Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)
Subject Code: S08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)0
S08aaParticipation career0
S08aa01Earlier total social participation3
S08aa02Change in total social participation6
S08aa03Later total social participation1
S08abCurrent total social participation31
S08acAttitudes to total social participation4
S08ac01Concern about social participation1
S08ac02Satisfaction with social participation8
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier total social participation
Subject code: S08aa01

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity
Page in Source 443
Our classificationEarlier total social participation, code S08aa01
Operationalization
Self reported activities in the last year:
- attending meetings
- talking on the phone
- visiting friends

Rated: 
0 Never
1 Less than once a month
2 About once a month
3 Two or three times a month 
4 Once a week
5 More than once a week
Observed distributionRange 0-15, M = 8,9, SD = 3,3
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.15 p < .05
T1 social activity by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.11 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.05 p < .05
B (+.052) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.04 p < .10
B (+.024) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.01 ns
B (+0,010) additionally controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier total social participation
Subject code: S08aa01

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationEarlier total social participation, code S08aa01
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or football 
games; attending church or other meetings; lectures or 
concerts; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertaining".
Observed distributionM = 9, 9 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.11 p < .05
T1 social activity by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 social activity by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.12 p < .05
T1 social activity by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.09 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- selfrated health
- sexual enjoyment
- organizational activity
- productive hours
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social activity by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness
Change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 health by T2-T3 CHANGE in happiness
Change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier total social participation
Subject code: S08aa01

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelEarly multiple role occupancy
Page in Source 265
Our classificationEarlier total social participation, code S08aa01
Operationalization
Number of roles occupied beyond marriage and 
motherhood.These included frequent contact with 
relatives, neighbors and/or friends, regular church 
attendance, club memership and volunteering. (indicator 
of social integration)

Assessed at T1 (1956)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=+
T1 roles               T2 happiness          
- low                  Ma = 2,30
- high                 Ma = 2,62

Ma controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in total social participation
Subject code: S08aa02

StudyKennedy & Mehra (1985): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleEffects of Social Change on Well-Being: Boom and Bust in a Western Canadian City.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 17, 101 - 113
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00302416
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3440

Correlate
Author's labelobjective change in social environment
Page in Source 106/108
Our classificationChange in total social participation, code S08aa02
Operationalization
Question about which year differed significantly from 
other years.
1. Yes
2. No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09
Step-wise regression by age group.
age group 17-25
Years 1978 and 1984 indicated.

Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- financial better/worse than year ago
- health satisfaction
- education
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.05
Year 1981 indicated.
age-group 26-45
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
-friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- finanacial better/worse than year ago
- sex
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.06
Year 1982 indicated.
age-group 45+ 
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- financial better/worse than year ago
- job satisfacion
- frienship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- things wanted to do satisfaction
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in total social participation
Subject code: S08aa02

StudyBecchetti et al. (2010a): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleThe Relationship between Social Leisure and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking Paper No 63, 2010, University of Teramo, Department of Communication, Italy
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/terwpaper/0063.htm
Public17-76 aged, general public, Germany, followed 23 years 1984-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =156232

Correlate
Author's labelSocial leisure time
Page in Source 10, 26
Our classificationChange in total social participation, code S08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on  five questions:
Which of the following activities do you take part in 
during your free time?
a: social gatherings
b: cultural events
c: sports
d: volunteer work
e: church or religious events

Rated :
4: at least once a week
3: at least once a month
2: less often
1: never

Summation weighed for intensity of social leisure
4:    highest intensity
1:    second highest intensity
1/12: third highest intensity
0:    lowest intensity
Remarks
Assessed 8 times between 1984-2007: in waves 1984-86, 
1988, 1992, 1994-99, 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.12 p < .01
CHANGE in leisure by CHANGE in happiness (fixed 
effect analysis)
B controled for:
- income
- education
- children in the household
- marital status
- occupation
- age
- health

Similar among
- males and females
- East and west Germany
O-SLu-u-sq-n-10-bb=
Additional analysis of retirees in a region shows 
a negative effect on males and a positive effect 
on females, which indicates a differential causal 
effect.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in total social participation
Subject code: S08aa02

StudyJanz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996
TitleFactors Influencing Quality of Life in Older Women With Heart Disease.
SourceMEDICAL CARE, 2001, V ol. 39, 588 - 598 ,
URLhttp://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Abstract/2001/06000/Factors_Influencing_Quality_of_Life_in_Older_Women.7.aspx
PublicMedical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =570

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social activities
Page in Source 594-596
Our classificationChange in total social participation, code S08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: text not reported

T2-T1 CHANGE:
1:  same or better
0:  deteriorated
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2: 12 months difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=1.50 p < .01
CI95[1.13,1.99]

T2 happiness by T1 satisfaction with social 
activities.
Chances for higher happiness level at T2 are 1.5 
times higher for those whose satisfaction w. 
activity level was high at T1.
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=4.52 p < .01
CI95[2.56,7.95]

T2 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE satisfaction with 
social activities.

Chances for higher happiness level are >4 times 
higher for those whose satisfaction w. activity 
level improved between T1 and T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in total social participation
Subject code: S08aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of the community
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in total social participation, code S08aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend in the area of 
community
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.20 p < .005
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .353
Direction of the difference: Ss who came to spend 
more time with community activities did not become 
happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in total social participation
Subject code: S08aa02

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in social activities over 4 years
Page in Source 703
Our classificationChange in total social participation, code S08aa02
Operationalization
Differences between responses at T1 and T2 on identical 
direct questions.


a. More contacts with friends and      
   relatives.

b. More contacts with neighbors.



c. More memberships in voluntary
   associations.

d. More often meetings of voluntary 
   associations attended.

e. More often religious services atten-
   ded.

f. Telephone used more often.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.06 ns
a: Age 66-75: tb = -.17 (ns)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.19 (ns)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.24 p < .05
b: Age 66-75: tb = +.42 (05)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.54 (01)
   Lower among age 76-81
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.34 p < .01
c: Age 66-75: tb = +.30 (05)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.56 (01)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.28 p < .01
d: Age 66-75: tb = +.10 (ns)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.58 (01)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.15 ns
e: Age 66-75: tb = -.04 (ns)
   Age 82-92: tb = -.17 (ns)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.02 ns
f: Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in total social participation
Subject code: S08aa02

StudyLowenthal & Boler (1965): study US 1962
TitleVoluntary vs. Involuntary Social Withdrawal.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1965, Vol. 20, 363 - 371
Public60+aged, San Francisco, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response55%, 22% refusals, 9% deaths, 22% unattainable
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelSocial withdrawal
Page in Source 367
Our classificationChange in total social participation, code S08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions on reduction in contacts 
during the past years of
a: contacts with relatives
b: contacts with other people
c: organisational membership

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bG=-.41 p < . 01
deprived     : G' = -.48 (05)
not deprived : G' = -.19 (ns)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cG=-.45 p < . 01
deprived     : G' = -.43 (05)
not deprived : G' = -.35 (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcG=-.21 ns
deprived     : G' = -.34 (ns)
not deprived : G' = +.51 (ns)

Deprivation measured by an index of: 
a: compulsery retirement in the past 7 years
b: widowhood in the past 7 years
c: interviewer rating of physical disability

G' based on proportion unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later total social participation
Subject code: S08aa03

StudyPalmore (1981): study US 1968
TitleSocial Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study.
SourceDuke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA
Public46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labellater social activity hours
Page in Source 106
Our classificationLater total social participation, code S08aa03
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or foorball 
games; attending church or other meetings;lectures or 
concerts; doing vollunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertainiang.".
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.16 p < .05
Men. T2 Social activity hours by T1 life 
satisfaction.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=ns
Women. T2 Social activity hours by T1 life 
satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts
Page in Source 395
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Number of persons seen for instrumental
purposes
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=-.01 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Married
3. Widowed
4. Age
5. Monthly income
6. Perceived health
7. Days in bed
8. Family size
9. Functional ability
10.Satisfaction with family
   relationships
11.Number of children
12.Number of siblings
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelSocial group
Page in Source 60
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
1: Social Group I
2: Social Group II
3: Social Group III
4: Social Group IV
5: Social Group V
6: Not included in any social group
Observed distributionN: 1:88, 2;29, 3:144, 4:477, 5:191, 6:239
Remarks
(Socialeconomic group 1:entrepreneurs with at least 21 
employees, higher university degree;
Social group 5:unskilled workers, Unemployed in Group 
6)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .01
1: Social Group I   Mt=7.98
2: Social Group II  Mt=7.93
3: Social Group III Mt=7.71 
4: Social Group IV  Mt=7.83
5: Social Group V   Mt=8.04
6: Not included     Mt=7.25
                All Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .05
1: Social Group I   Mt=7.59  
2: Social Group II  Mt=7.85
3: Social Group III Mt=7.60
4: Social Group IV  Mt=7.40
5: Social Group V   Mt=7.50
6: Not included     Mt=7.13
                All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.05 ns
1: Social Group I   Mt=6.85
2: Social Group II  Mt=7.15
3: Social Group III Mt=7.05
4: Social Group IV  Mt=6.98
5: Social Group V   Mt=7.25 
6: Not included     Mt=6.51
                All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal control: proxi rating
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Report of proxy, usually a staff member who knew the 
subject well, on 6 questions 

- Does the person have his/her own room?
- Can the person invite his/her family and friends 
over, even for the night?
- Does the person move freely around the area close to 
his/her home?
- Has the person been able to choose furniture or 
fabrics in the home him/herself?
- Does the person have a key to his/her own home or 
room?
- Can the person decide who he/she lives with?

reponse option: 'yes', 'no', 'don't know'
Observed distributionM= 80.54, SD=23.47
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.68
Remarks
The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-1.5 ns
Mean control:
Happy     = 81.26(SD=23.16)
Not happy = 75.58(SD=25.23)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation: proxi rating
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Report of proxy, usually a staff member who knew the 
subject well on 7 questions:

a: Does the person go outside the home ot work, study 
or do some daily activity three or more days a week?
b: Does the person take part in any hobby activities on 
a regular basis?
c: Can the person attend cultural events of his/her 
choice at least once a month?
d: Has the person been given information on sports and 
recreational opportunities suited to him/her?
e: Does the person do household chores?
f: Does the person go shopping for food or clothes, or 
visit the bank or post office at least twice a month?
G: Does the person take part at least once a month in 
activities in which there are also people who do not 
have Intellectual difficulty

reponse options:
1: yes
0: no
-  don't know
Observed distributionM=79.47, SD=18.55 The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-1.9 p < .10
           Mean activity level:
Not happy: 74.52(SD=20.73)
Happy    : 80.20(SD=18.13)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation: self rating
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Self report on 8 questions:

a: Have you been in a restaurant, bar or coffee shop 
during the past month?
b: Do you take physical exercise at least once a week?
c: Are you a member of any club or team that meets 
regularly?
d: Do you enjoy art?
e: Do you have any future plans concerning your 
education, living arrangements or work?
f: Are you a member of any association(such as 
associations for the disabled or voluntary 
organisations)?
g: Did you vote in the last election?
H: Have you visited anyone during the past month?

Reponse option:
1: yes
0: no
-  don't know
Observed distributionM = 63.55, SD= 21.98 The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.68.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-4.4 p < .01
Mean activity
Happy     = 65.57(SD=20.94)
Not happy = 52.04(SD=24.34)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBarcena Martin et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe role of Proximity and Social Comparisons on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThE Papers, 2013, No. 13/10, Granada, Spain
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/gra/wpaper/13-10.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1994-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162167

Correlate
Author's labelSC-Bridging
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Bridging social capital: linear index contrexted using 
individuals' answers about their membership in 
associations, organisations or groups (using principal 
components analysis)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.36 p < .01
Beta (0.363) controlled for:
- household income
- relative income
- social capital (memberships in associations, 
organisations, groups)
- cultural capital (attitute towards risk and life 
goals)
- interaction effects
- socio-economic characteristics (age, sexe, 
marital status, type of household, years of 
education)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyCheng & Chan (2006): study HK 2000
TitleRelationship with Others and Life Satisfaction in Later Life: Do Gender and Widowhood make a Difference?
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 2006, Vol. 61b, 46 - 53
Public60+ aged, Hong Kong, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1616

Correlate
Author's labelFormal activities
Page in Source 49-50
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
a: how often do you participate in organizing 
activities for others?
b: how often do you participated in group activities?
c: how often do you participate in activities that 
arose your curiosity and concern?

Response options not reported
Observed distributionM=2.40 SD=0.90
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is .76

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-ar=+.19 p < .001
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelActivities
Page in Source 95, 98-99
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Selfreport of
a: voluntary or charity work
b: caring for a sick or disabled adult
c: providing help to family, friends or neighbors; 
d: participationin a sport or social club
e: participation in a religious organization
f: participation in a political or community-related 
organization

Scores on this variable ranged
from 0 to 6.
Observed distributionM = 0,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=+.19 p < .01
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta controled for:
- immigration history
  - continent or origin
  - language proficiency in Hebrew
- background
  - gender
  - marital status
  - income
  - education

  - selfrated health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyOshio (2011): study JP 2007
TitleGender Differences among Elderly Japanese: Importance of Family and Social Relations for Life Satisfaction.
SourceRIETI Discussion Paper Series 11-E-051, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, JAA, (RIETI), Hitotsubashi University, 2011, Japan
URLhttp://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/dp/11e051.pdf
Public50-75 aged, Japan, 2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3063

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of social activities
Page in Source 8, 23
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Self report on number of social activities 
participated:
0: none (reference)
1: 1
2: 2
3: 3 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.01 ns
MEN: 
1                        (vs none)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.39 ns
2                        (vs none)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.24 ns
3 or more                (vs none)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.99 ns
WOMEN:
1                        (vs none)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.67 p < .01
2                        (vs none)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.28 ns
3 or more                (vs none)

OR controlled for:
-age
-educational attainment
-house ownership
-occupational status
-survey areas


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyAbe & Moritsuka (1986): study JP 1981
TitleA Case-Control Study of Climacteric Symptoms and Complaints of Japanese Women by Symptomatic Type for Psychological Variables.
SourceMaturitas, 1986, Vol. 8, 255 - 265
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3784921&dopt=Abstract
PublicWomen in menopause patient and controls, Miyagi, North-east Japan, 1981-82.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response20 % (cases 21%,controls 19%)
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelInvolvement in family and/or community
Page in Source 262
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: Do you think you are 
contributive to your family or community?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in social activities
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 79% (N=1518) Italy: 66% (N=600)
Remarks
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.56 p < .018
Germany: CI95 [1.1-2.2]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.53 p < .05
Italy: CI95 [1.0-2.3]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Questions on 'participation'. Full items not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyPalisi (1985): study ZZ Western nations 1977 /2
TitleFormal and Informal Participation in Urban Areas.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 125, 429 - 477
PublicMales, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67%
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelCombined interactionscale
Page in Source 440
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Summed scores for attending voluntary
associations, visiting kin, and
visiting friends. Each variable was 
rated on a sixpoint scale ranging from
daily to never.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .05
London:      rpc=+.05
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .01
Los Angeles: rpc=+.18
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .01
Sydney:      rpc=+.11
rpc controled for age, education and occupation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyPalisi (1985): study ZZ Western nations 1977 /2
TitleFormal and Informal Participation in Urban Areas.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 125, 429 - 477
PublicMales, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67%
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelSocial relationship variables
Page in Source 441
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
1. Visiting kin
2. Voluntary association memberships
3. Paralled companionship
4. Joint companionship
5. Visiting friends
6. Discussions with friends
7. Discussions with immediate kin
8. Voluntary association attendance
9. Discussions with kin

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-aR²=.12 ns
Los Angeles
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-aR²=.15 ns
Sydney
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-aR²=.08 ns
London


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activities
Page in Source 79
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.14 p < .00
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001
TitleAn Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the ESRC/MRC HSRC Quality of Life Survey in Britain.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2004, Vol. 69, 1 - 36
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:SOCI.0000032656.01524.07
Public65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response23%
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activities
Page in Source 15
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Reported number and importance of activities in: 
a: clubs
b: local organizations, groups
c: evening/educational class
e: place of worship
d: cinema, theatre, place of entertainment
e: voluntary work
f: game or sport, swimming, keep fit, dancing, walking, 

g: library
h: gardening
i: caring: for child er of someone ill/frail, other; 
j: voting
h: frequency of getting out of house, holidays/outings

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.12
Beta controlled for:
- social comparisons and expectations
- personality
- health
- health values
- social capital
- age
- gender
- socioeconomic status
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in group activities
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
a: None (Reference)
b: Religious group
c: Other group activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=+ p < .01
Religious group (vs. none):        OR= 1.5 
CI99[1.459-1.518] 
Other group activities (vs. none): OR= 1.2 
CI99[1.219-1.247]

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelStructure of activities - services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month concerning the:
a: number of days per week at the Club
b: number of hours per week at the club
c: attendance in area meetings
d: number of hours per week in task
e: attendance in Club recreation
f: attendance in other recreation
g: time spent in leisure activities
h: time spent socializing
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09 ns
Number of days per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
Number of hours per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in area meetings
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
Number of hours per week in task
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in Club recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .01
Time spent in leisure activities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.08 ns
Attendance in other recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Time spent in socializing
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
Any of the above services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBall & Robbins (1984): study US 1983
TitleMarital Status and Life Satisfaction of Black Men.
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1984, Vol. 1, 459 - 470
DOIDOI:10.1177/0265407584014004
Public18+ aged, black men, Florida, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 463-465
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions on: frequence of interaction 
with nearby friends and relatives, and church 
attendancy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+ p < .NS
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= ns
Linear relationship, 
greater spread in happiness among less 
participating people.

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+03 p < .NS
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for: self-perceived health, age, SES, 
marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyGoudy & Goudeau (1981): study US 1975
TitleSocial Ties and Life Satisfaction of Older Persons: Another Evaluation.
SourceJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 1981, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public50+ aged, general public, North-Central Iowa, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response11.3%
Respondents N =2321

Correlate
Author's labelSocial ties
Page in Source 43
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Joint effect of:
1. Relatives in community (number)
2. Friends in community (number)
3. Local people known (number)
4. Organizational memberships (number)
5. Community attachement (attitude)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dR²=.11 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyGraney & Graney (1973): study US 1971
TitleScaling Adjustment in Older People.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1973, Vol. 4, 351 - 359
Public62-89 aged females, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal adjustment.
Page in Source 357
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Degree of correspondence between orientation towards 
social participation and actual social participation 
mode.

1. Orientation towards social  
   participation was measured by the 
   adapted Dye (1963) Localism - 
   Cosmopolitan Scale (see S 4.5, GRANE
   1973A).

2. Actual social participation was 
   measured by 9 social communications 
   activities, which were arrayed  
   according to their degree of 'cosmo-
   politan characteristics of the
   people who are (in)active in them:
   -'cosmopolitan' mode of social
    participation defined as: visiting
    neighbours, friends and relatives
    and reading.
   -'intermediate' mode of social
    participation defined as: church
    attendance, television viewing,
    and number of memberships in
    voluntary associations.
   -'local' mode of social
    participation defined as: radio-
    listening, telephone use, and
    participation in voluntary
    associations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelReligious Fellowship and Social Participation
Page in Source 58,73
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Factors derived from topics mentioned in response to 
open questions such as:  "What are the things you are 
unhappy about these days?"
a Religious resources
b Church and community responsibility
c Social participation
d Social environment difficulties

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Remarks
Factor 3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity.
Page in Source 70-72
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Selfreport.
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
attending a sport event; attending church, lectures, 
concerts ect.; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations, or relatives; visiting, telephoning, or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating out, or 
entertaining.
Observed distributionActual range 0-34 M= 9.9 SD=6.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09
All
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.17 p < .05
Men.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.03 p < .05
Men. Step wise multiple regression:
selfrated health     R= +.44
org. activity        B1=+.46
confident            B2=+.48
performance status   B3=+.49
employment           B4=+.50
social activity      B5=+.51   

All variables p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or football 
games; attending church or other meetings; lectures or 
concerts; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertaining".
Observed distributionM = 9, 9 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.11 p < .05
T1 social activity by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 social activity by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.12 p < .05
T1 social activity by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.09 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- selfrated health
- sexual enjoyment
- organizational activity
- productive hours
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social activity by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness
Change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 health by T2-T3 CHANGE in happiness
Change happiness measured controling T3 happiness 
for T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts
Page in Source 70
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Number of reported voluntary visits or telephone 
conversations with children, close relatives, close 
friends, neighbors; and number of religious services or 
other meetings; during one month.
Observed distributionActual range 1- 306 M= 101.4 SD=59.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyRenne (1974): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleMeasurement of Social Health in a General Population Survey.
SourceSocial Science Research, 1974, Vol. 3, 25 - 44
Public20+ aged, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelSocial health
Page in Source 42
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Index containing:
- employability (including educational
  level, occupational level, and job
  stability)
- marital satisfaction
- sociability (including number of
  close relatives and friends, and
  frequency of contacts)
- community involvement (including 
  church attendance, political activi-
  ty, and organizational memberships)
Remarks
Level of happiness in average ridits (RT)
                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-g-mq-v-3-dDMr=+ p < . 05
1:First quartile (low health)       RT= .38
2:Second quartile                   RT= .49
3:Third quartile                    RT= .55
4:Fourth quartile (high health)     RT= .64
   
Ridit analysis compares the distribution in a 
category with the distribution in the entire 
sample. RT above .50 means relatively high 
happiness, RT below .50 relatively low.
(Original values substracted from 1 by ns in order 
to indicate higher happiness by higher values).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelPoor interpersonal relations
Page in Source 41
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
2-item index containing:
- the number of good friends
- the number of organizational member-
  ships.
Rated as good(0) and poor(1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-.12 p < .05
 proportion happy:
0: good relations  71.5%     AR= .53
1: poor relations  28.5%     AR= .41
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participations
Page in Source 153/157
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
3-item index of direct questions on number of organized 
memberships, frequency of contacts with friends and 
attending parties.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.17 p < . 01
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fG= +
Index of Positive Affects only: G = +.20 (01)

Stronger in high pathology group (01)
Lower in low pathology group (ns)

Not among those living alone
Stronger among those living with someone else than 
parents or spouse (boarding house, friends, etc.) 
Not among married males living with their spouse

Unaffected by employed status

Index of Negative Affects is related to social 
participation only among employed individuals 
living with their family of orientation 
_c = -.27 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyPhillips (1967a): study US NewHampshire 1962
TitleSocial Participation and Happiness.
SourceAmerican Journal of Sociology, 1967, Vol. 72, 479 - 488
Public21+ aged, general public, New Hampshire, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 483-484
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on frequency of 
contacts with friends, number of neighbors known and 
organiza- tional activity.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.32
Males           : G = +.73
Females         : G = +.22

Catholics       : G = +.40
Protestants     : G = +.23

Age 21 - 34     : G = +.17
Age 35 - 49     : G = +.22
Age 50+         : G = +.47

Low education   : G = +.40
Medium education: G = +.33
High education  : G = +.01

Low S.E.S.      : d = +.30
Mediuwm S.E.S.  : d = +.14
High S.E.S.     : d = +.03

When elaborated for S.E.S. and age:
- smallest relationship (d = +.06) among those of
  age 21-49 and high S.E.S.
- strongest relationship (d = +.39) among those
  of age 50+ and medium or low S.E.S.
In the different S.E.S.-groups unaffected by sex 
and religous affiliation (see PHILL 1969, p. 17).

Mentally well Ss: G' = +.28 (01)
Mentally ill  Ss: G' = +.32 (05)
(see PHILL 1967, p.289)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG= +
Index of Positive Affects       : G = +.32
Index of Negative Affects       : G = -.08

Males               : Positive affect: G = +.41
                    : Negative affect: G = +.17
Females             : Positive affect: G = +.27
                    : Negative affect: G = +.00

Catholics           : Positive affect: G = +.39
                    : Negative affect: G = -.01
Protestants         : Positive affect: G = +.27
                    : Negative affect: G = -.07

Age 21 - 34         : Positive affect: G = +.15
                    : Negative affect: G = -.01
Age 35 - 49         : Positive affect: G = +.27
                    : Negative affect: G = -.53
Age 50+             : Positive affect: G = +.50
                    : Negative affect: G = +.16

Low education       : Positive affect: G = +.37
                    : Negative affect: G = -.16
Medium education    : Positive affect: G = +.09
                    : Negative affect: G = +.08
High education      : Positive affect: G = +.40
                    : Negative affect: G = -.03

Low S.E.S.          : Positive affect: d = +.41
                    : Negative affect: d = +.15
Medium S.E.S.       : Positive affect: d = +.16
                    : Negative affect: d = -.09
High S.E.S.         : Positive affect: d = +.08
                    : Negative affect: d = -.11

When elaborated for S.E.S. and age:  
- Smallest relationship with positive affect
  (d = +.04), and strongest negative relationship
  with negative affect (d = -.12) among those of
  age 21-49 and high S.E.S.
- Strongest relationship with positive affect
  (d = +.33) and strongest positive relationship
  with negative affect (d = +.08) among those of
  age 50+ and medium or low S.E.S.
In the different S.E.S.-groups unaffected by sex 
and religious affiliation (See PHILL 1969, p. 10) 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
7-item index of closed questions on number of 
organizational memberships, number of times one got 
together with friends, chatted with friends on the 
telephone, attended a meeting, ate in a restaurant, 
went for a ride in the car, and furthest distance went 
from home other than going to work; during the last 
week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= +
Index of Positive Affects only  : G' = +.28 (01)
Unaffected by S.E.S.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelSocial integration
Page in Source 574
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Number of roles beyond that of wife and mother: 
- paid worker
- club member
- religious member
- friend
- neighbor
- relative
Rated: yes/no
Observed distributionM = 4,11, SD = 1,05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
Betas controlled for:
- age
- education
- husband's occupation (professional or not)
- life-cycle stage (chlid < 6 years or not)
- number of children
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .001
Additional control for employment 
(paid work omitted from list of roles)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Unaffected by interactions between
- roles/employment
- roles/ husband's occupation
- employment/husbands occupation
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Squared roles: To test for curvi-linearity life 
satisfaction was regressed on the square of the 
number of roles, controlling for individual and 
structural variables and number of roles
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
To assess whether the number of roles or one role 
in particular mattered most, each role was entered 
separately into a regression equation along with 
with the control variables and a summary measure 
of other roles. No single role proved 
statistically significant, while the contribution 
of the number of roles remained significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to total social participation
Subject code: S08ac

StudyBradshaw et al. (2006): study ZZ OECD member states 2001
TitleComparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods.
SourceInnoocenti Working Paper no. 2006-3, Unicef Research Centre, 2006, Florence, Italy
URLhttps://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/464/
PublicAdolescents, 29 nations, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =137682

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling an outsider
Page in Source 4, 70-72,75
Our classificationAttitudes to total social participation, code S08ac
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
I feel like an outsider (or left out of things)
Observed distributionOECD countries: Austria = 5,8 Belgium = 7,9 Canada = 8,9 Czech Republic = 9,7 Denmark = 5,3 Finland = 5,5 France = 7,7 Germany = 6,1 Greece = 6,3 Hungary = 9,3 Ireland = 5,6 Italy = 4,9 Netherlands = 3,9 Norway = 5,6 Poland = 8,2 Portugal = 6,4 Spain = 3,3 Sweden = 5,2 Switzerland = 7,1 United Kingdom 6,8 United States = NA . Average of OECD countries: 6,4 %, SD = 1,7 % Non-OECD Countries: Croatia = NA Estonia = NA Israel = 2,3 Latvia = 5,2 Lithuania = NA Malta = NA Russian Federation = 6,1 Slovenia = NA
Remarks
source: PISA 2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.44 p < .05
% happy in nation by % feeling an outsider


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to total social participation
Subject code: S08ac

StudyBradshaw et al. (2006): study ZZ OECD member states 2001
TitleComparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods.
SourceInnoocenti Working Paper no. 2006-3, Unicef Research Centre, 2006, Florence, Italy
URLhttps://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/464/
PublicAdolescents, 29 nations, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =137682

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling awkward and out of place
Page in Source 70, 72, 73
Our classificationAttitudes to total social participation, code S08ac
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
I feel awkward and out of place
- disagree
- agree
Observed distributionOECD countries: Austria = 8,2, Belgium = 15,6, Canada = 10,5 Czech Republic = 6,4 Denmark = 11,8 Finland = 8,4 France = 12,3 Germany = 11,4 Greece = 8,3 Hungary = 7,6 Ireland = 7,8 Italy = 6,2 Netherlands = 6,9 Norway = 9,1 Poland = 9,9 Portugal = 11,7 Spain = 8,9 Sweden = 4,9 Switzerland = 11,7 United Kingdom 8,7 United States = NA Average of OECD countries: 6,4 %, SD = 1,7 % Non-OECD Countries: Croatia = NA Estonia = NA Israel = 3,6 Latvia = 9,6 Lithuania = NA Malta = NA Russian Federation 14,3 Slovenia NA
Remarks
Data: PISA 2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.10 ns
% happy in nation by %feeling awkward


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to total social participation
Subject code: S08ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of sense of pertenence to one's own commun
Our classificationAttitudes to total social participation, code S08ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "sense of pertenence and participation to one's own 
community (ideologically, politically, or culturally 
speaking)"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 6,69 SD: 1,92, Non-exercisers: M: 6,09 SD: 2,51
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.13 p < .22
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to total social participation
Subject code: S08ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of sense of pertenence to one's own commun
Our classificationAttitudes to total social participation, code S08ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "sense of pertenence and participation to one's own 
community (ideologically, politically, or culturally 
speaking)"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 3,04 SD: 2,68
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.06 p < .42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about social participation
Subject code: S08ac01

StudyCheng & Chan (2006): study HK 2000
TitleRelationship with Others and Life Satisfaction in Later Life: Do Gender and Widowhood make a Difference?
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 2006, Vol. 61b, 46 - 53
Public60+ aged, Hong Kong, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1616

Correlate
Author's labelFormal activities
Page in Source 49-50
Our classificationConcern about social participation, code S08ac01
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
a: how often do you participate in organizing 
activities for others?
b: how often do you participated in group activities?
c: how often do you participate in activities that 
arose your curiosity and concern?

Response options not reported
Observed distributionM=2.40 SD=0.90
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is .76

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-ar=+.19 p < .001
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social involvement
Page in Source 27,49
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Seven item index of direct questions on satisfaction 
with social involvement during the last 14 days. The 
summed scores were afterwards divided into 3 strata, 
i.e. low, medium and high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.34 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.34 p < .05
All
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
ß controlled for: satisfaction with physical 
health, material satisfaction, satisfaction with 
partner, satisfaction with self realisation, 
satisfaction with work (positive), satisfaction 
with work (negative), and satisfaction with 
leisure time.
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
            
    
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- with partner, with work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- with partner, without work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.26
- no partner, with work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- no partner, without work
         
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- Age < 25
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.14
- Age 26-40
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.16
- Age 41-59
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta= ns
- Age > 60
 
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- < 6.000 income in Austrian Shill/month
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- 6.000-10.000
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.13
- 10.000-16.000
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- > 16.000
            
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.19
- monotonous work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- some selfcontrol
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.22
- much selfcontrol

All ß's controlled for satisfaction in six other 
domains of life (physical health, partner, income, 
selfrealization, work, leisure).
*=N too small
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelOpportunities to socialize
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.09
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
 - Friendships
 - Present age
 - Self-esteem
 - Local government officials
 - Family relations
 - Accomplishing in life now


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975): study IL 1973 /1
TitleOn the Multivariate Structure of Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1975, Vol. 2, 361 - 388
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00293253
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1830

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social group
Page in Source 373
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Direct closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-amc=+.43
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=+.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social life domain
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your social 
life?
1: not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7: completely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.17 p < .00
Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.17 p < .00
Males

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome difficulties
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyLee et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleDeveloping a Subjective Measure of Consumers Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Macromarketing, 2002, Vol. 22, 158 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1177/0276146702238219
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =298

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social life
Page in Source 164
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your social life?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.43 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- job
- family
- finance
- health
- education
- friendships
- leisure
- neighbors
- community
- spiritual
- taxes
- environment
- political situation
- housing
- cultural life

Unaffected by additional control for satisfaction 
with:
- acquisitions
- possessions
- consumption
- repair services
- do-it-yourself repairs
- disposition
(consumer well-being)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyJanz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996
TitleFactors Influencing Quality of Life in Older Women With Heart Disease.
SourceMEDICAL CARE, 2001, V ol. 39, 588 - 598 ,
URLhttp://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Abstract/2001/06000/Factors_Influencing_Quality_of_Life_in_Older_Women.7.aspx
PublicMedical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =570

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social activities
Page in Source 594-596
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: text not reported

T2-T1 CHANGE:
1:  same or better
0:  deteriorated
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2: 12 months difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=1.50 p < .01
CI95[1.13,1.99]

T2 happiness by T1 satisfaction with social 
activities.
Chances for higher happiness level at T2 are 1.5 
times higher for those whose satisfaction w. 
activity level was high at T1.
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=4.52 p < .01
CI95[2.56,7.95]

T2 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE satisfaction with 
social activities.

Chances for higher happiness level are >4 times 
higher for those whose satisfaction w. activity 
level improved between T1 and T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyLance et al. (1989): study US Georgia 1984
TitleA Comparison Between Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Bidirectional Models of Relationships Between Global and Life Facet Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Personality, 1989, Vol. 57, 601 - 624
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/229529155_A_Comparison_Between_BottomUp_TopDown_and_Bidirectional_Models_of_Relationships_Between_Global_and_Life_Facet_Satisfaction
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00565.x
PublicMarried academics, university of Georgia, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social activities
Page in Source 608, 610
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A: How satisfied are you with your friends?
B: How satisfued are you with your social life?

Rated: 1= very diiatisfied to 5= very satisfied
Observed distributionMean 7,51 SD 1,93
Error EstimatesCoefficient alfa = .83

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.62 p < .01
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-ab=+.14
Bottom up effect
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-ab=+.57
Top down effect

B's estimated in a Lisrel model with
-age
-job satisfaction
-marital satisfaction
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with social participation
Subject code: S08ac02

StudyCrandall & Kytonen (1980): study US 1975
TitleSex, Age, and Stress as Moderators for the Relation between Social Interest and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1980, Vol. 36, 169 - 182
PublicStudents, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Interest Scale
Page in Source 172,175
Our classificationSatisfaction with social participation, code S08ac02
Operationalization
Self report on nine questions. Questions not reported.
Remarks
Social Interest Scale (Candrall, 1975). It consists of 
15 keyed and 9 filler items in a force-choice format 
presented as a measure of values.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.24 p < .10
University students: all
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.12 ns
University students: men
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.43 p < .01
University students: women
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.15 ns
High School Students: all
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.01 ns
High school students: men
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
High school students: women


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single closed question:

"How is your mood these days....?"
4 very good all the time
3
2
1 not good almost all the time
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question :

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
1 low
2 both
3 good
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fSelfreport on 10 questions:

We are interested in how people are feeling these days. The following items describe some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week
A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B That things were going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F Upset because someone criticized you
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Bored
I Very lonely or remote from other people
J Depressed or very unhappy

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to E
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average F to J
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -25 to +25

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-g-mq-v-3-dSelfreport on 7 questions:

"Here is a list that describes how people feel at different times.
How often do you feel each of these ways?

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
items not reported.

Response options;
- never
- sometimes
- often

Scoring:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): sum 3 positive item
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): sum 4 negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

A For the past five years, how much have you accomplished of what you planned in your life?
1 completely failed
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely accomplished
B How much are you satisfied with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
C How much do you enjoy your life these days?
3 a great deal
2 a fair amount
1 not very much
D How happy have you been for the past five years?
1 completely unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely happy

Summation: % positive answers

Response options A, D and C not reported in full detail
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

We want to know how you feel. Please indicate on the scale below.
10 means that you are doing well, 0 means that you are doing badly
10 you are doing well
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 doing badly
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"......happiness during past few weeks....."
(Full lead not reported)
4 very happy
3
2
1 not too happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about the good and bad things in your life, which of the answers best describes your life-as-a-whole?
1 as bas as can be
2 very bad
3 bad
4 allright
5 good
6 very good
7 as good as can be
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, are you happy these days......?"
6 very happy
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
(Response options not fully reported)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much happiness do you find in life today....?
1 almost none
2 some but not very much
3 a good deal
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How have things been going for you during the past 4 weeks?
4 very well
3 pretty good
3 good and bad parts about equal
2 pretty bad
1 bad
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question

.. Satisfaction with life.. (full text not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with present life....."
(Full lead item not reported)
1
2
3
(Response options not reported)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

"All in all, how satisfied are you with your life these days.....?"
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Once again, please look at the scale and tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your life as a whole"
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, are you satisfied with your life or not?
4 satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration, how satisfied are you with life in general at the present time? Would you say you are.....?
5 extremely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tSelfreport on single question:

How would you describe your satisfaction with life in general at present......?
1 bad
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 excellent
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions

A Happiness
B Life-satisfaction

Texts not reported

Summation: A+B
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mcGuttman's monotonicy coefficient.
Range: [-1, +1].
Measurement level: Both correlate and happiness ordinal or interval
Based on the multiplication of signed differences within one variable with the corresponding difference in the second variable and summation over all possible differences.
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)N09ac08aSocial participation in region
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)P08ab02Political participation
S08aaParticipation careerS06aaContact career
S08aaParticipation careerS07aaParticipation career
S08abCurrent total social participationS06abCurrent contacts
S08abCurrent total social participationS07abCurrent organizational participation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings