Findings on Happiness and SLEEP

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SLEEP
Subject Code: S04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S04SLEEP0
S04aaSleep career0
S04aa01Earlier sleep0
S04aa02Change in sleep0
S04aa03Later sleep0
S04abCurrent sleep-pattern3
S04ab01Amount of sleep6
S04ab02Quality of sleep6
S04acAttitudes to sleep0
S04ac01Satisfaction with amount of sleep2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SLEEP
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current sleep-pattern
Subject code: S04ab

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulty with sleeping
Page in Source 253
Our classificationCurrent sleep-pattern, code S04ab
Operationalization
Self report on sleeping pattern. Text is not reported.
1: difficulty with sleeping 
0: not difficulty with sleeping

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=0.7 p < .05
CI95 [0.6-0.8]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current sleep-pattern
Subject code: S04ab

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelInsomnia
Page in Source 21
Our classificationCurrent sleep-pattern, code S04ab
Operationalization
The Insomnia Scale (Abdel-Khalek 2004). It comprised 12 
items answered on a 5-point scale. This scale is 
composed of two factors, i.e.difficulty in initiating 
and maintaining sleep, and consequences of insomnia
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha = .86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=-.40 p < .001
All
males  : r = -.41 (001)
females: r = -.39 (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current sleep-pattern
Subject code: S04ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSleeping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent sleep-pattern, code S04ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behavices in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better: 
- Getting an adequate amount of sleep
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 5.15

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ab01

StudyHajak (2001): study DE 1997
TitleEpidemiology of Severe Insomnia and its Consequences in Germany.
SourceEuropean Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 2001, Vol. 251, 49 - 56
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1913

Correlate
Author's labelSevere Insomnia
Page in Source 51,53,54
Our classificationAmount of sleep, code S04ab01
Operationalization
Self report
0: no sleep complaints
1: severe insomnia
Observed distributionN=206: severe sleep complaints; N=162: no sleep complaints (=control group) -55%: no sleep complaints during last month; 4% severe insomnia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bDM=- p < .00000
no complaints    M =  3,82  CI95[ 3,70; 3,94]
severe insomania M =  3,05  CI95[ 2,94; 3,16]
difference      DM = -0,77  CI95[-0.93; -0,61]
                            P2=4,9E-20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ab01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of sleep
Page in Source 28
Our classificationAmount of sleep, code S04ab01
Operationalization
Difference between the time one usually goes to sleep 
and the time one usually awakes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=±.0 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ab01

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelSleep duration
Page in Source 2
Our classificationAmount of sleep, code S04ab01
Operationalization
Sleep duration:
a: <7h
b: 7h (Reference)
c: 8h
d: >=9h

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=+/- p < .01
<7h (vs. 7h):  OR= 0.597 CI99[0.589-0.605] 
8h (vs. 7h):   OR= 1.196 CI99[1.179-1.213] 
>=9h (vs. 7h): OR= 0.893 CI99[0.872-0.915]

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ab01

StudyLepper (1998): study US California 1993
TitleUse of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006872027638
PublicRetirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =971

Correlate
Author's labelSleep disturbances
Page in Source 372,377
Our classificationAmount of sleep, code S04ab01
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
How much of the time during the previous weeks
a enough sleep was obtained in order to feel rested 
upon waking
b had trouble falling asleep
c got the amount of sleep needed
Error EstimatesCorrelation between self and other reports (only spouses): N=803, r=+.53, p<.0001) For the other-reporters, only spouses or "significant" others were asked to complere their items in order to ensure that the reporters had sufficient knowledge about the target's sleep quality. Test for difference in mean ns (t.=-1.71)
Remarks
Only measured in wave 1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.31 p < .0001
O-HL---mq-v-16-ar=+.35 p < .0001
M-AO---mqr-*-0-ar=+.36 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ab01

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of sleep
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationAmount of sleep, code S04ab01
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on amount of sleep last night; 
during one month: much less than average / less than 
average / average amount / more than average / much 
more than average.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.16 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.16 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ab01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of sleep
Page in Source 283
Our classificationAmount of sleep, code S04ab01
Operationalization
Repeated direct question on number of hours sleep last 
night; during 6 weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.25 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of sleep
Subject code: S04ab02

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /3
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de Personalité en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public50-69 aged women, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =747

Correlate
Author's labelSleep quality
Page in Source 103-107
Our classificationQuality of sleep, code S04ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question;
o more or less disturbed
1 normal                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .001
More or less disturbed  M=6,21  Mt'=6,5
Normal                  M=6,54  Mt'=6,9
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .001
More or less disturbed  M=6.    Mt'=6,3
Normal                  M=6,87  Mt'=7,3
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .05
more or less disturbed  M=6,80  Mt'=7,3
normal                  M=7,15  Mt'=7,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of sleep
Subject code: S04ab02

StudyCheng & Chan (2006): study HK 2000
TitleRelationship with Others and Life Satisfaction in Later Life: Do Gender and Widowhood make a Difference?
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 2006, Vol. 61b, 46 - 53
Public60+ aged, Hong Kong, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1616

Correlate
Author's labelSleep
Page in Source 49-50
Our classificationQuality of sleep, code S04ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Do you sleep well?

Response options not reported
Observed distributionM=3.49 SD=1.06
Remarks
)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-ar=+.27 p < .001
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of sleep
Subject code: S04ab02

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelSleep
Page in Source 937.939
Our classificationQuality of sleep, code S04ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
How satisfied are you with your sleep? 
1 Very dissatisfied
2 Dissatisfied
3 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 Satisfied
5 Very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 3.52: SD=.84
Remarks
Full questions not reported in this paper. 
Question on sleep taken from WHOQOL-Bref. 
Question on importance figured in the full WHOQOL 
questionnaire.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.24 p < .01
raw score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.21 p < .01
score weighted by perceived importance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of sleep
Subject code: S04ab02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelSleep problems
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationQuality of sleep, code S04ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently.... lost much sleep over worry?
1: Not at all
2: No more than usual (reference)
3: Rather more than usual
4: Much more than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.13 p < .01
FEMALES
 "Not at all"            (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.01 ns
 "Rather more than usual"(vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.09 ns
 "Much more than usual"  (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.09 p < .001
MALES
 "Not at all"            (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.05 ns
 "Rather more than usual"(vs"No more than usual"
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.01 ns
 "Much more than usual"  (vs"No more than usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - strain
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of sleep
Subject code: S04ab02

StudyKahneman & Krueger (2006): study US 2004
TitleDevelopments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 3 - 24
DOIDOI:10.1257/089533006776526030
PublicEmployed females, USA , 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =909

Correlate
Author's labelSleep Quality
Page in Source 17
Our classificationQuality of sleep, code S04ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.29
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of sleep
Subject code: S04ab02

StudyLepper (1998): study US California 1993
TitleUse of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006872027638
PublicRetirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =971

Correlate
Author's labelSleep disturbances
Page in Source 372,377
Our classificationQuality of sleep, code S04ab02
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
How much of the time during the previous weeks
a enough sleep was obtained in order to feel rested 
upon waking
b had trouble falling asleep
c got the amount of sleep needed
Error EstimatesCorrelation between self and other reports (only spouses): N=803, r=+.53, p<.0001) For the other-reporters, only spouses or "significant" others were asked to complere their items in order to ensure that the reporters had sufficient knowledge about the target's sleep quality. Test for difference in mean ns (t.=-1.71)
Remarks
Only measured in wave 1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.31 p < .0001
O-HL---mq-v-16-ar=+.35 p < .0001
M-AO---mqr-*-0-ar=+.36 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ac01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with amount of sleep
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with amount of sleep, code S04ac01
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the sleep you 
get?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with amount of sleep
Subject code: S04ac01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with amount of sleep
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with amount of sleep, code S04ac01
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the sleep you 
get?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on yesterday's activities using a diary format.

Nine affects were rated for each episode:
A happy
B warm, friendly
C enjoying myself
D frustrated, annoyed
E depressed, blue
F hassled, puushed around
G angry, hostile
H worried, anxious
I criticized, put down

Rating: 0 'not at all' to 6 'very much'

Computation: (A+B+C)/3 - (D+E+F+H+H+I)/6

Name: Kahneman's Net Affect
.
.
6
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
0 minimum score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 maximal score
Numbers presented on a horizontal line scale.
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross on the line on the place you estimate to be what corresponds best with your state.
1 | I don't feel very well in my skin
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I don't feel too well in my skin
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 | I feel very well in my skin

Scoring: rated on open horizontal line scale divided afterwards in 9 sections.
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL---mq-v-16-aSelf report on three questions:

A During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time
B Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?"
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mixed
5 happy
6 happy
7 very happy
C Taking all together, how would you say things are these days?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross, on each line, on the place you estimate to be that which corresponds best with your state
1 I am not very happy
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I am not too happy
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 I am quite happy

Scoring: rated on an open horizontal line scale, divided afterwards in 9 sections.
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 excellent
4 good
3 neither good nor bad
2 bad
1 very bad
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross on the line below, on the spot you estimate that corresponds best with your state.
1 | I am not very satisfied
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I am not too satisfied
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 I am very satisfied

Scoring: rated on an open horizontal line scale divided afterwards in 9 sections.
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you the quality of your life these days?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither nor
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original rating scale
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions

A Happiness
B Life-satisfaction

Texts not reported

Summation: A+B


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S04abCurrent sleep-patternP12abCurrent problems
S04ab01Amount of sleepA02abCurrent activity pattern
S04ab02Quality of sleepM13ac05Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
S04ab02Quality of sleepP06ab03aFatigue

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings