Index of Positive Affects _c = +.23 (001)
                          G  = +.34
Index of Negative Affects _c = +.03 (ns)
                          G  = +.05
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fG= +


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 9
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
3-item index containing family income, educational 
level, and occupational level: low vs high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.28 p < . 01
Stronger in economically depressed areas.
Strongest among 50+ aged living in a depressed 
area.


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level of mother
Page in Source 113/334
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Some grade school or grade school graduate / some high 
school or high school graduate / some college or 
college graduate / post graduate college work.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.09
After control for:
- participation in extracurricular activities:
                Gs = +.09
- social class: Gs = +.06
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.04
After control for:
- participation in extracurricular activities:
                        Gs = +.09
- social class:         Gs = +.06
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .04 p < . 05
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSchool social class
Page in Source 113/346
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Score on the basis of the percentage of juniors and 
seniors  of 'upper class' status.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.07
After control for participation in extracurricu-
lar activities: G = +.04.
Unaffected by social class.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
After control for participation in extra-curricu- 
lar activities          : Gs = +.12

Middle and upper class  : G  = +.11
Lower class             : G  = +.05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .08 p < . 01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .04 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level of father
Page in Source 113/338
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Some grade school or grade school graduate / some high 
school or high school graduate / some college or 
college graduate / post graduate college work.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.03
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .03 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelIncome level of father's occupation
Page in Source 113/334
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Under $ 3400 / $ 3400-5000 / over 
$ 5000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.07
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .04 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 113/330
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Weighted score based on the medium score of father's 
occupation, father's education and father's primary 
source of income lower / middle / upper.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.05
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.03
- frequency of low mood             : Gs = +.08
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.04
- self-esteem                       : Gs = +.03
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.02
- sensivity to criticism            : Gs = +.04
- presenting a false self           : Gs = +.06
- participation in extracurricular
  activities                        : Gs = +.06
- extent of dating                  : Gs = +.07
- hours spent on work for pay       : Gs = +.03
- disruption of family relationships: Gs = +.05
- number of children in the family  : Gs = +.05
- school social class               : Gs = +.05
- tending to be a lonely person,
  and having fun in life            : Gs = +.04
- self-esteem, and having fun in  
  life                              : Gs = +.01
- self-esteem, and tending to be a
  lonely person                     : Gs = +.02
- self-esteem, and having faith in
  people                            : Gs = +.01
- self-esteem, and sensitivity to
  criticism                         : Gs = +.02

When Ss are regrouped, so that the upper third of 
middle class = upper class and the lower third of 
middle class = lower class          : G  = +.01
After control for educational level
of mother                           : Gs =  .00
 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.12
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- frequency of low mood             : Gs = +.15
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.08
- self-esteem                       : Gs = +.08
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.09
- sensitivity to criticism          : Gs = +.09
- presenting a false self           : Gs = +.13
- participation in extracurricular
  activities                        : Gs = +.14
- extent of dating                  : Gs = +.14
- hours spent on work for pay       : Gs = +.12
- disruption of family relationships: Gs = +.12
- number of children in the family  : Gs = +.10
- school social class               : Gs = +.12
- having fun in life, and tending to
  be a lonely person                : Gs = +.07
- having fun in lifee, and self-
  esteem                            : Gs = +.06
- tending to be a lonely person, and
  self-esteem                       : Gs = +.06
- having faith in people, and self-
  esteem                            : Gs = +.07
- sensivity to criticism, and self-
  esteem                            : Gs = +.05

When Ss are regrouped, so that the upper third of 
middle class = upper class, and the lower third of 
middle class = lower class       : G  = +.06
 After control for educational level
 of mother                          : Gs = +.04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .05 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic level
Page in Source 44
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Income lower / middle / upper one-third

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.15
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.16
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyCantril (1965): study US 1959
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1549

Correlate
Author's labelClass
Page in Source 375
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Working / lower / lower middle / middle / upper middle 
/ upper.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+
Upper       : Mt = 7.2
Upper middle: Mt = 7.4
Middle      : Mt = 6.8
Lower middle: Mt = 5.7
Lower       : Mt = 4.6
Working     : Mt = 6.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study US 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelS.E.S.
Page in Source 213
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Interviewers estimate:
1 Very poor
2 Below average
3 Average
4 Wealthy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.19 p < .01
1                             M'=1.64  Mt'=3.2
2                                1.80      4.0
3                                1.93      4.6
4                                2.23      6.2
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.28 p < .01
                
                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic status
Page in Source 184
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Classification by the interviewer: 
1 Lower 
2 Middle 
3 Upper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.24 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelHigh educational status of father
Page in Source 283
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
0 Non-graduate 
1 College graduate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= 0 ns
U-shaped curve: girls with a non-graduate father 
reporting significantly more 'average happiness'.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=0 ns
U-shaped curve: girls with a non-graduate father 
reporting significantly more 'average happiness'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study AU 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1104

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 41/5
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.18 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.10 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.05 p < .01
1. low          23
2. lower-middle 25
3. middle       36
4. upper-middle 46
5. high         42
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.09 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low          33
2. lower middle 37
3. middle       47
4. upper middle 47
5. high         58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study BR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, metropolitan areas Brazil, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 99/103
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.15 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.11 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.08 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low          29
2. lower middle 34
3. middle       40
4. upper middle 46
5. high         55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.10 p < .01
1. low          52
2. lower-middle 40
3. middle       35
4. upper-middle 37
5. high         20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study CA 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1012

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 157/161
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.20 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.11 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low          
2. lower middle 
3. middle       
4. upper middle 
5. high         
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.15 p < .01
1. low          14
2. lower-middle 20
3. middle       35
4. upper-middle 42
5. high         42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1020

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 737/41
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.27 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.15 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low           5
2. lower middle  5
3. middle       12
4. upper middle 16
5. high         39
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.16 p < .01
1. low           5
2. lower-middle  9
3. middle       18
4. upper-middle 19
5. high         67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study FR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 215/9
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.34 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.31 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.21 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low           9
2. lower middle 12
3. middle       16
4. upper middle 26
5. high         50
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.20 p < .01
1. low           6
2. lower-middle 12
3. middle       13
4. upper-middle 22
5. high         50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study IN 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 273/7
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.49 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.53 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.35 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low           3
2. lower middle  7
3. middle       14
4. upper middle 27
5. high         58
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.29 p < .01
1. low           1
2. lower-middle  7
3. middle       13
4. upper-middle 18
5. high         58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study IT 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1042

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 331/5
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.25 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.15 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low           2
2. lower middle  9
3. middle       11
4. upper middle 16
5. high         43
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.05 ns
1. low           2
2. lower-middle  6
3. middle        8
4. upper-middle 15
5. high         57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study JP 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1574

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 389/93
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.37 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abG=+.40 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.23 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low           9
2. lower middle  9
3. middle       12
4. upper middle 17
5. high         29
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abtc=+.25 p < .01
1. low           4
2. lower-middle  2
3. middle        5
4. upper-middle  8
5. high         18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudyLee (1998): study KR 1996
TitleMarital Status, Gender, and Subjective Quality of Life in Korea.
SourceDevelopment and Society, 1998, Vol. 27, 35 - 49
Public20-60 aged, general public, South Korea, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4,5%
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective class
Page in Source 45
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
own rating of class membership:
1. high
2. upper middle
3. lower middle
4. low,
Observed distribution1: 1,7%; 2: 32,7%; 3: 49,9%; 4: 15,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fb=+.18 p < .001
B controlled for
- age
- marital status
- gender
- household income
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study KR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, South Korea, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =997

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 563/7
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.37 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.33 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.23 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low            6
2. lower middle   2
3. middle         4
4. upper middle  10
5. high          18
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.24 p < .01
1. low           1
2. lower-middle  1
3. middle        2
4. upper-middle  3
5. high          18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Class
Page in Source 461,466, 469
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Self rated class
1: lower class
2: working class
3: upper class

rated: 1:yes, 0:no (dummy)
Observed distribution1: M=0.07, SD=0.25, 2: M=0.13, SD=0.34, 3: M= 0.01, SD=0.10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.58 p < .01
LOWER CLASS
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.61 p < .01
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.19 p < .01
WORKING CLASS
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.23 p < .01
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.42 p < .05
UPPER CLASS
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.86 p < .05
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - income quintile

In regression with proxies on positional goods 
coefficient "upper class" became more significant 
and even more for HICs (p<.01), for LICs (p<.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudyAhmadyar (2016): study NL 2016
TitleDo the determinants of happiness differ between immigrants and home-stayers? A comparison between Afghansin the Netherlands and Afghanistan
SourceMaster thesis Msc Program in Urban Management and Development, Erasmus university Rotterdam
Public+18 aged Afghan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2016
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =141

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrants Social Status
Page in Source 36-37
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
There are people who tend to be towards the top of our 
society and people, who tend to be toward the bottom. 
Where would you place your-self on this scale that runs 
from 1 to 10, where (1) is the bottom of the society 
and (10) is the top of the society.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdR=.68 p < .05
The higher the preceived social status, the 
happier.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdR=.69 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudySandoval & Guerrero (2001): study PH 1996
TitleClass Differences in Filipino Quality of Life, 1996 and 2001.
SourcePaper for presentation at the 2002 Conference of ISQOLS Washington D.C.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/sandoval_ga_2001.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Philippines, 1996-2001
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelClass
Page in Source 3,4
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
A: upper class
B: upper-middle class
C: lower-middle class
D: working class
E: lower class

Recoded as:
3: High   = ABC
2: Middle = D
1: Low    = E
Observed distribution1996 N = ABC: 11%, D: 69%, E: 20% 2001 N = ABC: 10%, D: 66%, E: 24%
Remarks
Actual social class does not fully correspond with 
subjective social class, Gamma is only +.48 (1996) and 
+.45 (2001)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1996
High   SES M = 3,48
Middle SES M = 3,27
Low    SES M = 3,34
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aG=+.07 ns
1996
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
2001
High   SES M = 3,38
Middle SES M = 3,26
Low    SES M = 3,17
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aG=+.13 p < .01
2001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
1996
High   SES M = 7,7
Middle SES M = 6,8
Low    SES M = 6,3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aF=14.2 p < .001
1996
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
2001
High   SES M = 7,4
Middle SES M = 6,8
Low    SES M = 6,0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study PH 1979 /1
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Phillippines, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 447/51
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.37 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.28 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.16 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low          15
2. lower middle  9
3. middle       19
4. upper middle 26
5. high         62
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.21 p < .01
1. low           14
2. lower-middle   9
3. middle        19
4. upper-middle  30
5. high          60


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective class
Page in Source 12
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question about class one believes 
to belong in.
a Working class  
b Middle class 
c Do not belong to class
Observed distributiona: 43%, b: 33%, c: 3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=+
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of self-reported 
social class 

           2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif. 
Working class   38            46           -8% 
Middle class    48            19          +29%
No class         1             5           -4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study GB 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =987

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 621/5
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.11 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.11 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.07 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low          45
2. lower middle 43
3. middle       53
4. upper middle 36
5. high         -
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.05 p < .01
1. low          40
2. lower-middle 32
3. middle       47
4. upper-middle 45
5. high          -


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA,2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2413

Correlate
Author's labelClass
Page in Source 5
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
2. Upper or upper-middle class
1. Middle class               
0. Lower or lower-middle class
Observed distributionn = all: 1451, 2: 348, 1: 855, 0: 338
Remarks
Computed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=+
2:  M=7,3
1:  M=6,7
0:  M=5,3
all M=6,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study US 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1127

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 679/83
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If people in the society can 
be divided into five classes as shown on this card, 
which class would you say you fall under?"
1. low
2. lower middle
3. middle
4. upper middle
5. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.31 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.25 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.15 p < .01
% Very happy:
1. low          42
2. lower middle 28
3. middle       43
4. upper middle 51
5. high         52
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.18 p < .01
1. low          27
2. lower-middle 23
3. middle       39
4. upper-middle 46
5. high         62


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudySpreitzer & Snyder (1974): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Life Satisfaction among the Aged.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 454 - 458
Public18+ aged, married or widowed, USA,1972-73
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1547

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class
Page in Source 455 - 457
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1: lower class
2: working class
3: middle class
4: upper class.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-ar=+.15 p < . 01
Unaffected by S.E.S. as measured by a 3 item index 
of: educational level, family income and 
occupational prestige.

under age 65: r = +.18
above age 65: r = +.06

The difference significant (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Subjective social rank
Subject code: S09ab02

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective social class position
Page in Source 120/358
Our classificationSubjective social rank, code S09ab02
Operationalization
Closed question: lower / working / lower middle / 
middle / upper middle / upper class.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.21
Unaffected by social class.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.25
Lower class                     : G = +.33
Middle and upper class          : G = +.23
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .12 p < . 01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .10 p < . 001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Status consistency
Subject code: S09ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 141,323
Our classificationStatus consistency, code S09ac
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2.  intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

a  relatively low income and relatively
    high education
b relatively high income and 
    relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=4.8   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=5.1   Mt'=5.1
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
4.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
5. (high)   M=6.2   Mt'=6.5

a           M=5.3   Mt'=5.4
b           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=5.8   Mt'=6.0
3.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
4.          M=6.3   Mt'=6.6
5. (high)   M=6.7   Mt'=7.1

a           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
b           M=6.2   Mt'=6.5
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.24
1. (low)    M=5.0   Mt'=6.7
2.          M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
4.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

a           M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b           M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23
 controlled for sociodemographic variables (age, 
family income, education, race, sex).
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.12
 additionally controlled for 7 criterion 
satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself


Correlational finding on Happiness and Status consistency
Subject code: S09ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelStatus consistency
Page in Source 323
Our classificationStatus consistency, code S09ac
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

a  relatively low income and relatively
   high education
b  relatively high income and 
   relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=5.8   Mt'=6.0
3.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
4.          M=6.3   Mt'=6.6
5. (high)   M=6.7   Mt'=7.1

a           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
b           M=6.2   Mt'=6.5
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=4.8   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=5.1   Mt'=5.1
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
4.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
5. (high)   M=6.2   Mt'=6.5

a           M=5.3   Mt'=5.4
b           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Status consistency
Subject code: S09ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 331
Our classificationStatus consistency, code S09ac
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

A relatively low income and relatively
   high education
B relatively high income and low
   education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=0.5   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=1.1   Mt'=6.1
3.          M=1.6   Mt'=6.6
4.          M=2.3   Mt'=7.3
5. (high)   M=2.2   Mt'=7.2

A           M=1.4   Mt'=6.4
B           M=1.3   Mt'=6.3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
1. (low)    M=2.8   Mt'=4.5
2.          M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
3.          M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
4.          M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
5. (high)   M=3.6   Mt'=6.5

A           M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
B           M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
2.          M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
3.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
4.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
5. (high)   M=5.6   Mt'=7.7

6.          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
7.          M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=2.9   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
3.          M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
4.          M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
5. (high)   M=3.4   Mt'=6.0

6.          M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
7.          M=3.5   Mt'=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
2.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
4.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

6.          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
7.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Status consistency
Subject code: S09ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSocioeconomic status
Page in Source 286
Our classificationStatus consistency, code S09ac
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. low income - low education
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. high income - high education

a  relatively low income - relatively high education
b  relatively high income - relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
2.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
3.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
4.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

a          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to social status
Subject code: S09ad

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelRelative deprivation
Page in Source 1113, 1115
Our classificationAttitudes to social status, code S09ad
Operationalization
Relative income is used as proxy for relative 
deprivation.
 
It is calculated as the sum of income gaps between 
individual I and all individuals j with an income 
higher than that of I, divided
by the total population size n and normalized by mean 
income of the reference group k(x).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.91 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Household income
- Household size
- Marital Status
- Age
- Gender
- Education
- Foreign-born
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to social status
Subject code: S09ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of power, status and importance of yoursel
Our classificationAttitudes to social status, code S09ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "power, status and importance of yourself in society"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 6,26 SD: 2,20, Non-exercisers: M: 5,81 SD: 2,42
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.21 p < .05
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to social status
Subject code: S09ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of power, status and importance of yoursel
Our classificationAttitudes to social status, code S09ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "power, status and importance of yourself in society"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 5,9 SD: 2,35
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.00 p < .97


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to social status
Subject code: S09ad

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelInner locus of control
Page in Source 12
Our classificationAttitudes to social status, code S09ad
Operationalization
Single question on whether class affects opportunities 
a great deal
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 25%, 0: 75%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=-
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of locus of 
control

         2% Most happy  2% Least happy   Dif.  
Answered     21            42            -21%
yes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own status
Subject code: S09ad02

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with socio-economic status
Page in Source 2332-2333
Our classificationSatisfaction with own status, code S09ad02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How satisfied are you with your current social status?
Rated:
1 very dissatisfied
:
5 very satisfied
Observed distributionM=3.19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.05 p < .01
B controlled for satisfaction with:
- income
- Opportunities and social mobility
- Welfare provision
- Government policies and environment
- Family and social connections


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own status
Subject code: S09ad02

StudyBecker & Vink (1984): study NL 1982
TitleWerkelozen, Arbeidsongeschikten en Werkenden Vergeleken. ( A Comparison between the Unemployed, Disabled Workers and the Employed).
SourceSocial and Cultural Planning Office, 1984, Rijswijk, Netherlands
URLhttps://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_1996_en_eerder/Werklozen_arbeidsongeschikten_en_werkenden_vergeleken
Public18-64 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1982
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response68-94%
Respondents N =465

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social status
Page in Source V579
Our classificationSatisfaction with own status, code S09ad02
Operationalization
Single question:
"To what extent are you satisfied with your social 
status?"
0=very dissatisfied 
1=dissatisfied
2=neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3=satisfied
4=very satisfied
Observed distributionM=3.2742 SD=0.7942

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nar=+.47 p < .000
working
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nar=+.50 p < .000
unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nar=+.35 p < .000
disabled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own status
Subject code: S09ad02

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with S.E.S
Page in Source 27
Our classificationSatisfaction with own status, code S09ad02
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an open graphic scale ranging 
from 'very dissatisfied' to 'very satisfied'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.58 p < .05
Unaffected by age, S.E.S., and sex.
Lower among those of high educational level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own status
Subject code: S09ad02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social position
Page in Source question 13
Our classificationSatisfaction with own status, code S09ad02
Operationalization
How satisfied are you with your social position?
1 completely dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
3 rather satisfied
4 quite satisfied
- DK/NA
Observed distribution1: 9% 2: 22,6% 3: 37,8% 4: 17,8% DK/NA: 12,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1:M = 1,88
2:M = 2,28
3:M = 2,61
4:M = 3,09
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.42 p < .000


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

I now mention some experiences, moods. Please tell me how often you feel so ......." happy." (one of several moods)
1 seldom or never
2 sometimes
3 often
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fSelfreport on 10 questions:

We are interested in how people are feeling these days. The following items describe some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week
A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B That things were going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F Upset because someone criticized you
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Bored
I Very lonely or remote from other people
J Depressed or very unhappy

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to E
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average F to J
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -25 to +25

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Think about the quality of your life at the present time. I would like you to give a rating where 0 represents the worst possible life for you and 10 represents the best possible life for you.
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ] completely successful
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely unsuccessful
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aSelf report on 21 questions:

A Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days?
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way during the past few weeks:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are.....?"
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy

B "How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life.....?"
1 rarely
2 now and than
3 fairly often
4 all the time

Summation: factor score
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Questions indicated both happiness and a sense of contentment and well-being (Full questions not reported)

Summation: not reported

Name: `Happiness subtest' of Washburn's `Social Adjustment Scale'.
M-FH-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
11 the happiest I could be
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 the saddest I could be
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

If you had to say whether you feel happy or not, what would you answer.....?
3 happy
2 neither happy nor unhappy
1 unhappy
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
M-PL-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

I have a lot of pleasure in my life
1 totally disagree
2
3
4
5 totally agree
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-eSelf report on single question

In general, would you say that you feel happy
4 most of the time
3 only sometimes
2 almost never
1 never
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied do you feel about your life as a whole...?"
8 delighted
7 very pleased
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about the good and bad things in your life, which of the answers best describes your life-as-a-whole?
1 as bas as can be
2 very bad
3 bad
4 allright
5 good
6 very good
7 as good as can be
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-baSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much UNhappiness would you say that you find in life today.......?
1 a great deal
2 some
3 almost none
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you feel as you live now? Please choose one item on this card that comes closest to your feeling.
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, do you feel happy these days....?
5 very happy
4 somewhat happy
3 so so
2 somewhat not happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are these days.....?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 pretty happy
4 not too happy
3 a bit unhappy
2 pretty unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are on the whole?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5 very happy

Labels of other response options not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are with your life......?
3 very happy
2 somewhat happy
1 unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hSelfreport on single question

Generally speaking, how do you personally feel about your life?

1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 so-so
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life in general....."
( Full question not reported )
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 mixed feelings
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life ....."
Full question not reported

Response options: not reported
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now..."
3 very satisfied
2 all right
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abSelf report on single question

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now?
3 very satisfied
2 satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you lead these days.......?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now?
3 very satisfied
2 all right
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?"
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your present life.......?
Please choose from this card that is closest to your feeling.
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abOverall, how satisfied are you with your present life.......?
Please choose from this card that is closest to your feeling.
5 very satisfied
4 quite happy
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 frustrated
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 very good
4 rather good
3 neither good nor bad
2 rather bad
1 very bad
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as..
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6 satisfied

Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale' adjusted version
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"How dissatisfied would you say you are with things in general today?'
Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Now taking everything about your life into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life today?"
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6

5
4

3
2
1
0 dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with.your life as a whole these days?
(Full question not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with various aspects of your life at the present time... Are you with your life as a whole...?"
5 very satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 about evenly satisfied and dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied

Question preceded by items on satisfaction with aspects of life.
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-cSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole? Please express in a school mark from 1 to 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as whole.....?
7 completely satisfied
6 satisfied
5 mostly satisfied
4 satisfied/dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum---mq-*-0-aSelf report on 8 items

A How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a 9-step Delighted-Terrible scale
Asked twice in the interview with 15 minutes interval

B a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree to 1 strongly disagree

C How do you feel usually?
0 extremely unhappy
.
.
10 extremely happy

Computation: factor
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bSelfreport in 2 questions:

A. "How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 not at all satisfied

B. "Where would you place your life as a whole?"
Rated on a thermometer scale.
100 perfect, as good as you can imagine it being
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 terrible, as bad as you can imagine it being

Summation: factor loading
O-V-h-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how do you feel your life has turned out so far?
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
ChiCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
RCOEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R = 0 no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R = 1 the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 no rank correlation
tb = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 no rank correlation
tc = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.
VCRAMR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 no association
V = 1 strongest possible association
ZZZZZCRAMR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 no association
V = 1 strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSC09ab03dPositional goods
S09aa01Earlier socio-economic statusF01agSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
S09aa01Earlier socio-economic statusS05SOCIAL MOBILITY
S09abCurrent socio-economic status S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS
S09ab01'Objective' socio-economic statusO01ac01Occupational level
S09ab01'Objective' socio-economic statusE01abCurrent education
S09ab02Subjective social rankS02SELF-IMAGE
S09acStatus consistencyS02afCurrent consistency of self-image
S09ad01Concern about socio-economic statusO01ad01aOccupational aspirations
S09ad02Satisfaction with own statusS02ae02Satisfaction with own accomplishments

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings