Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS
Subject Code: S06

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS1
S06aaContact career0
S06aa01Earlier personal contacts0
S06aa01aEarlier amount of personal contacts2
S06aa01bEarlier satisfaction with personal contacts2
S06aa02Change in personal contacts7
S06aa02aChange in amount of personal contacts1
S06aa02bChange in satisfaction with personal contacts0
S06aa03Later personal contacts0
S06abCurrent contacts47
S06acAttitudes to personal contacts2
S06ac01Concern about personal contacts6
S06ac02Perceived amount of pleasant contacts1
S06ac03Satisfaction with personal contacts21
S06ac03aSatisfaction with opportunities for contact2
S06ac03bSatisfaction with amount of personal contacts2
S06ac03cSatisfaction with quality of personal contacts3
S06ab01Relative contacts1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S06
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS
Subject code: S06

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelSociable
Page in Source 19, 47
Our classificationSOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS, code S06
Operationalization
Selfreport on social participation.
Question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=+.14 ns
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- workaholic
- practice sports
- hours of leisure
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Workers: B= +.14
Nonworkers: B= +.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier amount of personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa01a

StudySchilmoeller et al. (1991): study US 1991
TitleLong -Term Support and Personal Adjustment of Adolescent and Older Mothers.
SourceAdolescence, 1991, Vol. 26, 787 - 796
PublicMothers, followed 1 year postpartum, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelTotal Interactions
Page in Source 791.793
Our classificationEarlier amount of personal contacts, code S06aa01a
Operationalization
Self reported number of interactions during the last 24 
hours, e.g. with kin, friends, baby's father or helping 
agents.
Observed distribution-Adolescent mothers: 1 month: M=7.11; 6 months: M=6.42; 12months: M=5.74 -Older mothers: 1 month: M=6.48; 6 months: M=6.12; 12months: M=5.64
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=.68
Remarks
Past of Community Interaction Checklist (Wahler's, 
1980b)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.19 ns
Adolescent Mothers
-T1 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.12 ns
-T2 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.12 ns
-T3 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=-.16 ns
Older Mothers
-T1 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.21 ns
-T2 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.02 ns
-T3 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier amount of personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa01a

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHaving close friendsprior to the fire
Page in Source 225
Our classificationEarlier amount of personal contacts, code S06aa01a
Operationalization
Direct question: "Did you have close friends in the 
community prior to the fire?".Scores ranged from 2 low 
friendship(reflecting a"yes"answer) to 4 high 
friendship.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=- s
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Survivors' wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Other miners' wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Other miners' wives (husband was not involved  in 
mine fire)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa01b

StudySchilmoeller et al. (1991): study US 1991
TitleLong -Term Support and Personal Adjustment of Adolescent and Older Mothers.
SourceAdolescence, 1991, Vol. 26, 787 - 796
PublicMothers, followed 1 year postpartum, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelQuality of Interaction
Page in Source 791.793
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with personal contacts, code S06aa01b
Operationalization
Self rating of quality of interactions with e.g kin, 
friends, baby's father or helping agents.
Observed distribution-Adolescent mothers: 1 month: M=5.56; 6 months: M=5.68; 12months: M=5.67 -Older mothers: 1 month: M=5.86; 6 months: M=5.77; 12months: M=5.58
Remarks
Past of Community Interaction Checklist (Wahler's, 
1980b)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.17 ns
Adolescent Mothers
-T1 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.49 p < .05
-T2 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.56 p < .05
-T3 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.18 ns
Older Mothers
-T1 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=.23 ns
-T2 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=61 p < .001
-T3 Quality of Interactions by T3 happinesss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa01b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier satisfaction with social contacts
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with personal contacts, code S06aa01b
Operationalization
Social contacts mentioned on an open question on 
satisfying aspects of life.
a. in 1950
b. in 1960
Remarks
Earlier satisfaction with social contacts (1960) by 
present happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- ns
1950 social contacts mentioned by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .02
1960 social contacts mentioned by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelHaving met new people
Page in Source 17
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
Direct question on new people met during past few 
weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.18
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelChange in friends
Page in Source 225
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
Direct question:
0 No change
1 Change

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ s
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in social activities over 4 years
Page in Source 703
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
Differences between responses at T1 and T2 on identical 
direct questions.


a. More contacts with friends and      
   relatives.

b. More contacts with neighbors.



c. More memberships in voluntary
   associations.

d. More often meetings of voluntary 
   associations attended.

e. More often religious services atten-
   ded.

f. Telephone used more often.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.06 ns
a: Age 66-75: tb = -.17 (ns)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.19 (ns)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.24 p < .05
b: Age 66-75: tb = +.42 (05)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.54 (01)
   Lower among age 76-81
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.34 p < .01
c: Age 66-75: tb = +.30 (05)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.56 (01)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.28 p < .01
d: Age 66-75: tb = +.10 (ns)
   Age 82-92: tb = +.58 (01)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.15 ns
e: Age 66-75: tb = -.04 (ns)
   Age 82-92: tb = -.17 (ns)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.02 ns
f: Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelHaving met new people
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
Direct question on number of new people met during the 
past few weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.
Index of Positive Affects: G= +.33
Index of Negative Affects: G= +.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelHaving made new friends
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
Direct question on new friends made in recent months: 
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.
Index of Positive Affects: G= +.37
Index of Negative Affects: G= -.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelNew other-oriented activities engaged in
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
2 open-ended questions on new activities engaged in 
during the past few weeks, and on type of activities; 
coded for activities one did with others.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.
Index of Positive Affects: G= +.36
Index of Negative Affects: G= +.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelHaving met new people
Page in Source 43
Our classificationChange in personal contacts, code S06aa02
Operationalization
Closed question on new people met during last wek.
no vs yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= +
Index of Positive Affects only  : G' = +.48 (01)
Unaffected by S.E.S.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in amount of personal contacts
Subject code: S06aa02a

StudyPowdthavee (2008): study GB 1997
TitlePutting a Price Tag on Friends, Relatives, and Neighbours: Using Surveys of Life Satisfaction to Value Social Relationships.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 39, 1459 -1480
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socec.2007.04.004
Public16-65 aged, followed 6 years, Great-Britain, 1997-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =54424

Correlate
Author's labelChange in Talking to neighbours
Page in Source 36-41
Our classificationChange in amount of personal contacts, code S06aa02a
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in selfreport on single question: How 
often do you talk to your neighbours?
1 never or less often than once a month
2 once or twice a month
3 once or twice a week
4 on most days

Change in talking to neighbours from T1 to T2
a Remain the same 
b Increased in frequency
c Reduced in frequency
Observed distributionRange= a-d:1-4 M=3,02 SD(within)=0,48 Frequencies in %: All Men Women Age<=30 Age>30 1: 10 10 9 16 7 2: 15 16 14 17 14 3: 40 42 38 36 41 4: 36 33 39 31 38
Remarks
Due to a small number of respondents Less often than 
once a month is considered as Never

T1=average 1997-2000, T2=2002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=-
NO CHANGE IN TALKING TO NEIGHBOURS

        Average change   SD      N
        in happiness           
1 to 1:   -.08          1,32    1.376
2 to 2:   -.03          1,13    2.024
3 to 3:   -.02          1,08    9.287
4 to 4:   -.03          1,26   12.098
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
INCREASE IN TALKING TO NEIGHBOURS

        Average change   SD      N
        in happiness           
1 to 2:   +.00          1,24     879
1 to 3:   -.00          1,41     851
1 to 4:   +.17          1,49     432

2 to 3:   +.04          1,14    2.180 
2 to 4:   +.02          1,26     614

3 to 4:   -.02          1,22    4.634
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=--
DECREASE IN TALKING TO NEIGHBOURS

        Average change   SD      N
        in happiness           
2 to 1:   -.11          1,27     842

3 to 1:   -.13          1,32     773
3 to 2:   -.05          1,15    2.272

4 to 1:   -.05          1,54     424 
4 to 2:   -.07          1,39     617
4 to 3:   -.08          1,22    4.413
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.01 ns
2 once or twice a month (vs. 1)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.05 p < .05
3 once or twice a week (vs. 1)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.07 p < .01
4 on most days (vs. 1)

B's are estimated by means of fixed effects 
estimators instead of OLS.

B's controlled for:
- frequency of talking to neighbours
- gender
- age
- real household income
- marital status
- employment status 
- look after home
- health status
- education level
- household size
- home ownership
- days spent in hospital
- number of children

Adittional control variables about quality of 
accommodation and neighbourhood do not make a 
difference:
- shortage of space
- noise from neighbours
- street noise
- not enough lights
- lack of adequate heating
- condensation
- leaky roof
- damp wall, floors, etc.
- rot windows, floors, etc
- pollution/environmental problems
- vandalism or crime
- average district income

Fixed effect estimators differ significantly from 
OLS estimators denoting a positive inborn 
personality bias on the observed relationship 
between frequency of social contacts, income and 
life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts
Page in Source 114,T31
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Seven item index of direct questions on number, 
intensity and frequency of social relations. Rated on a 
4-point scale ranging from 'none' to 'four or more'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyMichalos (1985): study CA Guelph CMA 1985
TitleMultiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 347 - 413
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00333288
PublicStudents undergraduates University of Guelph, Canada, 1984
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =700

Correlate
Author's labelSocial support
Page in Source 376
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
The mean of the scores on the closed questions 
concerning the satisfaction with quality and quantity 
of contact with :                         
-family members
-friends
both rated on a 7 point scale.
1: terrible...7:delightful.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.28 p < .01
ß controlled for :
- life compared with wants
- life compared with others
- life compared with that deserved
- life compared with best previous experience
- self esteem
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.23 p < .01
ß controlled for:
- life compared with wants
- life compared with others
- life compared with that deserved
- life compared with best previous experience
- self esteem
- work status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyChappell & Badger (1989): study CA Winnipeg, Manitoba 1985
TitleSocial Isolation and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1989, Vol. 44, 169 - 176
Public60+ aged, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 1985
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Isolation
Page in Source 170-172
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Self report of non-instrumental social contacts:
a: no daily contact (vs has daily contact)
b: minimal weekly contact (vs less or no contact)
c: live alone (vs not live alone)
d: not married (vs married) 
e: no children (vs has children)
f: no companions (vs has companions)
g: no confidants (vs has confidants)
h: no children plus not married (vs has children plus 
married)
i: no children plus live alone (vs has children plus 
not live alone)
j: live alone plus no confidants (vs not live alone 
plus has confidants)
Observed distributiona:40%, b:10%, c:31%, d:40%; e:15%, f:4%, g:16%, h:9%; i:8%, j:7%
Remarks
All respondents named someone in their social network, 
which could include: people in their household, 
parents, siblings, children, other relatives, friends, 
and neighbours. No one was totally isolated. Those 
involved in instrumental relations, such as health care 
worker or a shopkeeper are not included in these 
figures. Size of social network is not included as an 
indicator of social isolation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=-.22 ns
a: no daily contact (vs has daily contact)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=.52 ns
b:minimal weekly contact (vs less or no contact)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=2.74 p < .01
c: live alone (vs not live alone)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.55 p < .001
d: not married (vs married)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=-61 ns
e: no children (vs has children)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=4.89 p < .001
f: no companions (vs has companions)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.54 p < .001
g: no confidants (vs has confidants)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=1.03 ns
h: no children plus not married (vs has children 
plus married)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=1.16 ns
i: no children plus live alone (vs has children 
plus not live alone)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.90 p < .001
j: live alone plus no confidants (vs not live 
alone plus has confidants)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyLi et al. (2008): study CN 2002
TitleAn Exploration of the Subjective Well-Being of the Chinese Oldest-Old.
SourceHealthy Longevity in China, Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, 2008, Vol. 20, 347 - 356
URLhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-6752-5_21
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6752-5_21
Public80+ aged, China, 2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response1285
Respondents N =11175

Correlate
Author's labelChat with whom
Page in Source 353
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
a: Spouse
b: Household members
c: Friends and neighbours
d: Social workers
e: No one
Observed distributionPercent: a = 11,6, b = 50,9, c = 25,9, d = 1,8, e = 9,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
a. M = 3,65
b. M = 3,75
c. M = 3,60
d. M = 3,90
e. M = 3,36
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aAoV= p < .001
F-ratio = 46,99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency visits by child or sibling
Page in Source 138,147
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
children paying frequent visits
yes = 1; no = 0 (reference)

sibling paying frequent visits 
yes = 1; no = 0 (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=
Individual happiness by current contacts with 
children and siblings.

OPRC controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.18 p < .01
Frequently visited by children
(OPRC = +0,182)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.08 p < .01
Frequently visited by sibling
(OPRC = +0,0776)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelthe quality of the social relations
Page in Source 376
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
The quality of the social relations
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4584; %:1:-; 2:1,0; 3:64,3; 4:64,4; 5:10,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.31 p < .00
1: Mt=
2: Mt=5.63
3: Mt=6.79
4: Mt=7.96
5: Mt=8.86
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.33 p < .00
1: Mt=-
2: Mt=4.74
3: Mt=6.35
4: Mt=7.68
5: Mt=8.66
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.33 p < .00
1: Mt=-
2: Mt=4.64
3: Mt=6.23
4: Mt=7.23
5: Mt=8.29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldaily contacts_B
Page in Source 166
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
0: no daily personal contacts
1: daily personal contacts
Observed distributionN 0:94, 1:410

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
split up by satisfaction with sexlife(+/-) and 
employment
  sexlife -   sexlife-  sexlife+    sexlife+
  unemployed  employed  unemployed  employed
0:Ms=4.59     6.16      7.00        8.35 
1:Ms=5.84     7.09      8.40        8.54
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
split up by satisfaction with sexlife(+/-) and 
employment
  sexlife -   sexlife-  sexlife+    sexlife+
  unemployed  employed  unemployed  employed
0:Ms=3.34     5.00      7.25        8.05
1:Ms=5.08     6.59      7.95        8.28
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
split up by satisfaction with sexlife (+/-)and 
employment
  sexlife -   sexlife-  sexlife+    sexlife+
  unemployed  employed  unemployed  employed
0:Ms=4.16     5.00      6.25        7.40 
1:Ms=5.00     5.86      7.69        7.90


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelquality of one's social relations
Page in Source 354
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
The quality of one's social relations.
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all:1456, 1:-, 2:12, 3:202, 4:881, 5:361
Remarks
The quality of one's social relations is calculated as 
weighted average giving equal weight to the domains 
self, partner, parents and children, family and friends 
of the questions 261-294 of the questionaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .00
 1: Mt=-
 2: Mt=5.21
 3: Mt=6.89
 4: Mt=7.78
 5: Mt=8.33
All Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.32 p < .00
 1: Mt=-
 2: Mt=3.96
 3: Mt=6.19
 4: Mt=7.48
 5: Mt=8.20
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.25 p < .00
 1: Mt=-
 2: Mt=5.00
 3: Mt=5.95
 4: Mt=6.99
 5: Mt=7.53
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's label(un)employed and satisfaction with sex and daily contacts
Page in Source 172
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
(Un)employment with/without satisfaction with sexlife, 
and daily personal contacts
0: no daily contacts
1: daily contacts

dissatisfaction with sex life: sex-
satisfaction with sex life:    sex+
Observed distributionN All:1893
Remarks
DMt+ for all 3 correlates
unemployed < employed
dissatisfied with sex life < satisfied with sex life
no daily contacts < daily contacts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
                    unemployed      employed
                    sex-  sex+      sex-  sex+
no daily contact:Mt=4.90  7.05      6.05  8.19
daily contacts:  Mt=6.25  8.04      7.00  8.63
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
                    unemployed      employed
                    sex-  sex+      sex-  sex+
no daily contact:Mt=4.90  7.05      6.05  8.19
daily contacts:  Mt=6.25  8.04      7.00  8.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
                    unemployed      employed
                    sex-  sex+      sex-  sex+
no daily contact:Mt=4.40  6.64      5.03  7.44  
daily contacts:  Mt=5.48  7.14      5.96  7.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelSocial inclusion
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Self report on 4 items
- Do you have at least three good friends?
- Do you tell your friends about your problems?
- Do you sometimes visit children or older people?
- Do you often stop to talk with your neighbours?

reponse option: 'yes', 'no', 'don't know'
Observed distributionM(SD)=72.18(29.69)
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.51
Remarks
The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-4.1 p < .01
Mean contact score
Not happy = 57.44(SD=32.55)
Happy     = 74.77(SD=28.44)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly at social gatherings
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
1 visit at least once a month friends, relatives or 
neighbours
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=159673 M=0.78 sd=0.41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.22 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.19 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Other social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of neighbors
Page in Source 253
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Self report on number of neighbors. Text is not 
reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=1.6 p < .05
CI95 [1.3-2.0]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyOshio (2011): study JP 2007
TitleGender Differences among Elderly Japanese: Importance of Family and Social Relations for Life Satisfaction.
SourceRIETI Discussion Paper Series 11-E-051, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, JAA, (RIETI), Hitotsubashi University, 2011, Japan
URLhttp://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/dp/11e051.pdf
Public50-75 aged, Japan, 2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3063

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of contact with children
Page in Source 7, 22
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Frequency of contact with children:
3: often (more often than several times a week, 
including coresidence)
2: sometimes (around once a week to around once a 
month)
1: not or seldom (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.78 ns
MEN:
often                    (vs not or seldom)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.12 ns
sometimes                (vs not or seldom)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.94 ns
WOMEN:
often                    (vs not or seldom)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.11 ns
sometimes                (vs not or seldom)

OR controlled for:
-age
-educational attainment
-house ownership
-occupational status
-survey areas


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyLee (2003): study KR 2000
TitleDaily Contextual Variations in Levels of Adolescent Happiness.
SourceThe Korean Journal of Development Psychology, 2003, Vol. 16, 193 - 209
PublicMiddle school students, South Korea, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response24
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labeldaily activity
Page in Source 200
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Time spend on activities:
A study 
B active leisure
C passive leisure
D interpersonal relationship
E living maintenance

Assessed using experience sampling during one week. 
When beeped Ss answered the open question:'What do you 
do right now'. Responses were later classified in these 
5 categories.
Higher scores mean more time spend on this activity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
     M     SD
A   1.06   .87
B   1.91   .98
C   1.69   .99
D   1.66  1.05
E   1.27   .96
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B>C,D>E>A


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyLee (2003): study KR 2000
TitleDaily Contextual Variations in Levels of Adolescent Happiness.
SourceThe Korean Journal of Development Psychology, 2003, Vol. 16, 193 - 209
PublicMiddle school students, South Korea, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response24
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal contact
Page in Source 201
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Time spend on interpersonal contact:
A alone 
B family 
C friend
D others 

Assessed using experience sampling during one week. 
When beeped Ss answered the open question:'Who are you 
with right now'. Responses were later classified in 
these 4 categories.
Higher scores mean more time spend on this 
interpersonal contact

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
Boys

    M     SD
A 1.21    1.00
B 1.58    1.00
C 1.54    1.07
D 1.32     .92
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C> A,D
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM= p < .05
Girls

    M    SD
A 1.28   .88
B 1.52   .98
C 1.31  1.03
D 1.27   .80
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B> A,C,D
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During study activity

   M       SD
A 0.87    .72
B 1.04    .90
C 1.04    .95
D 1.21    .84
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
D>B,C>A
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During active leisure activity
 
   M       SD
A 0.87    .72
B 1.04    .90
C 1.04    .95
D 1.21    .84
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C>A
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During passive leisure activity 

   M       SD
A 1.75   1.01
B 2.03    .92
C 2.05   1.01
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C>A
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During activity meeting with other people

   M        SD
A 1.33    1.09
B 1.89    1.15
C 1.70    1.07
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= ns
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
During living maintenance activity

   M        SD
a 1.09     .94
b 1.29     .95
c 1.43     .97
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B,C>A


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyVanSantvoort (2009): study ZZ Europe 2005
TitleDisability in Europe: Policy, Social Participation and Subjective Well-being.
SourceIpskamp, 2009, Enschede, Netherlands
Public15+ aged, general public, 9 European countries, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response30 %
Respondents N =14889

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 32, 33,125
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single questions on:
- Frequency of social meeting with friends, relatives 
or collegues
- Taking part in social activities
- In paid work
- Doing household, looking after children and other 
persons.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bBeta=+.13 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- hampered in daily activities by disability
- socio-demographic variables
- socio-economic variables
- self assessed health
- feeling optimistic and energetic
- feeling about household income

Beta's similar in:
- Belgium
- Germany
- Denmark
- Netherlands
- Slovenia
- United Kingdom

Beta's lowest in:
- Finland (+.061)
- Slovakia (+.065)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelRelational time
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
0 Not 
1 Once a month or weekly

a: family
b: friends
c: colleagues
d: church
e: service organisation
Observed distributionRange 1-4 a: M= 3.48, SD 0.81 b: M= 3.27, SD 0.89 c: M= 2.48, SD 1.19 d: M= 2.24, SD 1.24 e: M= 1.91, SD 1.14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.0 p < .05
Time spent with family       B:1,00, t: 6.76
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.78 p < .05
Time spent with friends      B:0.78, t: 5.17
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.27 p < .05
Time spent with colleagues   B:0.27, t: 2.54
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.24 p < .05
Time spent with church       B:0.24, t: 2.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.79 p < .05
Time spent with service org. B:0.79, t:6.83

B is points greater happiness on range 10-100 of 
people who spend once a month or weekly time on 
that kind of relational activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Contacts
Page in Source 461, 466
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on time spend with ...
a: relatives
b: friends
c: colleagues
d: people at church
e: people at sport

Rated:
 1 not at all
 2 only a few times a year
 3 once or twice a month
 4 every week or nearly every week
Observed distributiona: M=3.48, SD=0.81, b: M=3.27, SD=0.89, c: M=2.46, SD=1.20, d: M=2.22, SD=1.25 e: M=1.91, SD=1.14,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.02 ns
RELATIVES
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.06 ns
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.00 ns
FRIENDS
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.07 ns
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.08 p < .01
COLLEAGUES
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.07 p < .05
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.09 p < .01
PEOPLE AT CHURCH
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.17 p < .01
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.03 ns
PEOPLE AT SPORT
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.07 p < .05
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyAhmadyar (2016): study NL 2016
TitleDo the determinants of happiness differ between immigrants and home-stayers? A comparison between Afghansin the Netherlands and Afghanistan
SourceMaster thesis Msc Program in Urban Management and Development, Erasmus university Rotterdam
Public+18 aged Afghan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2016
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =141

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrants Social Relationship
Page in Source 36-37
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
How often do you meet socially with friends, relatives 
or work colleagues?
1- Never
2- Once a month
3- Several times a month
4- Everyday

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aR²=.68 p < .05
The more to meetings, the happier.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdR²=.69 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts
Page in Source 41
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Amount of hours spend on social contacts
1 Little
2 Average (reference category) 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR= ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Much    0,95    0,72       0,98       0,96
Average 1       1          1          1
Litlle  0,77    0,76       0,87       0,89


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelInformal social participation
Page in Source 27
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Question on number of contacts with family, friends or 
acquaintances, during the past week
1: 0-3
2: 4-5
3: 6 or more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.00 ns
U-shaped curve: Those who had 4 or 5 contacts 
being most happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyBartram (2013a): study RO 2009
TitleMigration, Return, and Happiness in Romania.
SourceEuropean Societies, 2013, Vol. 15, 408 - 422
DOIdoi:10.1080/14616696.2012.726735
Public15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1595

Correlate
Author's labelSociability
Page in Source 414, 416
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How often do you meet socially with friends, family, or 
work colleagues?
1: never
2: Less than once a month
3: Once a month 
4: Several times a month 
5: Once a week 
6: Several times a week
7: Every day
Observed distributionM=3.8 SD= 1.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.16 p < .000
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- immigrant status
- partner
- employment
- religiosity
- health
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.15 p < .000
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudySiösteen et al. (1990): study SE 1985
TitleThe Quality of Life of Three Functional Spinal Cord Injury Subgroups in a Swedish Community.
SourceParaplegia, 1990, Vol. 28, 476 -- 488
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2263404
PublicSpinal Cord Injury, Swedish, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelSocial and recreational activities
Page in Source Table VI
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Taking part in given social activities e. g. cinema, 
restaurant, visiting friends over the past month was 
noted. 
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cr=+.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyPowdthavee (2008): study GB 1997
TitlePutting a Price Tag on Friends, Relatives, and Neighbours: Using Surveys of Life Satisfaction to Value Social Relationships.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 39, 1459 -1480
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socec.2007.04.004
Public16-65 aged, followed 6 years, Great-Britain, 1997-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =54424

Correlate
Author's labelTalking to neighbours
Page in Source 33, 34, 39
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
How often do you talk to your neighbours?

1 Never and Less often than once a month
2 Once or twice a month
3 Once or twice a week
4 On most days
Observed distributionRange= a-d:1-4 M=3,02 SD=0,76 Frequencies in %: All Men Women Age<=30 Age>30 1: 10 10 9 16 7 2: 15 16 14 17 14 3: 40 42 38 36 41 4: 36 33 39 31 38
Remarks
Due to a small number of respondents Less often than 
once a month is considered as Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.03 ns
2 once or twice a month (vs. 1)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.14 p < .01
3 once or twice a week (vs. 1)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.27 p < .01
4 on most days (vs. 1)

B's controlled for:
- frequency of meeting friends
- gender
- age
- socioeconomic variables:
 - real household income
 - marital status
 - employment status 
 - look after home
 - health status
 - education level
 - household size 
 - home ownership
 - days spent in hospital
 - number of children

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis and ordered 
probit analysis without socioeconomic variables 
yield similar results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyKross et al. (2013): study US 2008
TitleFacebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults.
SourceOpen Access, 2013, Plos One, Vol. 8, 1 - 7
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
DOIDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
PublicFacebook users, Ann Arbor, Michigan, followed 14 days, USA, 2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelDirect contact
Page in Source Page 3
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question text-beeped 5 times a 
day:
How much have you interacted with other people directly 
(= face to face or phone interactions) since the last 
time we asked?
Rated on a sliderscale ranging from
100  very positive
:
0 very negative
Observed distributionM = 35,74 SD = 31,11
Remarks
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
Original rating scale ranged from 0 positive to 100 
negative and was reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ar=+.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelSocializing with friends
Page in Source 193
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
% time socializing with friends when beeped
Remarks
Participants were beeped at random moments eight times 
a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each 
beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one 
of which happiness)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=+
Beta controlled for
- age
- gender
- SES
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=+2,6 p < .009


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelBeing alone
Page in Source 193
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
% time in company when beeped
0: alone
1: in company of:
   a: teachers
   b: classmates
   c: friends
Remarks
Participants were beeped at random moments eight times 
a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each 
beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one 
of which happiness)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=- p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- SES
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=-3.9 p < .001
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-ab=-.01 p < .001
Beta additionally controlled for:
- % time in flow
- % time in relaxation
- % time reading/writing for fun
- grade level in school


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelCompany
Page in Source 193
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
% time spend in company of:
a: teachers
b: class mates
c: friends
d: relatives
when beeped
Remarks
Participants were beeped at random moments eight times 
a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each 
beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one 
of which happiness)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=+
% time in company with teachers
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=-0,1 p < .001
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=-
% time with class mates
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=-0,7 p < .001
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=+
% time with friends
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=+0,2 p < .001
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=+
% time with relatives
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=+2,2 p < .01
Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- SES


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudySchilmoeller et al. (1991): study US 1991
TitleLong -Term Support and Personal Adjustment of Adolescent and Older Mothers.
SourceAdolescence, 1991, Vol. 26, 787 - 796
PublicMothers, followed 1 year postpartum, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelTotal Interactions
Page in Source 791.793
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Self reported number of interactions during the last 24 
hours, e.g. with kin, friends, baby's father or helping 
agents.
Observed distribution-Adolescent mothers: 1 month: M=7.11; 6 months: M=6.42; 12months: M=5.74 -Older mothers: 1 month: M=6.48; 6 months: M=6.12; 12months: M=5.64
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=.68
Remarks
Past of Community Interaction Checklist (Wahler's, 
1980b)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.19 ns
Adolescent Mothers
-T1 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.12 ns
-T2 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.12 ns
-T3 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=-.16 ns
Older Mothers
-T1 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.21 ns
-T2 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.02 ns
-T3 Number of Interactions by T3 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyMookherjee (1998): study US 1991
TitlePerception of Happiness among Elderly Persons in Metropolitan USA.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1998, Vol. 87, 787 - 793
Public60+aged, metropolitian areas, USA, 1982-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 790
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Self report on questions. Text is not reported.
- Close contacts with brothers and sisters
- Spending evenings in bars and taverns
- Spending evenings with parents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aAoV=
% Happy:
Regular attendance     33%-41%
Not regular attendance 14%-16%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions related to friends in the 
area and regular contact with members of the program
Rated on an 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=1,82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .07
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSocializing
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviours in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Attending plays, movies or concert
- Going out for dinner in a restayrant with friends or 
family
- Visiting friends or familr in their homes
- Talking on the telephone with friends about non-work 
related activities
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Attending plays etc 2.98, Going out etc 3.77, Visiting etc 3.03, Talking etc 3.55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of social relations
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
self report: 1= none 5=daily

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.16 p < .01
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.21 p < .05
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.16 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelSocial/entertainmentactivities
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "social relations and 
entertainment" such as visiting with others, going to a 
movie or a sports event.

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.11 ns
PARTICIPATION:  working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.15 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=.00 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.17 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.07 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.09 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.19 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.05 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.30 p < .05
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.06 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.13 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.09 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=_.26 ns
                retired females
ß controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyButtel et al. (1977): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleIdeology and Social Indicators of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 353 - 369
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353138
Public18+ aged, general public, Winconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =548

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 362
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Frequency of social participation with:
- friends
- relatives

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
Contacts with friends.
M-CO-u-mq-v-7-ar=-.12 p < .05
Contacts with relatives.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of social contacts
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Single direct questions: "How often do you spend a 
social evening with

A Relatives       
            
              




B Neighbours (someone who lives in
  your neighbourhood)




C Friends (who live outside the neigh-
  bourhood)

Frequency rated
1 less than monthly
2 once or several times a month
3 once a week or more
Remarks
          
              
                  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.12 ns
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.07 ns
% very happy:
1      34
2      33
3      37
              
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=-.27
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=-.16
% very happy:
1      34
2      37
3      33
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.18 ns
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.11 ns
% very happy:
1      34
2      36
3      35
The relationships disappear largely when controled 
for marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSummary social contact score
Page in Source 225
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Direct question:"How many times during the week 
precceding the interview did you visit relatives and/or 
friends or telephone relatives and/or friends?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? p < .?
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire) 
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? p < .?
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)        
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? p < .?
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)  
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of contacts with friends and relatives
Page in Source 225
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Direct question :"How many times did you telephone or 
visit your relatives or friends in the week preceding 
the interview".  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire) 
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire 
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)        
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in 
 mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire) 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyWard (1979): study US 1972
TitleThe Never-Married in Later Life.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1979, Vol. 34, 861 - 869
Public50+ aged, USA, 1972-1977
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3557

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts
Page in Source 866
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Selfreport of frequency of contact with:
- relatives
- neighbors
- friends
Remarks
50+ aged ponly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agr=+ p < .05
Married (N = 2379)
r = +.06  (05)
r = +.06  (05)
r = +.11  (05)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agr==
Never-married (N=161)
r = +.04  (ns)
r = +.10  (ns)
r = +.29  (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyGarrity (1973): study US NorthDakota 1970
TitleSocial Involvement and Activeness as Predictors of Morale Six Months after First Myocardial Infarction.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 1973, Vol. 7, 199 - 207
PublicWhite males, heart-attack survivors, Durham, North-Carolina, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in informal sociability
Page in Source 201
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Sociability with relatives and friends, measured in 
terms of the average hours per week involvement.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelExpressive activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled interpersonal- expressive activities 
(intimacy, friendship and sociability)They were also 
asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br= ns
Preretirement: men
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.42 p < .05
Preretirement: women
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.17 p < .10
Younger: high school seniors + mewly weds
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br= ns
Older: middle aged parents + elderly planning to 
retire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelExpressive activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled interpersonal- expressive activities 
(intimacy, friendship and sociability)
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r=-.42 (05)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.17 ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or football 
games; attending church or other meetings; lectures or 
concerts; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertaining".
Observed distributionM =5,2 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.11 p < .05
T1 leisure by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 leisure by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.12 p < .05
T1 leisure by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.09 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- self rated health
- satisfaction with sexlife
- organizational activity
- productive hours
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social, activity hours by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness, change happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social activity hours by T2-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness, change happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of telephone use
Page in Source 703
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Direct question: 2 or less / 3 to 4 / 5 or more calls 
daily.
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.18 ns
Happiness assessed at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelContacts with friends and relatives
Page in Source 703
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Direct question on frequency of face-to-face 
interaction: monthly or less / about once a week / more 
than weekly.
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.43 p < .01
Happiness assessed at T2.

Age 66-75: tb = +.52 (01)
Age 82-92: tb = +.50 (01)
Lower among age 76-81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyFowler & McCalla (1969): study US 1965
TitleCorrelates of Morale among Aged in Greater Boston.
SourceProceedings of the 77th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Vol. 4, 1969, 733 -734
Public65+ aged, Metropolitan Boston, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1335

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of social contacts
Page in Source 734
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Index on number of contacts.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-a
Unaffected by health and income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current contacts
Subject code: S06ab

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelSocial integration
Page in Source 574
Our classificationCurrent contacts, code S06ab
Operationalization
Number of roles beyond that of wife and mother: 
- paid worker
- club member
- religious member
- friend
- neighbor
- relative
Rated: yes/no
Observed distributionM = 4,11, SD = 1,05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
Betas controlled for:
- age
- education
- husband's occupation (professional or not)
- life-cycle stage (chlid < 6 years or not)
- number of children
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .001
Additional control for employment 
(paid work omitted from list of roles)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Unaffected by interactions between
- roles/employment
- roles/ husband's occupation
- employment/husbands occupation
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Squared roles: To test for curvi-linearity life 
satisfaction was regressed on the square of the 
number of roles, controlling for individual and 
structural variables and number of roles
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
To assess whether the number of roles or one role 
in particular mattered most, each role was entered 
separately into a regression equation along with 
with the control variables and a summary measure 
of other roles. No single role proved 
statistically significant, while the contribution 
of the number of roles remained significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative contacts
Subject code: S06ab01

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in social relations (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative contacts, code S06ab01
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.045 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.032 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac

StudySmits et al. (1995): study NL 1992
TitleWell-being and control in older persons: The prediction of well-being from control measures.
SourceIntenational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1995, Vol. 40, 237 - 251
DOIDOI: 10.2190/JH5F-2XWH-Y101-7EWF
PublicElderly, Sassenheim, the Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response24,4%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelsocial inadequacy
Page in Source 242, 245, 246
Our classificationAttitudes to personal contacts, code S06ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 items. 
Typical item: "I am shy in the company of strangers."
Observed distributionM= 7,92 (sd= 4,57)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .77
Remarks
Data available for 76 Ss, only 30 in multiple 
regression alalysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gr=-.41
positive affect = -.27 (05)
negative affect = -.34 (05)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gBeta=-.21 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender
- sense of coherence
- neuroticism
- mastery


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac

StudyReitz et al. (2004): study CH 1999
TitleImpact of Spinal Cord Injury on Sexual Health and Quality of Life.
SourceInternational Journal of Impotence Research, 2004, Vol. 16, 167 - 174
PublicSpinal cord injured, Switzerland, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =63

Correlate
Author's labelSocial life
Page in Source 170
Our classificationAttitudes to personal contacts, code S06ac
Operationalization
Single question 'How satisfied are you currently with 
your social contact?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bAoV= p < .05
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelLike to have other people around
Page in Source 27
Our classificationConcern about personal contacts, code S06ac01
Operationalization
Direct question rated on a graphic scale ranging from 
'certainly not' to 'very much'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac01

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelSocial autonomy
Page in Source 43
Our classificationConcern about personal contacts, code S06ac01
Operationalization
4-item index of closed questions indicating preference 
for individual activity.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.15 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac01

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelAppreciation of being alone
Our classificationConcern about personal contacts, code S06ac01
Operationalization
5-item index of agree / disagree statements on 
possibilities to relax when alone, like to be alone, 
obligations towards others and too close ties with 
others as a consequence of social participation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=-
Never married males  : r = +.05   
Married males        : r = -.05   
Never married females: r = -.06   
Married females      : r = -.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac01

StudyWarr (1978): study GB 1976
TitleA Study of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceThe British Journal of Psychology, 1978, Vol. 6, 111 - 121
PublicSteel workers, 6 months after closure of plant, Manchester, UK, 1976
Sample
Non-Response9 % (4 % ill, 5 % refused), 13 % not contacted
Respondents N =1655

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety about neighbours
Page in Source 116
Our classificationConcern about personal contacts, code S06ac01
Operationalization
Single closed question concerning anxiety about Ss 
relations with neighbours in the past few weeks rated 
on an 11-point scale from 'not at all' to 'a great 
deal'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelFondness for companionship, as opposedto solitariness
Page in Source 27
Our classificationConcern about personal contacts, code S06ac01
Operationalization
Class-mastere rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac01

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in getting along with others
Page in Source 292
Our classificationConcern about personal contacts, code S06ac01
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived amount of pleasant contacts
Subject code: S06ac02

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of unpleasantsocial contacts
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPerceived amount of pleasant contacts, code S06ac02
Operationalization
Direct questions on number of social contacts one does 
not appreciate.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=-
Never married males  : r = +.08   
Married males        : r = -.10   
Never married females: r = -.05   
Married females      : r = +.03   


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyHeadey et al. (1991): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleTop-down versus Bottom-up Theories of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 81 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00292652
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981-1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelFriendship
Page in Source 94
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Index of 4 single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The people you see socially
b: Your friends
c: The friends of opposite sex you have
d: How much you are accepted and included by others
All scored on a 1-9 rating scale, summation by average.
Remarks
Panel analysis over four waves (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987) 
which estimates following effects
 - bottom up: effect of satisfaction with friends on 
life satisfaction
 - topdown: effect of life satisfaction on satisfaction 
with friends
 - contemporaneous: within wave correlation
 - lagged: over time (waves) correlation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.01 ns
Contemporaneous bottom up: satisfaction with their 
friends makes people happy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.06 ns
Contemporaneous top down: happy people are 
satisfied with their friends
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.01 ns
Lagged bottom up:  satisfaction with their friends 
makes people happy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.04 ns
Lagged top down: happy people are satisfied with 
their friends

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
 - marriage
 - job
 - standard of living
 - leisure
 - health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelFriends index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Index of 4 single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The people you see socially
b: Your friends
c: The friends of opposite sex you have
d: How much you are accepted and included by others
All scored on a 1-9 rating scale, summation by average.
Observed distributionM = 7.1 SD = 0.9
Remarks
All items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.49 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.05
all cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- problem handling
- family activities
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- assertiveness
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.08
married cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- problem handling
- family activities
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- assertiveness
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyGehmacher (1987a): study AT 1987
TitleGebaude Gemeinschaft. (Builded Community).
SourceSWS Rundschau, 1987, Vol. 27, 147 - 156
URLhttp://www.sws-rundschau.at/
PublicResidents housing estates, Vienna, Austria, 1987
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social contacts
Page in Source 150
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 1-5 step scale.
Remarks
ß controled for satisfaction with housing, leisure and 
activities.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.46
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.40
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.33 p < .01
- high ß=+.21
- low  ß=+.33
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.22 p < .01
Contact-facilities in housing estate
- high ß = +.29
- low  ß = +.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social connections
Page in Source 2332-2333
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
How satisfied are you with:
a) social relationships with others
b) family life, marriage, and relationships
Rated:
1 very dissatisfied
:
5 very satisfied
Observed distributiona) M=3.51, b) M=3.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.02 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH SOCIAL RELATIONS WITH OTHERS
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.03 p < .01
SATISFACITON WITH FAMILY LIFE, MARRIAGE, AND 
RELATIONSHIPS

B's controlled for satisfaction with:
- income
- Opportunities and social mobility
- Welfare provision
- Government policies and environment
- Occupation and social status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with friends
Page in Source 368
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you at present with your relations 
with your friends ?"
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN: All:4607; %: 1:0,7; 2:3,3; 3:10,7; 4:50,0; 5:35,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.32 p < .00
1: Mt=4.66
2: Mt=6.14
3: Mt=6.49
4: Mt=7.65
5: Mt=8.45
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.35 p < .00
1: Mt=3.84
2: Mt=5.56
3: Mt=6.08
4: Mt=7.33
5: Mt=8.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.31 p < .00
1: Mt=4.59
2: Mt=5.41
3: Mt=5.98
4: Mt=6.90
5: Mt=7.69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with relations
Page in Source 432
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Satisfaction with relations
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN: All:4465; %:1:-; 2:1,3; 3:20,3; 4:64,7; 5:13,7
Remarks
Made up as weighted mean from the questions:
How satisfied are you at present with your…...
Health, financial circumstances, partner, parents, 
children, friends, acquaintances, community around you, 
local natural environment, job?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.51 p < .00
1: Ms=-
2: Ms=3.51
3: Ms=6.03
4: Ms=7.91
5: Ms=9.31
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.55 p < .00
1: Ms=-
2: Ms=3.16
3: Ms=5.43
4: Ms=7.76
5: Ms=9.19
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.56 p < .00
1: Ms=-
2: Ms=3.53
3: Ms=5.20
4: Ms=7.28
5: Ms=8.80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with relations with friends
Page in Source 348
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you at present with your relations 
with friends ?"
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN: all:1460, 1:6, 2:25, 3:133, 4:732, 5:564

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.26 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00
 2: Mt=6.00
 3: Mt=6.79
 4: Mt=7.66
 5: Mt=8.28
All Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.30 p < .00
 1: Mt=4.16
 2: Mt=5.10
 3: Mt=6.35
 4: Mt=7.34
 5: Mt=8.01
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.29 p < .00
 1: Mt=4.16
 2: Mt=5.40
 3: Mt=5.93
 4: Mt=6.79
 5: Mt=7.53
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with relations
Page in Source 408
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Satisfaction with relations
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN: all:1342, 1:1, 2:6, 3:184, 4:925, 5:226
Remarks
Made up as weighted mean from the questions:
How satisfied are you at present with your…...
Health, financial circumstances, partner, parents, 
children, friends, acquamtances, community around you, 
job?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.47 p < .00
 1: Mt=-
 2: Mt=2.91
 3: Mt=5.85
 4: Mt=7.90
 5: Mt=9.16
All Mt=7.81
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.52 p < .00
 1: Mt=-
 2: Mt=2.09
 3: Mt=5.35
 4: Mt=7.54
 5: Mt=9.04
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.52 p < .00
 1: Mt=-
 2: Mt=2.5
 3: Mt=5.16
 4: Mt=6.99
 5: Mt=8.55
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with sociability with friends
Page in Source 336
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: sociabilty with friends or acquitances.
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:1%, 4:2%, 5:4%, 6:5%, 7:10%, 8:26%, 9:28%, 10:23%, DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2106

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.1  M = 8.0             +1.1
top 3:  M = 8.8  M = 7.6             +0.5 
top 5:  M = 8.6  M = 7.0             +1.6
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 496, Others: 8-0 N=1610
Top 3: 10-8 N=1080, Others: 7-0 N=1026
Top 5: 10-6 N=1673, Others: 5-0 N= 433


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with sociablilty with family members
Page in Source 337
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: sociabilty with family members.
Observed distributionN= 0:1%, 1:*%, 2:2%, 3:1%, 4:2%, 5:6%, 6:6%, 7:10%, 8:24%, 9:22%, 10:25%, DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2072

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.8  M = 7.7             +1.1
top 3:  M = 8.6  M = 7.3             +1.3 
top 5:  M = 8.3  M = 6.6             +1.7
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 489, Others: 8-0 N=1583
Top 3: 10-8 N=1057, Others: 7-0 N=1015
Top 5: 10-6 N=1639, Others: 5-0 N= 433


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social life
Page in Source 24
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How happy do you feel with your social life?
Rated as:
1: least happy
.
.
10: most happy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dBeta=+.35 s
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with
  - family life
  - financial situation
  - work trips
  - leisure trips


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelNo feel left out
Page in Source 15,21
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Survey question: How often do you feel left out of 
things? (not)
Observed distributionM = 3,05 SD = 0,96 N = 32400

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+,38
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.19 p < .01
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with friends and acquaintances
Page in Source 134
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.15 p < .01
B controlled for satisfaction with:
-Health
-Home
-Residential environment
-Social position
-Education
-Financial resources
-Dutch society
-Government
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.16 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Employment
-Age
-Household composition
-Satisfaction with:
 -Health
 -Home
 -Social position
 -Financial resources
 -Dutch society


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelSocial isolation
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you feel socially isolated?"
1 very socially isolated
2 neutral
3 not socially isolated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.29 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyBatista-Foguet et al. (1996): study ES Cataluna 1989
TitleSatisfaction in Catalonia, Spain.
SourceSaris, W.E.;et al;Eds.: "A Comparative Study of Satisfaction with Life in Europe", Eötvös University Press, 1996, Hungary, 155 - 174
Public16+ aged, general public, Catalonia, Spain, 1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social contacts
Page in Source 159+168
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you recently with your social 
contacts?"
1. completely dissatisfied
2. dissatisfied
3  neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4  satisfied
5  completely satisfied
Observed distributionM= 3.98; SD= 0.94 Scale % 1. 1.7 2. 5.7 3. 17.7 4. 43.1 5. 31.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ear=+.39
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ear=+.59
rp corrects for random and systematic measurement 
error.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelSocial relationships sumscore
Page in Source 937.939
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions about social relationships : 
A  Relations
B  Sex
C  Social support

Each rated on 1-5 scale, both for degree and for 
perceived 
importance

Summartion: (A+B+C)/3
Error EstimatesCronbach: raw score: .54, weighted score: .54

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.39 p < .01
raw sum score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.40 p < .01
weighted sum score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 ns
raw sum score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bb=+.18 ns
weighed sum score

b's controled for
- physical health
- environmental health
- mental health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelSocial life
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on the follwing questions:
How satisfied are you with:
-the way that you get on with other people?
-the number of friends you have?
Remarks
Satisfaction Subscale of Lancashire Quality of Life 
Profile (LQOLP) [Oliver 1991].

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.38 p < .002
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.46
rpc controled for depression as measured with Beck 
Depression Inventory


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudySchilmoeller et al. (1991): study US 1991
TitleLong -Term Support and Personal Adjustment of Adolescent and Older Mothers.
SourceAdolescence, 1991, Vol. 26, 787 - 796
PublicMothers, followed 1 year postpartum, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelQuality of Interaction
Page in Source 791.793
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Self rating of quality of interactions with e.g kin, 
friends, baby's father or helping agents.
Observed distribution-Adolescent mothers: 1 month: M=5.56; 6 months: M=5.68; 12months: M=5.67 -Older mothers: 1 month: M=5.86; 6 months: M=5.77; 12months: M=5.58
Remarks
Past of Community Interaction Checklist (Wahler's, 
1980b)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.17 ns
Adolescent Mothers
-T1 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.49 p < .05
-T2 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.56 p < .05
-T3 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=+.18 ns
Older Mothers
-T1 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=.23 ns
-T2 Quality of Interactions by T3 happiness
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-ar=61 p < .001
-T3 Quality of Interactions by T3 happinesss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with social relations
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.58 p < .0001
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.56 p < .0001
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .0001
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyAbramson et al. (1981): study US 1979
TitlePilot Analysis of a Happiness Questionnaire.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1981, Vol. 48, 570
Public20-65 aged, general public, USA, 198?
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with interpersonal relationships
Page in Source 570
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Are you happy with your personal relationships?
1 No
2 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cr=+ p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03

StudyLondon et al. (1977): study US 1972
TitleThe Contribution of Job and Leisure Satisfaction to Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1977, Vol. 62, 328 - 334
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.3.328
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with people they see socially
Page in Source 330
Our classificationSatisfaction with personal contacts, code S06ac03
Operationalization
Self-report on question about satisfaction with people 
they see socially 

Rated on an 7-point numerical scale (7=delighted to 
1=terrible)
Observed distributionN:1265; M=2,21; SD=0,92
Remarks
Scale reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .05
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for satisfaction with: 
- co-workers
- the work itself
- benefits and securitiy of the job
- physical surroundings and amount of work
- equipment at work
- activities with friends
- activities with family
- affiliation to organizations
- sport and recreational facilities
- entertainment facilities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with opportunities for contact
Subject code: S06ac03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with how one gets on with people
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with opportunities for contact, code S06ac03a
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about how you get on 
with other people?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.31
Unaffected by sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with opportunities for contact
Subject code: S06ac03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with chance to know people
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with opportunities for contact, code S06ac03a
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the chance you 
have to know people with whom you can really feel 
comfortable?" Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ 
unhappy/ mostly dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ 
pleased/ delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.31
Unaffected by sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with amount of personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03b

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelSufficiency kin and non-familial contact
Page in Source 257-258
Our classificationSatisfaction with amount of personal contacts, code S06ac03b
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 3-point scale with 
the choice statements: 'less', 'same' and 'more'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atb=-.08 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=-.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with amount of personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03b

StudySchulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response4%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with amount of social contact
Page in Source 1168
Our classificationSatisfaction with amount of personal contacts, code S06ac03b
Operationalization
Single direct question on amount of social 
contact,rated on a 3 point scale.
Remarks
70% reported high satisfaction, 20% moderate,
10% low.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-ar=+.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with quality of personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03c

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social connections
Page in Source 2332-2333
Our classificationSatisfaction with quality of personal contacts, code S06ac03c
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
How satisfied are you with:
a) social relationships with others
b) family life, marriage, and relationships
Rated:
1 very dissatisfied
:
5 very satisfied
Observed distributiona) M=3.51, b) M=3.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.02 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH SOCIAL RELATIONS WITH OTHERS
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.03 p < .01
SATISFACITON WITH FAMILY LIFE, MARRIAGE, AND 
RELATIONSHIPS

B's controlled for satisfaction with:
- income
- Opportunities and social mobility
- Welfare provision
- Government policies and environment
- Occupation and social status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with quality of personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03c

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social relations
Page in Source 277, 279, 284, 290
Our classificationSatisfaction with quality of personal contacts, code S06ac03c
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions on satisfaction with
- interpersonal relations in Kibbutz
- intergenerational relations in Kibbutz

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.29, SD=.78
Error Estimates?=.71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.40 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.11 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard
- satisfaction with work domain
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with quality of personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac03c

StudySchulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response4%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with quality of social contact
Page in Source 1168
Our classificationSatisfaction with quality of personal contacts, code S06ac03c
Operationalization
Closed question on satisfaction with quality of social 
contacts, rated on
a 3-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-ar=+.49


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how good would you say your spirits are these days....?"
4 excellent
3 very good
2 fair
1 poor
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aSelf report on repeated questions (experience sampling)

How happy did you feel at the moment you were beeped?
0 not happy
1 probably not happy
2 probably happy
3 happy
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question text messaged 5 times a day

How do you feel right now?
0 very positive
:
:
:
:
100 very negative
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often



Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?"
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
1 not at all
2 sometimes
3 often
4 very often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +15

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-CO-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A How do you feel about what you are accomplishing in life?
B How do you feel about your life as a whole?
C In general, how happy would you say you are these days?
Answer options:
7 completely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 satisfied
4 satisfied - dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied

Possible range 3 - 21
M-FH-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
11 the happiest I could be
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 the saddest I could be
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life..
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy

(originally presented horizontally)

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are....?
1 not too happy
2 relatively happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how would you say things are these days. Would you say you were.…?
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general these days, how happy or unhappy would you say you are, on the whole...?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-oSelf report single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days- would you say you are..
5 happy
4 somewhat happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
1 unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you consider yourself in an overall perspective?
10 most happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 least happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Would you say you are:......?
1 unhappy?
2 reasonably happy?
3 happy ?
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1 very unhappy
2
| unhappy
3
4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
| happy
6
7 very happy
no opinion
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate your quality of life these days?

Rated on 100 mm open line scale
Anchors not reported
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 excellent
4 good
3 neither good nor bad
2 bad
1 very bad
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate your quality of life?
1 very poor
2 poor
3 neither poor nor good
4 good
5 very good
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you lead these days.......?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-mq-?-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions

.. Overall satisfaction with life ..
A .. yesterday
B . today..

Full text and response options not reported
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

"On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life.....?"
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, are you satisfied with your life or not?
4 satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-eaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you recently with your life as a whole.....?
1 completely dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you the quality of your life these days?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither nor
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original rating scale
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
10 extermely happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy

B. All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays.?
10 extremely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extermely dissatisfied

Summation: (A+B)/2
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
DyxSOMERS' ASYMMETRIC TEST STATISTIC
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
Dyx = 0 «no rank correlation
Dyx = +1 «strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness ratings.
Dyx = -1 «strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTSL03ac02Specific leisure activities
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTST01adCurrent time-usage
S06aaContact careerS08aaParticipation career
S06aa01bEarlier satisfaction with personal contactsS06acAttitudes to personal contacts
S06aa02bChange in satisfaction with personal contactsS06acAttitudes to personal contacts
S06abCurrent contactsS08abCurrent total social participation
S06abCurrent contactsI06abCurrent intimate relationships
S06ab01Relative contactsI06abCurrent intimate relationships
S06ac03Satisfaction with personal contactsF06ag02Satisfaction with friends
S06ac03aSatisfaction with opportunities for contactI06ad02Perceived opportunities for contacts

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings