Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL MOBILITY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL MOBILITY
Subject Code: S05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY0
S05aaMobility career0
S05aa01Earlier social mobility2
S05aa02Change in social mobility0
S05aa03Later social mobility0
S05aa03aExpected mobility1
S05aa03bActual mobility (assessed by follow-up)1
S05abCurrent social mobility status0
S05ab01Inter-generational mobility8
S05ab02Intra-generational mobility2
S05ab02aOver/under-achievement4
S05acAttitudes to own social mobility0
S05ac01Concern about social mobility2
S05ac02Aspirations for social advancement4
S05ac03Satisfaction with one's social mobility1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SOCIAL MOBILITY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier social mobility
Subject code: S05aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational history, upward mobility
Page in Source 1498,1510
Our classificationEarlier social mobility, code S05aa01
Operationalization
Difference in occupational prestige of first and last 
job.
0: No upward mobility (reference)
1: Upward mobility
   1a: Small upward mobility
   1b: Large upward mobility
Observed distributionMen/Women 0: 25/35; 1a: 44/57; 1b: 31/8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SMALL UPWARD MOBILITY (vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.04 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.26 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-retirement career (exit age)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LARGE UPWARD MOBILITY 9vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.03 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.07 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-retirement career (exit age)

Upward mobility has no impact on happiness of men, 
but a negative impact on happiness of women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier social mobility
Subject code: S05aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelupward occupational mobility
Page in Source 113, 123
Our classificationEarlier social mobility, code S05aa01
Operationalization
Difference in occupational prestige of first and last 
job, current job in case of respondents still working.
1: Upward mobility
   a: some upward mobility
   b: substantial upward mobility
0: No upward mobility (reference group)
Observed distribution1a: males 37,3%, females 25,3% 1b: males 19,4% females 6,1% 0: males 43,4%, females 68,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SOME UPWARD MOBILITY (vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.00 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.03 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
MUCH UPWARD MOBILITY (vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.08 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.09 ns
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
- parental history
- marital history
- early retirement


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected mobility
Subject code: S05aa03a

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived subjective social class position in future
Page in Source 120/182/..
Our classificationExpected mobility, code S05aa03a
Operationalization
Closed question on the general standing of expected 
future business or profes- sion: below average / 
average / good / excellent.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.15
Unaffected by scoial class
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.23
Middle and upper class          : G = +.22
Lower class                     : G = +.09
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .08 p < . 01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .10 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual mobility (assessed by follow-up)
Subject code: S05aa03b

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelChange in social status
Page in Source 1196-1197
Our classificationActual mobility (assessed by follow-up), code S05aa03b
Operationalization
a) Born with rural hukou but acquired urban 
     hokou
b) Born with urban hukou
c) Born and still have rural hokou (reference)
Remarks
Rural-urban migrants only (N=1833)

A hukou is a record in the system of household 
registration required by law in China. A household 
registration record officially identifies a person as a 
resident of an area and includes identifying 
information such as name, parents, spouse, residency 
status, and date of birth.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.01 ns
MIGRANTS WHO ACQUIRED URBAN STATUS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.20 p < .05
BORN WITH URBAN HOKOU

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Marital status
  l) Housing area
- City characteristics
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
  q) GDP per capita
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  r) Between-group inequality
  s) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyMitchell (1972): study HK 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 1967
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =3966

Correlate
Author's labelDownward mobility
Page in Source 202
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
Single direct question on living situation 
compared with parent's :
better now/the same/worse now

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aG=-.19 p < .01
% happy:
- better now 72
- the same   72
- worse now  60


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyFischer (2009b): study ZZ OECD member states 1997 /1
TitleThe Welfare Effects of Social Mobility. An Analysis for OECD Countries
SourceOECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers no. 93, 2009, Paris, France
URLhttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17070/
DOIDOI:10.1787/221272634852
PublicAdults, general public, 30 OECD Countries, 1997-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =45000

Correlate
Author's labelLabour market mobility (income mobility)
Page in Source 18, 21, 22, 32
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
Intergerational earnings elasticity: Dependency of 
one's own life-time income to parental income based on 
a farther son comparison. 

Value 0 denotes no dependency between between parent 
and child outcomes, value -1 denotes complete 
dependency between parent and child outcomes.
Observed distributionAustralia: -.162 Canada: -.19 Denmark: -0.15 Finland: -.18 France: -.41 Germany: -.32 Italy: -.48 Norway: -.17 Spain: -.32 Sweden: -.27 United Kingdom: -.50 United States: -.47
Error EstimatesAvailable for 12 OECD countries in the sample.
Remarks
Intergenerational earnings elasticity is based on the 
theoretical framework by Becker and Tomes (1979)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.3 p < .01
All individuals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .05
Political conservative individuals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.91 p < .10
Political leftist individuals

B's are controlled for:
- National net income per capita
- Individual demographic factors
- Individual socio-economics factors
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.2 p < .01
Additionally controlled for perceived social 
mobility, all individuals

B +1.2 means that complete dependency between 
parent and child outcomes in nation goes with -1.2 
points less happiness on the scale 0-10 compared 
to complete no income mobility
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.31 p < .05
Interaction of labour market mobility and market 
income inequality. Individuals are the most happy 
in countries:
- with low income mobility and high income 
inequality 
- with high income mobilty and low income 
inequality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.02 ns
Interaction term of labour market mobility and 
final income inequality does not affect happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyFischer (2009b): study ZZ OECD member states 1997 /1
TitleThe Welfare Effects of Social Mobility. An Analysis for OECD Countries
SourceOECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers no. 93, 2009, Paris, France
URLhttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17070/
DOIDOI:10.1787/221272634852
PublicAdults, general public, 30 OECD Countries, 1997-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =45000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational mobility
Page in Source 18, 21, 22
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
Intergenerational transmission of education: Dependency 
of student's educational attainment of her 
parents'education. Educational mobility is approximated 
by the difference between the mean student test score 
in the high-education-family-background-subsample and 
that in the 
medium-level-of-parental-education-subsample. 

Negative values indicate educational immobility, values 
close to zero denote educational mobility.
Observed distributionRange= -57,74-2,41
Remarks
Data: PISA 2003 student performance data in Mathematics 
and the information on family background.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .05
Difference with MOTHER's education, All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .01
- conservative individuals only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 ns
- leftist individuals only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .10
Difference with FATHER's education, All Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .05
- conservative individuals only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 ns
- leftist individuals only

B's are controlled for:
- National net income per capita
- Individual demographic factors
- Individual socio-economics factors
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- perceived social mobility in society
- difference with mother's education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
Additionally controlled for:
- perceived social mobility in society
- difference with father's education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyVeenhoven & Bakker (1975): study NL 1968
TitleSchooleducation and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished Paper, 1975, Department of Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/veenhoven_r_1975.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =1534

Correlate
Author's labelSocial mobility
Page in Source 13
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the respondent's S.E.S. and his 
father's S.E.S.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.03 ns
Both upward and downard social mobility are 
unrelated to happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelSocial mobility_A
Page in Source 28
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the respondent's S.E.S. and his 
father's S.E.S.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.03 ns
Both upward and downward social mobility are 
unrelated to happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyClark & D'Angelo (2013): study GB 1991
TitleUpward Social Mobility, Well-being and Political Preferences: Evidence from the BHPS.
SourceRePec Working Paper 338, 2013, Italy
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/anc/wpaper/338.html
Public18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1991-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90234

Correlate
Author's labelSocial mobility to father and mother
Page in Source 9,13,14,27
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
The difference between one's own social status score 
and that of the father or mother (Hope-Goldthorpe 
scale):
1 - Social status higher than parents
0-  Social status lower than parents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.04 p < .10
Social mobility relative to father.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.04 ns
Social mobility relative to mother.

Beta controlled for:
- own social status
- hours of work
- firm size
- gender
- age
- age squared
- education
- marital status
- household size
- region
- wave dummies
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.02 ns
Social mobility relative to father
Beta additionally controled for interaction with 
own social status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.07 ns
Social mobility relative to mother
Beta additionally controled for interaction with 
own social status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyAlston & Knapp (1974): study US 1972
TitleIntergenerational Mobility Among Black Americans: Background Factors and Attitudinal Consequences.
SourceJournal of Black Studies, 1974,Vol. 4, 285 - 302
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2783658
Publicadults, general population, USA, 1972
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIntergenerational mobility
Page in Source 288,292,296
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
1: upward generational mobility
0: downward generational mobility

Intergenerational mobility is measured by comparing the 
occupational prestige of the father with the 
occupational prestige of the respondent. Each 
occupation was assigned a prestige score. The prestige 
scores for each occupation were determined by asking 
respondents in a previous survey to rate the social 
standing of occupations on a nine-point scale. The 
respondents were asked to evaluate the prestige of a 
list of occupations by giving each a score from one to 
nine: one being the lowest rating, five the middle, and 
nine the highest.
Observed distributionLower than father : white 50%, black 55% Same as father : white 11%, black 11% Higher than father : white 39%, black 34%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+
% happy (yes)
upward       27
downward     18
- difference  9

Blacks only. Data whites not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab01

StudyMcKinley Runyan (1980): study US 1932
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Chart: Perceptions of the Course of Subjective Experience.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1980, Vol. 11, 45 - 64
PublicHighschool pupils, Oakland, USA, 1932, followed from age 12 to 38, 1959
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =91

Correlate
Author's labelUpward social mobility
Page in Source 52-57
Our classificationInter-generational mobility, code S05ab01
Operationalization
Mobility is difference between social class of father 
in 1929 and own class in 1958.
1. Downwardly or non-mobile.
2. Upwardly mobile.
Observed distributionDownward: N=14 Upward: N= 53 Non-mobile: N=24
Remarks
Mobile Ss only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-lg-9-aDM=+ ns
No difference in current happiness (T2).

Slight difference in recalled happiness at earlier 
ages.
Upwardly mobile recall less happiness in youth 
than non-mobile and downwardly mobile.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Intra-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab02

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational history, upward mobility
Page in Source 1498,1510
Our classificationIntra-generational mobility, code S05ab02
Operationalization
Difference in occupational prestige of first and last 
job.
0: No upward mobility (reference)
1: Upward mobility
   1a: Small upward mobility
   1b: Large upward mobility
Observed distributionMen/Women 0: 25/35; 1a: 44/57; 1b: 31/8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SMALL UPWARD MOBILITY (vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.04 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.26 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-retirement career (exit age)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LARGE UPWARD MOBILITY 9vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.03 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.07 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-retirement career (exit age)

Upward mobility has no impact on happiness of men, 
but a negative impact on happiness of women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intra-generational mobility
Subject code: S05ab02

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelupward occupational mobility
Page in Source 113, 123
Our classificationIntra-generational mobility, code S05ab02
Operationalization
Difference in occupational prestige of first and last 
job, current job in case of respondents still working.
1: Upward mobility
   a: some upward mobility
   b: substantial upward mobility
0: No upward mobility (reference group)
Observed distribution1a: males 37,3%, females 25,3% 1b: males 19,4% females 6,1% 0: males 43,4%, females 68,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SOME UPWARD MOBILITY (vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.00 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.03 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
MUCH UPWARD MOBILITY (vs no upward mobility)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.08 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.09 ns
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
- parental history
- marital history
- early retirement


Correlational finding on Happiness and Over/under-achievement
Subject code: S05ab02a

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelSocial mobility_B
Page in Source 28
Our classificationOver/under-achievement, code S05ab02a
Operationalization
Discrepancy between level of school education and 
actual occupational status.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.04 ns
Over-achievement : G = +.02 (ns)
Under-achievement: G = +.07 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Over/under-achievement
Subject code: S05ab02a

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelAchievement.
Page in Source 21
Our classificationOver/under-achievement, code S05ab02a
Operationalization
Difference between educational level and occupational 
level.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cr= ns
Positive relationship with over-achievement (ns).
Negative relationship with under-achievement (ns). 
Only among those of medium education the 
underachievers are significantly less happy (05).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Over/under-achievement
Subject code: S05ab02a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelStatus consistency
Page in Source 323
Our classificationOver/under-achievement, code S05ab02a
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

a  relatively low income and relatively
   high education
b  relatively high income and 
   relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=5.8   Mt'=6.0
3.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
4.          M=6.3   Mt'=6.6
5. (high)   M=6.7   Mt'=7.1

a           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
b           M=6.2   Mt'=6.5
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=4.8   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=5.1   Mt'=5.1
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
4.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
5. (high)   M=6.2   Mt'=6.5

a           M=5.3   Mt'=5.4
b           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Over/under-achievement
Subject code: S05ab02a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 331
Our classificationOver/under-achievement, code S05ab02a
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2. intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

A relatively low income and relatively
   high education
B relatively high income and low
   education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=0.5   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=1.1   Mt'=6.1
3.          M=1.6   Mt'=6.6
4.          M=2.3   Mt'=7.3
5. (high)   M=2.2   Mt'=7.2

A           M=1.4   Mt'=6.4
B           M=1.3   Mt'=6.3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
1. (low)    M=2.8   Mt'=4.5
2.          M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
3.          M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
4.          M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
5. (high)   M=3.6   Mt'=6.5

A           M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
B           M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
2.          M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
3.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
4.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
5. (high)   M=5.6   Mt'=7.7

6.          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
7.          M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=2.9   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
3.          M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
4.          M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
5. (high)   M=3.4   Mt'=6.0

6.          M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
7.          M=3.5   Mt'=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+
1. (low)    M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
2.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
4.          M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

6.          M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
7.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about social mobility
Subject code: S05ac01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelKnowledge about occupations
Page in Source 242
Our classificationConcern about social mobility, code S05ac01
Operationalization
25-item test containing questions on income, status, 
working hours, require- ments, etc. of different 
occupations (Job Information Test).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about social mobility
Subject code: S05ac01

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelThinking often about getting ahead
Page in Source 54
Our classificationConcern about social mobility, code S05ac01
Operationalization
Response to single question:
"Last week how often did you think about .…Getting 
ahead"

Rated: not at all / sometimes / often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= - ns
High S.E.S  : G' = -.06 (ns)
Low S.E.S.  : G' = +.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aspirations for social advancement
Subject code: S05ac02

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelUpward career anchorage
Page in Source 70
Our classificationAspirations for social advancement, code S05ac02
Operationalization
6-item index of forced choice statements measuring 
wheter a person tends to evaluate success in terms of 
how far a person has come (downward anchorage) or in 
terms of how far a person has to go before he reaches 
the top of his career (upward anchorage).
(Career-Anchorage Scale; see Tausky & Dubin, 1965).
0= downward answer
1= upward answer
Range 0 -6
Observed distributionM=2 SD=1.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aspirations for social advancement
Subject code: S05ac02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for "a job that pays off"
Page in Source 243
Our classificationAspirations for social advancement, code S05ac02
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions indi- cating 
preference for: steady job, learning new things, good 
chances for getting ahead, good pay, using one's 
skills, nice friendly people.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.21 p < . 001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aspirations for social advancement
Subject code: S05ac02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelAmbitious job attitude
Page in Source 243
Our classificationAspirations for social advancement, code S05ac02
Operationalization
13-item index of closed questions indi- cating 
preferences for "a job that doesn't bug me" (no one to 
boss me, don't have to work too hard, not much 
responsibility, high prestige, etc.) and preference for 
"a job that pays off" (learning new things, good 
chances for getting ahead, good pay, using one's 
skills, etc.).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.
Preference for "a job that pays off" was related 
to happiness          : r = +.21 (001)
Preference for "a job that doesn't bug me" was 
unrelated to happiness: r = -.05 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aspirations for social advancement
Subject code: S05ac02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for "a job that doesn't bug me"
Page in Source 243
Our classificationAspirations for social advancement, code S05ac02
Operationalization
7-item index of closed questions indi- cating 
preference for: no one to boss me, don't have to work 
too hard, clean job, not a lot of responsibility, lot 
of free time, high prestige, and not learning a lot of 
new things.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's social mobility
Subject code: S05ac03

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social position
Page in Source 134
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's social mobility, code S05ac03
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.18 p < .01
B controlled for satisfaction with:
-Health
-Home
-Residential environment
-Friends and acquaintances
-Education
-Financial resources
-Dutch society
-Government
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.18 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Employment
-Age
-Household composition
-Satisfaction with:
 -Health
 -Home
 -Friends and acquaintances
 -Financial resources
 -Dutch society


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-cy-sq-lg-9-aSelfreport on life graph

'We would like for you to think over your life and then rate each year as to whether it was a high or a low point in your life, i.e., your overall feeling, not necessarily financial success or health, etc, but generally speaking a feeling of wellbeing, however determined.
9 | high
|
8 |
|
7 |
|
6 |
|
5 |
|
4 |
|
3 |
|
2 |
|
1 | low
|______________________________________________
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

The last score represents present happiness
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aSelf report on single question:

Taken all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
VCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S05SOCIAL MOBILITYL10aaResidential career
S05SOCIAL MOBILITYN04aiSocial mobility
S05ab01Inter-generational mobilityF01agSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
S05ab01Inter-generational mobilityN04ai01Inter generational mobility
S05ab02Intra-generational mobilityN04ai02Intra generational mobility
S05ab02aOver/under-achievementE01ab02Level of school-education
S05acAttitudes to own social mobilityS09ad02Satisfaction with own status

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings