Findings on Happiness and SCHOOL

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and SCHOOL
Subject Code: S01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
S01SCHOOL1
S01aaSchool career2
S01aa01Earlier schooling1
S01aa01aEarlier school-behavior5
S01aa01bEarlier school-environment2
S01aa01dEarlier attitudes to school5
S01aa02Change in schooling1
S01aa02aChange in school-behavior0
S01aa02bChange in school-environment1
S01aa02cChange in attitudes to school0
S01aa03Current stage in school-career9
S01aa04Later schooling1
S01aa04aLater school-behavior0
S01aa04bLater school-environment1
S01aa04cLater attitudes to school0
S01abCurrent school-behavior1
S01ab01School-attendance1
S01ab01aInvolved in schooling or not48
S01ab01bAbsenteeism4
S01ab01cExtra-curricular activity3
S01ab02School-success24
S01ab03Involvement in school-work9
S01ab04Misbehavior in school7
S01acCurrent school-environment0
S01ac01Social characteristics of school2
S01ac01aSocio-economic level of school2
S01ac01bEthnic homogeneity of school3
S01ac02Social climate in school3
S01ac03Intellectual level of school3
S01ac04School-type11
S01ac05Curriculum followed5
S01adAttitudes to school13
S01ad01Perceived usefulness of schooling10
S01ad02Perceived pressure of school-work5
S01ad03Satisfaction with own school-performance2
S01ad04Satisfaction with school-facilities13
S01ac06School size1
S01aa01cbSchool drop out1
S01aa01cEarlier school success0
S01aa01caDoubled a class1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and SCHOOL
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=S01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and SCHOOL
Subject code: S01

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /1
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Bhopalpani, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response108
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelTraining centre
Page in Source 263
Our classificationSCHOOL, code S01
Operationalization
Family needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 0,87; 1: 46,8; 2:26,6; 3: 19,3: M: 7,3
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.16 ns
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and School career
Subject code: S01aa

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationSchool career, code S01aa
Operationalization
Employment status:
a)unemployed
b)retired
c)student
d)self-employed
f)long term(LT) unemployment (experienced unemployment 
longer than three months in the past 2 years)

Each rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.73 p < .001
1999 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 p < .05
2008 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.54 p < .001
1999 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .001
2008 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.94 p < .001
1999 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.38 p < .001
2008 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
1999 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .01
2008 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 ns
1999 LT unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.29 p < .001
2008 LT unemployment

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
No significant change when additionally controlled 
for:

-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and School career
Subject code: S01aa

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelD_study school / change education
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationSchool career, code S01aa
Operationalization
1: Change      (not reported what change)
0: No change
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.09 p < .01
CURRENT study school by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 ns
CURRENT study school by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 p < .001
CHANGE study school by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier schooling
Subject code: S01aa01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelHigh school GPA
Page in Source 250
Our classificationEarlier schooling, code S01aa01
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) High school GPA by T2 (1971) happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.04 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.01 ns
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 ns
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudySmith (1982): study US 1972
TitleCollege Dropouts: An Analysis of the Psychological Well-Being of Various Educational Groups.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1982, Vol. 45, 50 - 53
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11997

Correlate
Author's labelSchool drop out Earlier
Page in Source 52
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
Operationalization
College Dropouts
0 Associate or bachelor's degree
1 Some college but no degree

Graduate School Dropouts
0 Graduate degree
1 Bachelor's with 5 or more years of 
  college but no graduate degree 
Remarks
% happy:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.05 p < .01
degree:    37,9
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.03 ns
no degree: 34,9
         
         
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.08 p < .01
degree:    40,2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.04 ns
no degree: 35,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelDelinquent behavior in school
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
Operationalization
At T1, T2 and T3: a mean of seven items measuring the 
amount of school-oriented delinquent behaviour. 
Included are questions on how often respondent has been 
suspended, damaged school property, and gotten into a 
serious fight at school. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Delinquent behavior in school
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1     tau = -.19 (001)  -.14 (001)  -.12 (001)
T2     tau = -.10 (01)   -.15 (001)  -.11 (01)
T3     tau = -.07 (ns)   -.10 (01)   -.08 (05)
T4     tau = -.06 (ns)   -.04 (ns)   -.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSerious delinquent behaviors
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
Operationalization
A mean of 10 items asking the respondent how often he 
had done such things as 'set fire to someone else's 
property on purpose', 'hurt someone badly enough to 
need bandages or a doctor', 'taken something not 
belonging to you worth over $50' etc. Scale: 1.00 = 
never to 5.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Serious delinquent behavior
         T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T1     -.18    -.14    -.12    -.04 ns -.10
T2     -.09    -.11    -.09    -.03 ns -.07 ns T3  
   -.04 ns -.07 ns -.11    -.05 ns -.04 ns
T4     -.03 ns -.02 ns -.05 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTheft and vandalism
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
Operationalization
A mean of nine items which measure the number of times 
respondent has commited acts of theft or vandalism. 
Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = five or more times. 
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Theft and vandalism
       T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T1    -.19    -.14    -.13    -.03 ns -.11
T2    -.10    -.13    -.10    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3    -.06 ns -.09    -.11    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4    -.04 ns -.04 ns -.06 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless indicated otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-behavior
Subject code: S01aa01a

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelExtracurricular participation when in highschool
Page in Source 250
Our classificationEarlier school-behavior, code S01aa01a
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) extracurricular  activity by T2 (1971) 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.02 ns
MALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.05 ns
FEMALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.01 ns
Betas controlled for T1:
- fathers occupational prestige
- father’s and mother’s years of formal schooling
- number of siblings
- highschool grade point average


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-environment
Subject code: S01aa01b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSchool mean intelligence scores
Our classificationEarlier school-environment, code S01aa01b
Operationalization
High school's mean  GATB-J score, Gates score and Quick 
Test score, computed from the scores of all the T1 
respondents at that school. See also 
C 1.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
                  Quick     GATB-J    Gates
Happiness         Test                test
T1          tau = -.04      -.04      -.04
T2          tau = -.01      -.04      -.03
T3          tau = -.03      -.03      -.02
T4          tau = -.01      -.00      -.02
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier school-environment
Subject code: S01aa01b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelHigh school curriculum college preparatory
Our classificationEarlier school-environment, code S01aa01b
Operationalization
Respondent reported his program of high school study at 
T1, T2 and T3: 
0 = vocational, bussiness, general,        agricultural 
or other; 
1 = college preparatory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
               HS curriculum college preparatory
Happiness       T1          T2          T3
T1       tau = +.04        +.06        +.06
T2       tau = -.02        +.03        +.02
T3       tau = +.01        -.02        +.01
T4       tau = -.01        -.01        +.02
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Doubled a class
Subject code: S01aa01ca

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelRepeat school
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationDoubled a class, code S01aa01ca
Operationalization
Selfreport on question whether repeated school at lease 
one year
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = .43; SD = .01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.24 p < .05
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
-single parent
-residence location
-gender
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.24 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.23 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.23 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.20 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=
With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and School drop out
Subject code: S01aa01cb

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 44, 49
Our classificationSchool drop out, code S01aa01cb
Operationalization
A: Completed education
   1: Secondary
   2: Intermediate
   3: Technical school
   4: Upper secondary
B: Dropout
   1: No degree yet
C: In education
   1: No degree yet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+-
A1: Secondary              M = 3,79
A2: Intermediate           M = 3,94
A3: Technical school       M = 3,87
A4: Upper secondary        M = 3,91
B1: Dropout, no degree yet M = 3,82
C1: No degree yet          M = 4,03

The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is 
recorded here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04
B controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - household size
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to school
Subject code: S01aa01d

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelInterest in courses
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to school, code S01aa01d
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1, T2 and T3: How 
interesting are most of your courses to you?  
1 = very dull; 2 = slightly dull; 
3 = fairly interesting;
4 = quite interesting; 
5 = very exciting and stimulating

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
                 Interest in courses
Happiness           T1       T2       T3
T1           tau = +.33     +.23     +.19
T2           tau = +.25     +.32     +.26
T3           tau = +.23     +.26     +.28
T4           tau = +.21     +.19     +.22
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to school
Subject code: S01aa01d

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievementvalue
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to school, code S01aa01d
Operationalization
Index at T1, T2 and T3 of four items that indicate the 
extent to which the respondent considers it to be "a 
good thing" to demonstrate behavior indicative of 
academic achievement. Items: "studying constantly in 
order to become a well-educated person; working hard to 
achieve academic honors; striving to get the top 
grade-point average in the group; studying hard to get 
good grades in school." 
Scale: 1 = low to 6 = high in academic achievement 
value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
              Academic achievement value
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1     tau = +.26 (001)  +.15 (001)  +.15 (001)
T2     tau = +.16 (001)  +.22 (001)  +.14 (001)
T3     tau = +.12 (01)   +.18 (001)  +.25 (001)
T4     tau = +.10 (01)   +.13 (001)  +.18 (001)
All tau's significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to school
Subject code: S01aa01d

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with own school work
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to school, code S01aa01d
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1 and T2: "How satisfied are 
you with the way you're actually doing in school?" 
1 = not at all; 2 = not very; 
3 = somewhat;   4 = quite; 
5 = very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
             Satisfaction with own school work
Happiness      T1              T2
T1       tau = +.20  (001)     +.11 (01)
T2       tau = +.17  (001)     +.16 (001)
T3       tau = +.10  (01)      +.12 (01)
T4       tau = +.10  (01)      +.11 (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to school
Subject code: S01aa01d

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSchool attitudes
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to school, code S01aa01d
Operationalization
Positive and negative school attitudes were measured at 
T1, T2 and T3. Positive school attitude: a mean of 
15 items which stress the intrinsic value of education; 
scale: 1.00 = low (education has little value) to 4.00 
= high (education has high value)
Negative school attitude: a mean of 8 
items indicating the respondent's negative or avoidance 
attitudes toward school. Scale: 1.00 = low negativity;
4.00 = high negativity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= p < .001
              Positive school attitudes
Happiness     T1        T2        T2
T1      tau = +.41      +.27      +.25
T2      tau = +.33      +.39      +.32
T3      tau = +.23      +.27      +.37
T4      tau = +.20      +.23      +.27
All tau's significant (001)

              Negative school attitudes
Happiness     T1        T2        T3
T1        _ = -.25      -.21      -.22
T2        _ = -.21      -.26      -.23
T3        _ = -.17      -.18      -.27
T4        _ = -.18      -.16      -.19
All _ significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to school
Subject code: S01aa01d

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelExact interest
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to school, code S01aa01d
Operationalization
Selfrating of interest in:
a. Algebra
b. Arithmetic

Assessed in 1922
Remarks
1922 interests by 1972 happiness
               

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 Interest in algebra by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 Interest in arithmetic by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in schooling
Subject code: S01aa02

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelRepeat school
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationChange in schooling, code S01aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on question whether repeated school at lease 
one year
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = .43; SD = .01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.24 p < .05
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
-single parent
-residence location
-gender
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.24 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.23 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.23 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.20 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=
With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in school-environment
Subject code: S01aa02b

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in schooling
Page in Source 331
Our classificationChange in school-environment, code S01aa02b
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in schooling
a: started education
b: left school
c: stayed in school
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in educational 
participation
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-
started school (dropped due to multi colinearity)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.84 p < .001
left school
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.71 ns
stayed in school

Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  - age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking)
  - marital status 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyMan (1991): study CN 1983
TitleThe Influence of Peers and Parents on Youth Life Satisfaction in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 347 - 365
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00383734
Public13-16 aged students, Hong Kong, 1983-1984.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1906

Correlate
Author's labelschool class
Page in Source 358
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
1 middle 1 (younger)
2 middle 4 (older)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-n-7-aDM=-
Grade 1:  M = 4.00
Grade 4:  M = 2.76
difference   -1.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelattending school or university
Page in Source 94
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
1: no post-secondary education (less than 
   13 years of schooling)
2: short post-secondary education (13-14  
   years)
3: intermediate post-secondary education 
   (15-16 years)
4: long post-secondary education(more than 
   16 years)
Observed distributionN: all:431, %: 1:23,4, 2:35,5, 3:19,7, 4:21,3
Remarks
Adult students only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.05 p < .3173
1: Mt=7.48
2: Mt=8.01
3: Mt=7.59
4: Mt=7.34
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.03 p < .2792
1: Mt=7.23
2: Mt=7.76
3: Mt=7.39
4: Mt=7.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.03 p < .4958
1: Mt=6.73
2: Mt=7.30
3: Mt=6.94
4: Mt=6.68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelSchool performance
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions:
a. your average grade in Italian in the prior year
b. your average grade in Maths in the prior year
c. your final grade at Middle School
Observed distributiona. M = 6.70; SD = .88; b. M = 6.63; SD = 1.15; c. M = 8.09; SD = 1.32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.23 p < .01
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

Final grade in Italian (last year)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.03 ns
Final grade in Maths (last year)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.00 ns
Final grade at Middle School

OLRC's controlled for:
 -single parent
 -repeated at least one school year
 -residence location
 -gender
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.22 p < .01
Final grade in Italian (last year)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.03 ns
Final grade in Maths (last year)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.01 ns
Final grade at Middle School

OLRC's addtionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.23 p < .01
Final grade in Italian (last year)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.03 ns
Final grade in Maths (last year)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.01 ns
Final grade at Middle School

OLRC's addtionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelSchool
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
A Academic Achievement:
 1=Very Good
 2=Good
 3=Average
 4=Below Average
B Enjoying School as assessed by self-report:
 1=Like A Lot
 2=Like A Bit
 3=Not Very Much
 4=Not At All

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.11 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelYear group
Page in Source 127,131
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
a year group 6 (last year in primary school, 1age 
10-11) (reference)
b year group 8 (secondary school, age 12-13)
c year group 10 (secondary school, age 14-15)
Observed distributionb: 45%, c:28%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=+.01 ns
year group 8 (vs 6)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.17 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.15 p < .00
year group 10 (vs 6)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.24 p < .00
Beta's controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family

Beta's slightly reduced after additional control 
for personality.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelGrade level in school
Page in Source 194,195
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
Grade level in school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=-.05 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- SES
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=-.08 p < .012
Beta additionally controlled for: 
- time in flow


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelStage of study
Page in Source 28
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
freshman / sophomore / junior / senior /graduate 
student / other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelStage of study
Page in Source 50
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
Freshmen / sophomores / juniors / seniors.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Stronger among males.
S-shaped curve among males: Stronger relationship 
from freshman to junior years.
U-shaped curve among females: sophomores being 
most unhappy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage in school-career
Subject code: S01aa03

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a freshman
Page in Source 283
Our classificationCurrent stage in school-career, code S01aa03
Operationalization
0 Junior 
1 Freshmen

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= + ns
L-shaped curve: positive relationship among 
unhappy students only.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=+ ns
L-shaped curve: positive relationship among 
unhappy students only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later schooling
Subject code: S01aa04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of (later) college
Our classificationLater schooling, code S01aa04
Operationalization
College mean of Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, or 
American College Test scores, or estimates of these 
scores (See Astin, 1971) (measured at T5)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.06  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later school-environment
Subject code: S01aa04b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelPrestige of (later) college
Our classificationLater school-environment, code S01aa04b
Operationalization
Prestige of institution attended as an undergraduate 
(measured at T5)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.07  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.07  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current school-behavior
Subject code: S01ab

StudyLee (2003): study KR 2000
TitleDaily Contextual Variations in Levels of Adolescent Happiness.
SourceThe Korean Journal of Development Psychology, 2003, Vol. 16, 193 - 209
PublicMiddle school students, South Korea, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response24
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labeldaily activity
Page in Source 200
Our classificationCurrent school-behavior, code S01ab
Operationalization
Time spend on activities:
A study 
B active leisure
C passive leisure
D interpersonal relationship
E living maintenance

Assessed using experience sampling during one week. 
When beeped Ss answered the open question:'What do you 
do right now'. Responses were later classified in these 
5 categories.
Higher scores mean more time spend on this activity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
     M     SD
A   1.06   .87
B   1.91   .98
C   1.69   .99
D   1.66  1.05
E   1.27   .96
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B>C,D>E>A


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-attendance
Subject code: S01ab01

StudyVanVaalen (2010): study NL 2009
TitleGeluk op School. (Happiness at School).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vanvaalen_m_2010.pdf
PublicSchoolchildren aged 9-12, the Netherlands, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =718

Correlate
Author's labelAbsenteeism in school
Our classificationSchool-attendance, code S01ab01
Operationalization
1 < 10 children absent per year
2 > More then 10 children absent per year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aD%=+
% Happy 
1           81 %
2           83 %
Difference  +2 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFull time Work Status
Page in Source 175+
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
g: Full time Student
Observed distributionN = a: 750, b: 517, c: 39, d: 13, e: 208, f: 94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,60
b Mt = 8,14; SD = 1,57
c Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,92
d Mt = 8,62; SD = 0,96
e Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,81
f Mt = 6,55; SD = 2,53
g Mt = 7,16; SD = 1,42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's label Work Status
Page in Source B100
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 759, b: 240, c: 4, d: 112, e: 56, f: 501, g: 56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,73
c Mt = 8,26; SD = 2,36
d Mt = 7,51; SD = 1,74
e Mt = 6,54; SD = 2,13
f Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,70
g Mt = 8,15; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
b>e
f>(a.d,e)
g>e
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,43; SD = 1,72
b Mt = 7,45; SD = 1,93
c Mt = 9,00; SD = 1,16
d Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,71
e Mt = 6,16; SD = 2,16
f Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
g Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,97
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT=
a>e
b>e
f>(a,d,e)
g>e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelWork Type
Page in Source 81
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Single question: 
Thinking about the work that you do, what do you 
consider to be your main area of work?
1: Paid employment
2: Family & household care
3: Voluntary work 
4: Study
5: No work
Observed distributionN = 1 : 260, 2 : 260, 3 : 129, 4: 129, 5 : 260

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .100
1: Mt =77.88, SD =14.56
2: Mt =78.92, SD =17.54
3: Mt =80.54, SD =19.13
4: Mt =75.89, SD =14.50
5: Mt =76.12, SD =21.81
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelFull-time student
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) Are you currently taking any course of study for a 
trade certificate, diploma, degree or any other 
educational qualification?
b) Are you studying this full time or part time?
1: Full-time student
0: Full-time employed
Observed distribution1: 4%, 0: 34%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.20 p < .05
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
FEMALES 

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- level of education
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmain occupation
Page in Source 112
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
"What is your main occupation "
a: independent businessman/tradesman
b: assistant in spouse's business
c: unskilled/semi-skilled worker
d: skilled worker
e: housewife
f: salaried employee/civil servant
g: student
h: pensioner
i: social security recipient
Observed distributionN: All:4467; %:a:6,2; b:0,6; c:17,2; d:16,5; e:1,7; f:47,5; g:3,9; h:2,3; I:4,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=8.00
b: Mt=8.08
c: Mt=7.83
d: Mt=7.89
e: Mt=7.70
f: Mt=7.86
g: Mt=7.28
h: Mt=6.09
i: Mt=6.35
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.70
b: Mt=8.08
c: Mt=7.41
d: Mt=7.61
e: Mt=7.56
f: Mt=7.55
g: Mt=6.81
h: Mt=5.88
i: Mt=5.99
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.18
b: Mt=7.79
c: Mt=6.96
d: Mt=7.11
e: Mt=7.46
f: Mt=7.13
g: Mt=6.60
h: Mt=6.06
i: Mt=6.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 25
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
0 employed(reference group)
1 a self-employed
  b unemployed
  c some work
  d non-working
  e maternity leave
  f military service
  g in education
  h retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.26 p < .01
a: Self-employed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0 p < .01
b: Unemployed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.67
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
c: Some work
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
d: Non-working
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .01
e: Maternity leave 
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
f: Military service
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.46
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
g: In education
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
h: Retired
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.01

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelBeing student
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Question :' Are you at this moment a
high-school or college student ?'
0  no
1  yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.04       +.21       +.04       +.01
1980      +.06       +.27       +.06       +.06
1984      +.01       +.07       +.01       +.00
1988      +.03       +.19       +.03       +.02

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      -.02       -.06       -.02       +.04
1980      +.05       +.31       +.05       +.03
1984      +.04       +.23       +.04       +.04
1988      +.00       +.05       +.00       +.01

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelProfesional status
Page in Source 1
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: employable
b: school/studying
c: unemployed
d: retired
Observed distribution1: 1478, 2: 226, 3: 103, 4: 322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
employable:      M = 7.2
school/studying: M = 7.2
unemployed:      M = 6.2
retired:         M = 7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment and schooling
Page in Source 270,271, 279,280, 288,289
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Self reported average hours spend on work or schooling 
on working days, Saturdays, Sundays.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 27%, 1: 3%, 2: 3%, 3: 2%, 4: 3%, 5: 3%, 6-10: 48%, 11-16: 9%, 17-24: - , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 71%, 1: 3%, 2: 4%, 3: 2%, 4: 3%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 11%, 11-16: 2%, 17-24: -, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 83%, 1: 3%, 2: 2%, 3: 1%, 4: 2%, 5: 1%, 6-10: 4%, 11-16: 1%, 17-24: -, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 5.8  M = 5.8 hrs         0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 5.8  M = 5.8 hrs         0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 5.9  M = 5.4 hrs        +0.5 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs        -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.5  M = 1.7 hrs        -0.2 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.5  M = 1.6 hrs        -0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.6  M = 0.7 hrs        -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.6  M = 0.7 hrs        -0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.7  M = 0.7 hrs         0.0 hrs

Hapiness
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table4, 5
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on employment status:
a. employed (reference)
b. not employed
c. retired
d. in education
e. unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
NOT EMPLOYED (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 ns
RETIRED    (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.12 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.21 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.20 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.16 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.20 p < .05
IN EDUCATION (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.15 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.21 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.18 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.88 p < .001
UNEMPLOYED   (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.80 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.72 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.71 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.65 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelBeing in school
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
still being in school
Observed distributionM =0,689 (69%), SD = 0,463

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
probit result=0,375
CI95=[ 0.02  0,73]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,322
CI95=[ -0,05  0,69]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you currently engaged in paid employment?
a) full-time employed (reference)
b) regular part-time employed
c) vocational training
d) irregular part-time employed
e) not employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.15 p < .01
REGULAR PART-TIME EMPLOYED 
(vs full-time employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
VOCATIONAL TRAINING 
(vs full-time employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .01
IRREGULAR TEMPORARY EMPLOYED 
(vs full-time employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.34 p < .01
NOT EMPLOYED 
(vs full-time employed)

B's controlled for: 
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Country of birth
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelStudent
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1 student
0 other
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.04 sd=0.20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 ns
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelLabor force status
Page in Source 48, 49
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
0: Non working
   a: age 65 and older
   b: in education-training
   c: maternity leave
   d: military service
   e: unemployed
   f: semotimes secondary job
   g: but work in past 7 days
   h: but regular secondary job
1: Working
   a: but non-working past 7 days
Remarks
The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is recorded 
here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+-
1  M = 3,81
1a M = 3,79
1b M = 3,93
1c M = 3,92
1d M = 3,69
1e M = 3,21
1f M = 3,89
1g M = 3,73
1h M = 3,82

2  M = 3,91
2a M = 3,85
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08
Part-time working (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03
Not working (vs working)

Bs controlled for:
- Peronal characteristics
  - household size
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - education
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 44, 49
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
A: Completed education
   1: Secondary
   2: Intermediate
   3: Technical school
   4: Upper secondary
B: Dropout
   1: No degree yet
C: In education
   1: No degree yet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+-
A1: Secondary              M = 3,79
A2: Intermediate           M = 3,94
A3: Technical school       M = 3,87
A4: Upper secondary        M = 3,91
B1: Dropout, no degree yet M = 3,82
C1: No degree yet          M = 4,03

The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is 
recorded here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04
B controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - household size
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelemployment status
Page in Source 164
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: paid employment
b:  retired
c: unemployed
d: domestic duties
e: full-time student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=
paid employment:     M = 7.68
retired:             M = 7.91
unemployed:          M = 6.43
domestic duties:     M = 8.11
full-time student:   M = 7.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: entrepreneur/self employed
b: clerk/teacher
c: worker/ farmer
d: housewife
e: retired
f: student
g: unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
% Satisfied:
a: 85,5 
b: 83,8 
c: 84,7 
d: 80,8 
e: 86,0 
f: 83,2 
g: 53,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 7
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
A: Unemployed
    a Housewives/husbands
    b Students
    c Those not in the labor force
B: Employed
    a Agriculture and forestry
    b (Fisheries)
    c (Mining)
    d Construction
    e Manufacturing
    f Electricity, gas, heat supply and water
    g Information and communications
    h Transport
    i Wholesale and retail trade
    j Finance and insurance
    k Real estate
    l Accommodations, eating and drinking services
    m Medical, health care and welfare
    n Education, learning support
    o Compound services
    p Services, not elsewhere classified
    q Government, except elsewhere classified
    r Industries unable to be classified
Remarks
except respondents who were unable to be classified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=+-
A Unemployed                          M = 4,6
  Aa Housewives/husbands              M = 6,8
  Ab Students                         M = 6,0
  Ac Not in the labor force           M = 6,2
 
B Employed                            M = 5,9
  Ba Agriculture/forestry             M = 5,4
  Bb (Fisheries)                      M = 6,6
  Bc (Mining)                         M = 6,8
  Bd Construction                     M = 5,7
  Be Manufacturing                    M = 5,9
  Bf Electric./gas/heat/water supply  M = 5,7
  Bg Information and communications   M = 5,6 
  Bh Transport                        M = 5,7
  Bi Wholesale and retail trade       M = 5,9
  Bj Finance and insurance            M = 6,3
  Bk Real estate                      M = 6,0
  Bl Accommod./eating/drinking serv.  M = 5,7
  Bm Medical/health care/welfare      M = 6,1
  Bn Education/learning support       M = 6,4
  Bo Compound services                M = 6,1
  Bp Other services                   M = 6,0
  Bq Government                       M = 6,2
  Br Other industries                 M = 5,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyTiefenbach & Kohlbacher (2011): study JP 2011
TitleHappiness from the Viewpoint of Economics.
SourceDeutsches Institut für Japanstudien, 2011, Tokyo, Japan
URLhttp:www.dijtokyo.org
Public15 -79 aged, Japan, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response28,4%
Respondents N =3578

Correlate
Author's labelJob
Page in Source 7
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: Company Employee
b: Managing Position
c: Civil Servant
d: Directorial Board (company)
e. Directorial Board (organisation)
f.  Entrepreneur
g. Temporary employee
h. Housewife
i. Student
j. Without work
Observed distributionN=3569; etc.
Remarks
N/A = 9.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-fDM=+/-
a: Company Employee   M = 6,37
b: Managing Position  M = 6,89
c: Civil Servant      M = 7,11
d: Directorial Board  M = 6,84
   (company)
e. Directorial Board  M = 6,62
   (organisation)
f. Entrepreneur       M = 6,17
g. Temporary employee M = 6,19
h. Housewife          M = 7,02
i. Student            M = 6,86
j. Without work       M = 6,01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelAttended education
Page in Source 19, 17, 16
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Attended education: if respondent has attended an 
educational or training course in the last month.
Observed distributionM = 0.07 SD = 0.26 N = 32517

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.02 ns
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region
- log of (imputed) household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelStudent
Page in Source 13
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1: yes
2: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.07 ns
B controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - income
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelStill in education
Page in Source 24
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
0 = employed (reference)
1 = still in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.13 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.18 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.20 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb==.17 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.12 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a paid work
b in education
c unemployed and actively looking for job
d unemployed and not actively looking for job
e permanently sick or disabled
f retired
g housework
h other (reference category).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.05 ns
	paid work (vs other)
b(0.0454) controlled for:
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.02 ns
paid work (vs other)
b(-.245) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.27 p < .001
in education (vs other)
b(0.271) controlled for:
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.22 p < .001
in education (vs other)
b(0.216) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
unemployed and actively looking for job (vs other)
b(-1.066) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income 
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
unemployed and actively looking for job (vs other)
b(-1.059) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.66 p < .001
unemployed and not actively looking for job (vs 
other)
	b(-.664) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.61 p < .001
unemployed and not actively looking for job (vs 
other)
	b(-.613) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
disabled (vs other)
		b(-1.117) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.34 p < .001
disabled (vs other)
b(-.337) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.08 p < .01
retired (vs other)
	b(0.0813) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.19 p < .001
retired (vs other)
	b(0.185) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.04 p < .05
housework (vs other)
b(0.0425) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.03 ns
housework (vs other)
b(0.0342) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~Eurobarometer (2000b): study ZZ EU 15 2000 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 54.
SourceEuropean Commission, 2000, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb54/eb54_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal education age
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 29%, 2: 40%, 3: 21%, 4: 10%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<             M=2,92 CI95:2,90-2,94
2: 16-19           M=3,01 CI95:2,99-3,03
3: 20+             M=3,09 CI95:3,07-3,11
4: still studying  M=3,14 CI95:3,11-3,17
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3<4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~Eurobarometer (2000a): study ZZ EU 15 2000
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 53,
SourceEuropean Commission, 2000, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb53/eb53_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16078

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal education age
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1: 15<             
2: 16-19           
3: 20+            
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 30%, 2: 41%, 3: 21%, 4: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<             M= 2,81  CI95: 2.79-2,83
2: 16-19           M= 2,88  CI95: 2,86-2,90
3: 20+             M= 3,00  CI95: 2,98-3,02
4: still studying  M= 3,08  CI95: 3,05-3,12
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3<4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyTucker et al. (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 1999
TitleTesting for Measurement Invariance in the Satisfaction with Life Scale: A Comparison of Russians and North Americans.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 78, 341 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-1037-5
PublicStudents and community members, US and Russia, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =277

Correlate
Author's labelStudents vs community members
Page in Source 347
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
0. Community members (no students)
1. Students
Observed distribution 0= 125 1= 152

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
               American   Russian     All
               Mean SD    Mean SD     Mean
Community mbs  4,71 1,52  3,16 1,29   3,94
Students       4,61 1,38  4,08 1,53   4,35
Difference    -0,10      +0,92       +0,41
O-SLC-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
               American    Russian     All
               Mean  SD    Mean  SD    Mean
Community mbs  4,79  1,46  3,08  1,34  3,93
Students       4,81  1,33  4,20  1,55  4,50
Difference    +0,02       +1,12       +0,57
O-SLu-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
              American    Russian      All
              Mean  SD    Mean  SD    Mean
Community mbs 4,94  1,64  3,86  1,29  4,39
Students      5,36  1,08  5,11  1,43  5,25
Difference   +0,42       +1,25       +0,86
C-RA-h-sq-v-7-aDM=+
              American    Russian     All
              Mean  SD    Mean  SD    Mean
Community mbs  4,94 1,63  3,30  1,24  4,11
Students       5,17 1,42  4,26  1,60  4,78
Difference    +0,23      +0,96       +0,67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~Eurobarometer (1999): study ZZ EU 15 1999 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 52.
SourceEuropean Commission,1999, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb52/eb52_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15010

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal Education Age
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 30%, 2: 41%, 3: 20%, 4: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<             M= 2,92  CI95: 2.90-2,94
2: 16-19           M= 2,98  CI95: 2,96-3,00
3: 20+             M= 3,08  CI95: 3,06-3,10
4: still studying  M= 3,13  CI95: 3,10-3,16
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~Eurobarometer (1998): study ZZ EU 15 1998
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 49.
SourceEuropean Commssion, 1998, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://europa.eu/comm/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb49/eb49_en.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16165

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal Education Age
Page in Source B.59
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Terminal education age
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 31%, 2: 39%, 3: 21%, 4: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<:           M=2,81  CI95 = 2,79-2,83
2: 16-19:         M=2,92  CI95 = 2,90-2,94
3: 20+:           M=3,02  CI95 = 3,00-3,04
4: still studying M=3,07  CI95 = 3,04-3,11
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~Eurobarometer (1997): study ZZ EU 15 1997 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 47.
SourceEuropean Commission,1997, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb47/eb47_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal education age
Page in Source B2
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<            M=2,86   CI95: 2,84-2,88
2: 16-19          M=2,90   CI95: 2,88-2,92
3: 20+            M=3,01   CI95: 2,99-3,04
4: still studying M=3,05   CI95: 3,01-3,09
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
  1< 2<3,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyPeiro (2006): study ZZ 1995
TitleHappiness, Satisfaction and Socio- Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 348 - 356
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Public16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 18
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: partime 
b: selfemployed
c: housewife
d: student
all versus 'otherwise'
e: unemployment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Argentina 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.19 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.12 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.07 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.05 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.08 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Australia 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.08 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.33 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.08 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.74 (05)
unemployed:    OLRC= not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Chile 
Parttime:      lgt= +.28 (ns)
Selfemployed:  lgt= -.10 (ns)
Housewife:     lgt= +.13 (ns)
Student:       lgt= +.31 (ns)
unemployed:    lgt= -.35 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
China 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.40 (05)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.24 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.39 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.06 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.11 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.14 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.09 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.07 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.12 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.64 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Finland 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.35 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.21 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.41 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.59 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.24 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Japan 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.32 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.31 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.45 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.44 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC=+1.43 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Nigeria 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.07 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.10 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.15 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.05 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.03 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Peru 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.06 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.32 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.12 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.45 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.05 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Russia 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.13 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.38 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.33 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.83 (05)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.38 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Spain 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.03 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.00 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.15 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.40 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.21 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Sweden 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.18 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.30 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -1.0 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.46 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.36 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Taiwan 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.09 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.16 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.25 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.11 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.77 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
USA 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.41 (05)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.37 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.47 (05)
Student:       OLRC= -.15 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.13 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Venezuela 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.02 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.03 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.38 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.14 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.12 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Argentina 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.11 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.09 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.07 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.50 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.26 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Australia 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.17 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.35 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.12 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.20 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= not reported
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Chile 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.43 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.07 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.02 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.38 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.58 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
China 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.15 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.20 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.25 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.01 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.22 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
Parttime:      OLRC= +.01 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.32 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.34 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.20 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -1.06(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Finland 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.27 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.03 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.11 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.44 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.40 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Japan 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.08 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.18 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.49 (05)
Student:       OLRC= -.33 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.09 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Nigeria 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.18 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.15 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.35 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.03 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.26 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Peru 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.15 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.17 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.14 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.00 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.08 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Russia 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.02 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.19 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.18 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.66 (05)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.46 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Spain 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.53 (05)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.08 (01)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.04 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.01 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= +.08 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Sweden 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.13 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.34 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.19 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= +.08 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.88 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Taiwan 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.05 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.01 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= +.33 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.31 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC=-1.22 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
USA 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.20 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= +.14 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.01 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.04 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.46 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Venezuela 
Parttime:      OLRC= -.19 (ns)
Selfemployed:  OLRC= -.19 (ns)
Housewife:     OLRC= -.15 (ns)
Student:       OLRC= -.20 (ns)
unemployed:    OLRC= -.67 (01)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-number of children
-marital status
-size of town
-education
-income.

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot 
be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The 
coefficients only denote relative differences in 
correlation and whether the correlations are 
negative or positive.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 514
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a part time
b self employed
c retired
d housewife
e unemployed
f student
g employed (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02 p < .472
part time             (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .029
self employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.02 p < .558
retired               (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
housewife             (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.21 p < .001
unemployed            (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .022
student               (vs employed)

Betas controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)

No difference if controlled for country variables 
instead of dummies.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 5
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a:  self-employed (reference group)
b:  other occupation
c:  housekeeping
d:  retired
e:  unemployed
f:  in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.10 p < .001
Other occupation (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .001
Housekeeping (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .001
Retired (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.31 p < .001
Unemployed (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.16 p < .001
In education (vs self employed)

b's controled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Similar results in analysis using:
- Probit Adjusted OLS (POLS)
- Instrumental Variable (VI)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyBlanchflower (2004): study ZZ Europe 1975 /1
TitleSelf-Employment: More May not be Better.
SourceNBER Working Paper 10286, 2004, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w10286
Public18+aged, general public, 17 European countries, 1975-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =480000

Correlate
Author's labelStudent
Page in Source 45-46
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1: Student
0: Not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-blgt=+.08
Lgt controls not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic category
Page in Source 89
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a. employee (reference)
b. self employed
c. otherwise active
d. benefit receiver
e. pension receiver
f. student
g. otherwise not active and people without income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+/-
a. 92%
b. 92%
c. 95%
d. 67%
e. 85%
f. 92%
g. 92%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+/-
a. 89%
b. 89%
c. 95%
d. 62%
e. 88%
f. 91%
g. 91%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.05
self employed
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.17
otherwise active
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.20
benefit receiver
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.06
pension receiver
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.44
student
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.29
otherwise not active and people without income
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=-.16
self employed
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.44
otherwise active
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=-.31
benefit receiver
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.21
pension receiver
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.65
student
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.35
otherwise not active and people without income
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-d
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- health
- scholing
- socio-economic category
- trust in parliament
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- having partner
- children in household
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment situation
Page in Source 33
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: Study/ school
b: No day job outside the house 
c: Retired
d: Working (reference category)
Observed distributionN = 1: 216 2: 273 3: 329 4: 1125

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
            Study  No day job Retired Working 
Very happy   25.5%    29%       24%     24,5%
Happy        69%      65%       65%     67,5%
Not happy    5,5%     15%       11%     8%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled  observed  controlled
Study      0,93  0,71       0,98       0,93
No job     2,67* 2,46*      1,19       1,14
Retired    1,95* 1,89*      1,18       1,12 
Working    1     1          1          1

Control variables are:
- gender
- education 
- family stage 
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = P<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~CBS (2004): study NL 2002
TitleWaardering Leefsituatie, 2002 . (Appreciation Living Condition 2002.)
SourceCentral Bureau for Statistics, 2004, The Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://statline.cbs.nl
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =37482

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 1
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: higher management
b: further white collar
c: small business
d: skilled blue collar
e: unskilled manual
f: unemployed
g: in education
h: unfit for labor
i: pre-retired, retired
j: homemaker (with children)
k: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
higher management    M = 4,20 CI95 [4,18-4,22]
further white collar M = 4,15 CI95 [4,13-4,17]
small business       M = 4,16 CI95 [4,12-4,20]
skilled manual       M = 4,15 CI95 [4,12-4,18]
unskilled manual     M = 4,01 CI95 [3,98-4,04] 
unemployed           M = 3,86 CI95 [3,97-3,94]
in education         M = 4,11 CI95 [4,08-4,14]
unfit for labor      M = 3,65 CI95 [3,59-3,71]
retired              M = 4,07 CI95 [4,02-4,13]
homemaker            M = 4,07 CI95 [4,02-4,12]
other                M = 3,95 CI95 [3,91-3,99]
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBMCT=
a,c,d>f,g,h.i.j>e>k>f>h
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bDMt=
higher management    M = 3,51 CI95 [3,49-3,54]
further white collar M = 3,44 CI95 [3,40-3,47]
small business       M = 3,43 CI95 [3,36-3,50]
skilled manual       M = 3,43 CI95 [3,38-3,47]
unskilled manual     M = 3,27 CI95 [3,38-3,47] 
unemployed           M = 2,83 CI95 [2,74-2,93]
in education         M = 3,44 CI95 [3,40-3,49]
unfit for labor      M = 2,66 CI95 [2,59-2,73]
retired              M = 3,50 CI95 [3,42-3,57]
homemaker            M = 3,28 CI95 [3,21-3,34]
other                M = 3,21 CI95 [3,16-3,26]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bBMCT= p < .05
a,i,g > b,d,e,h,j,f,k
a,b,c,d,g,i > e,k > f > h


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelLabor force status
Page in Source 42,48
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1. Employed:
   a: on contract
   b: own business
   c: free profession, self-employed
   d: volunteer
   e: unpaid work
2. Unemployed:
   a: looking for a job after lost job
   b: looking for a job first time
   c: student
   d: retired
   e: disabled
3. Other (not in labor force)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+-
1. Employed:
   a: on contract           M = 4,18
   b: own business          M = 4,04
   c: free profession       M = 4,09
   d: volunteer             M = 4,01
   e: unpaid work           M = 3,81
2. Unemployed:
   a: looking for a job     M = 4,07
   b: looking for first job M = 3,75
   c: student               M = 3,75
   d: retired               M = 4,04
   e: disabled              M = 4,04

3. Other                    M = 3,99
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.33
Employed on contract              (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.19
Own business                      (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.35
Free profession                   (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.82
Looking for a job: after lost job (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-1.0
Looking for a job: first time     (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.16
Student                           (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.45
keeping the house                 (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.43
Disabled                          (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.91
Unpaid work                       (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.36
Volunteer                         (vs Not)

OLRCs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
  - household size
  - income
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudySoons (2006): study NL 1987
TitleHet Geluk van de Happy Single. (The Happiness of the Happy Single).
SourceDemos, 2006, Vol. 10, 75 - 77
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 26, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1775

Correlate
Author's labelDaily activity
Page in Source 76
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a No daily occupation
b Full-time education
c Having a job
Remarks
Assessed at T1 + T2 (merged file)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=
No daily activity    M = 5,8
Full-time education  M = 6,9
Having a job         M = 6,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

Study~CBS (1984b): study NL 1979
TitleDe Leefsituatie van de Nederlandse Jeugd van 13-24 jaar in 1979. Deel 4.(Life Situation of the Dutch Youth of 13-24 in 1979, Vol. 4: An Analysis of Youth in One-Parent Families.)
SourceS.D.U./C.B.S. Publications, 1984, The Hague, Netherlands
PublicAdolescents, The Netherlands, 1979
Sample
Non-Response35%, of which: refusals 62%, no contact 27%, unable 8%
Respondents N =3113

Correlate
Author's labelDay time school
Page in Source 49
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Direct question: Are you going to daytime education? 
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.04 ns
Beta's controlled for:
-  broken home
- age
- education of head of household
- head of household employed.
O-HP-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelStudent
Page in Source 323,327
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
0: Non student
1: Student
Observed distribution1; T1: M=0,17; SD=0,37; T2: M=0,12; SD=0,32
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.46
T1:1995: student (vs non-student)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.02
T2:2000 student (vs non-student)

Beta's controlled for: 
- gender
- marital status
- income
- education level
- minority
- age
- retirement
- housewife
- employment
- self-employed
- health index

T1-T2 difference in Beta: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent occupation
Page in Source question 124
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
What is your occupational status?
a work as an employee on regular basis
b work regularly (temporaly) on contract basis
c have my own business
d self-employed, have my own farm
e serve in the army, police, work for the Ministry of 
Internal Affairs
f student
g retired
h housewife (including maternity leave cases)
i unemployed
j other
Observed distributionN = 1: 60,9% 2: 5,7% 3: 3,2% 4: 0,9% 5: 0,5% 6: 5,2% 7: 16,3% 8: 4% 9: 2,9% 10: 0,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
a: M = 2,52
b: M = 2,60
c: M = 3,02
d: M = 2,84
e: M = 2,80
f: M = 2,67
g: M = 2,34
h: M = 2,59
i: M = 2,30 
j: M = 2,67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Tick the option best fitting your condition:
a: Student
b: Employed
c: Unemployed
d: Housework
Observed distributiona: 23,9% b: 51,7% c: 10,7% d: 13,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .01
a: M= 7,45 SD= 1,96
b: M= 7,42 SD= 1,52
c: M: 6,55 SD= 1,85
d: M: 6,14 SD= 2,29
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBMCT= p < .05
1,2 > 4
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
a: M= 7,27 SD= 1,22
b: M= 7,56 SD= 1,32
c: M: 7,41 SD= 1,62
d: M: 7,14 SD= 1,72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyFrey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992
TitleMaximizing Happiness?
SourceGerman Economic Review, 2000, Vol. 1, 145 - 167
URLhttps://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/C_335_2000.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Switzerland, 1992
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 156
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
o Employed (reference)
1 a Unemployed
  b Self-employed
  c At home
  d School
  e Retired
  f Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.83 p < .01
Unemployed              (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
Self employed           (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.17 p < .01
At home                 (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02
At school               (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.12 p < .01
Retired                 (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.18 p < .01
Other                   (vs. employed)

Betas controlled for
- Income
- Education
- Demographic factors (gender, age, marital 
status)
- Institutional factor (direct democratic rights)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement status
Page in Source 546, 552
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1 self employed
0 not self employed
  a self employed (reference)
  b full time
  c part time
  d retired
  e housewife
  f students
  g unemployed
  h other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.08 ns
full time               (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.28 p < .05
part time               (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.14 ns
retired                 (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.30 p < .01
housewife               (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.20 p < .10
students                (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.41 p < .01
unemployed              (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.21 ns
other                   (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.05 ns
full time               (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.36 p < .01
part time               (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.17 ns
retired                 (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.39 p < .01
housewife               (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.26 p < .05
students                (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.13 ns
unemployed              (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.43 p < .05
other                   (vs. self employed)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Coefficients denote relative differences, 
e.g. greater difference in happiness between self 
employed and unemployed. Comparison is only 
possible across associations with the same 
happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on question:
which of these descriptions applies to what you were 
doing last week?
a.	 going to school or college full-time (including on 
vacation)
b.	 in paid employment or self-employment (reference)
c.	 on a Government scheme for employment training
d.	 doing unpaid work for a business that you own, or 
that a relative owns
e.	 waiting to take up paid work already obtained
f.	 looking for paid work or a Government training 
scheme
g. 	intending to look for work but prevented by 
temporary sickness or injury (sick or injured for 28 
days or less)
h.	 permanently unable to work because of long-term 
sickness or disability
i.	 retired from paid work
j.	 looking after the home or family
k. 	doing something else
l. labor force no answer
Remarks
1 Yes
0 No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.13 p < .01
Labor force no answer
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 p < .01
Involving in school
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.02 ns
Government scheme
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.17 p < .01
Unpaid work
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.12 ns
Waiting take up work
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.19 p < .01
Unemployed
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.55 p < .01
Temporary sick
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.55 p < .01
Long-term sick
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.03 ns
Retired
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.04 p < .01
Home worker
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.07 p < .01
Labor force other

B's controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyDerogatis & Rutigliano (1996): study US 1991
TitleDerogatis Affects Balance Scale: DABS.
SourceSpilker, B.;Ed.: "Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials, Second Edition", Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996, Philadelphia, USA, 169 - 177
PublicStudents and mental patients, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =338

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
1. mental patients
   a. outpatients, mainly sexual dysfunction complaints
   b. inpatients
0. normals (students)
Observed distributionN=338, 1a: 88, 1b: 50, 0: 200
Remarks
Selection method of respondents (normals) not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Bde-c-mq-n-5-aD%=-
                        Unhappy Moderate Happy
1. a.mental outpatients 18,2%   38,6%   43,2%  
   b.mental inpatients  56,0%   26,0%   18,0%
0. normals               2.5%   19,0%   78,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview
- employee/employer
- student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns       females: r= ns 
newly weds   males: r= ns       females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns       females: r= ns
preretired   males: r=-.39 (05) females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.18 ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.17 ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ab01a

StudyPishkin & Thorne (1973): study US 1968
TitleA Factorial Study of Existential State Reactions.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 29, 392 - 402
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(197310)29:4<392::AID-JCLP2270290403>3.0.CO;2-J
PublicDeviants and normals, USA, 196?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-ResponseNA
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelClinical groups
Page in Source 399
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ab01a
Operationalization
a: incarcerated felons, 
b: alcoholics, 
c: students of philosophy, 
d: unmarried mothers, 
e: psychology students, 
f: psychiatric patients.
Observed distributionN= a: 193, b: 89, c: 155, d:336, e: 159, f: 388

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eD%=
% happy
a. 81
b: 78
c: 31  (assumption by WDH team)
d: 85
e: 32
f: 30
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eBMCT=
f,c,e < a,b,d
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aD%=
% satisfied
a. 47
b: 57
c: 68
d: 71
e: 67
f: 33
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aBMCT=
f,a < b,c,d,e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Absenteeism
Subject code: S01ab01b

StudyVanVaalen (2010): study NL 2009
TitleGeluk op School. (Happiness at School).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vanvaalen_m_2010.pdf
PublicSchoolchildren aged 9-12, the Netherlands, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =718

Correlate
Author's labelAbsenteeism in school
Our classificationAbsenteeism, code S01ab01b
Operationalization
1 < 10 children absent per year
2 > More then 10 children absent per year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aD%=+
% Happy 
1           81 %
2           83 %
Difference  +2 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Absenteeism
Subject code: S01ab01b

StudyTyerman (1958): study GB 1946
TitleA Research into Truancy.
SourceBritish Journal of Educational Psychology, 1958, Vol. 28, 217 - 225
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1958.tb01451.x/abstract
Public10-16 aged truants and controls, Wales, UK, 1946-52
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelTruance (vs not)
Page in Source 223
Our classificationAbsenteeism, code S01ab01b
Operationalization
1 Truants: children brought to court for absenteeism
0 Non-truants: control group matched for age, sexe and 
township

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-rdv-?-0-ar=-.48
All (N = 40)
A-AOL-g-rdv-?-0-ar=-.42
Persistent truants only (N = 27)
(15 or more cases of absenteeism)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Absenteeism
Subject code: S01ab01b

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study US 2002
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
PublicStudents, University of Illinois, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-ResponseNot reported.
Respondents N =193

Correlate
Author's labelMissed class
Page in Source 352
Our classificationAbsenteeism, code S01ab01b
Operationalization
Missed class is the average number of classes missed on 
class days.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aDM=+.
Missed classes among:
- very happy               0.4  (N=25)
- happy                    0.3  (N=42)
             Difference   +0.1

- moderately happy         0.5  (N=75)
- slightly happy           0.4  (N=43)
- unhappy                  0.8  (N=8)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=-.30 p < .001
Negative linear relation with happiness, but the 
very happy miss more classes than the happy.


Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Absenteeism
Subject code: S01ab01b

StudyBiersner et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleMood Scales as Predictors of Discharge and Sick Call Visits during Basic Military Training.
SourceMilitary Medecine, 1976, Vol. 141, 859 - 861
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1220

Correlate
Author's labelSick call visits
Page in Source 860
Our classificationAbsenteeism, code S01ab01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
Sample A, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.12 p < .01
Sample A, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.13 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.12 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta's controled for
- activity
- anger
- depression
- fear
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-a
The total sample was split in subsamples A 
(validation) and B (crossvalidation) equaled for 
discharge rates and sick call.

First assessment at first day of training, second 
assessment 3 days later.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extra-curricular activity
Subject code: S01ab01c

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of extra-curricular activities taken part in
Page in Source 108/318
Our classificationExtra-curricular activity, code S01ab01c
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question 0 / 1-2 / 3+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.16
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .35 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .10 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extra-curricular activity
Subject code: S01ab01c

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on extra-curricular activities
Page in Source 108/314
Our classificationExtra-curricular activity, code S01ab01c
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question: 0 / 1-4 / 5 hours or more 
in a average week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.14
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .09 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extra-curricular activity
Subject code: S01ab01c

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in extracurricular activities
Page in Source 108/124 -
Our classificationExtra-curricular activity, code S01ab01c
Operationalization
2-item index of open-ended questions on number of 
extracurricular activities taken part in, and number of 
hours spent on these activities in an average week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.24
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.19
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.21
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.21
- sensitivity to failure            : Gs = +.24
- educational level of mother       : Gs = +.22
- school social class               : Gs = +.23
- tending to be a lonely person, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.19
- having faith in people, and having
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.17
- having faith in people, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.18
- educational level of mother, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.19
- educational level of mother, and
  tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.19
- educational level of mother, and
  having faith in people            : Gs = +.18
- school social class, and having 
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.19
- school social class, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.20
- school social class, and having
  faith in people                   : Gs = +.21
- school social class, and educa-
  tional level of mother            : Gs = +.21

Medium and high stability of self-
image                               : G  = +.27
Low stability of self-image         : G  = +.21

Spent no time on working for pay
spend                               : G  = +.27
Spent some hours on work for pay    : G  = +.22

Lower class                         : G  = -.13
Middle and upper class              : G  = +.21

Unaffected by school social class

  
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.10
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.10
- sensitivity to failure            : Gs = +.14
- educational level of mother       : Gs = +.12
- school social class               : Gs = +.12
- self-esteem                       : Gs = +.12
- tending to be a lonely person, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- having faith in people, and having
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.04
- having faith in people, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.06
- educational level of mother, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- educational level of mother, and
  tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.08
- educational level of mother, and
  having faith in people            : Gs = +.09
- school social class, and having
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.06
- school social class, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.08
- school social class, and having
  faith in people                   : Gs = +.08
- school social class, and educa-
  tional level of mother            : Gs = +.11

Unaffected by stability of self-image
Unaffected by hours spent on work for pay
Positive in middle and upper class  : G  = +.14
After control for                   : Gs = +.10
Negative in lower class             : G  = -.29
After control for                   : Gs = -.24
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .11 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .07 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelType of school
Page in Source 6,17,18
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
type of general school a young person has completed, 
visits currently or plans to visit and complete in the 
future.
A Hauptschule (9 or 10 years of schooling)
B Realschule (10 years of schooling)
C Gymnasium (13/12 years of schooling)(reference group)
D No degree
Observed distribution Mean SD A 0,190 (19%) 0.393 B 0.368 (37%) 0.482 C 0.340 (34%) 0.474 D 10 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
A  Hauptschule
probit result= 0,088
CI95=[ -0,25  0,42]

B Realschule
probit result= 0,269
CI95=[ -0,02 0,56]

C Gymnasium
probit result= 0,193
CI95=[ -0,12  0,50]

also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelGood student
Page in Source 6,17,18
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Good student: the student has reached a level of 
1(excellent) or 2( very good) (on a scale from 1 to 6, 
where 4 is the passing mark), in at least two subjects
Observed distributionM =0,318 (32%), SD = 0,466

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+ p < .01
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,308 CI95=[ 0,12  0,49]


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelRepeat of grade
Page in Source 6,17,18
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
whether or not a student had to repeat a grade
Observed distributionM =0,189 (19%), SD = 0,391

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result=-0,023
CI95=[ -0.25  0,20]


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievement
Page in Source 186
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
In your opinion, what does your class teacher(s) think 
about
your school performance compared to your classmates?
4 very good
3 good
2 average
1 below average.
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N = 50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ers=+
Girls: rs = +.23
Boys : rs = +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelSchool
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
A Academic Achievement:
 1=Very Good
 2=Good
 3=Average
 4=Below Average
B Enjoying School as assessed by self-report:
 1=Like A Lot
 2=Like A Bit
 3=Not Very Much
 4=Not At All

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.11 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelLearning difficulties
Page in Source 127
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Text not reported.
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 13%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.14 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.01 p < .94
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelExamination ability
Page in Source 26
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 3 terminal 
examinations.
The result of the first and the third were pooled to 
give one set of values, and the second furnished the 
other.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study US 2002
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
PublicStudents, University of Illinois, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-ResponseNot reported.
Respondents N =193

Correlate
Author's labelGrade point average
Page in Source 352
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Grade point average, 5 point scale; operationalization 
not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aDM=-
Grade point average among:
- very happy               3.8  (N=25)
- happy                    4.1  (N=42)
              Difference   -.3

- moderately happy         3.9  (N=75)
- slightly happy           3.9  (N=43)
- unhappy                  3.2  (N=8)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=+.32 p < .001
Positive linear relation; but the very happy 
perform less well than the happy.

Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyAbbey et al. (1983): study US Chicago 1990
TitleHandling the Stress of Looking for a Job in Law School: The Relationships between Intrinsic Motivation, Internal Attributions,Relations with Others and Happiness.
SourceBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 1983, Vol. 4, 263 - 278
PublicLaw school students, Chicago, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived class rank
Page in Source 272
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Self-perceived rank in their class
Observed distribution(65% of the interviewed students reported being in the top 25% o their class, 27% reported being in the 25-50% range, while only 8% reported being in the lower 50% of their class.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aDM=+ p < .05
1: High  M= 4,20
0: Lower M= 3,44
difference +0,76


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyAbbey et al. (1983): study US Chicago 1990
TitleHandling the Stress of Looking for a Job in Law School: The Relationships between Intrinsic Motivation, Internal Attributions,Relations with Others and Happiness.
SourceBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 1983, Vol. 4, 263 - 278
PublicLaw school students, Chicago, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelPublications
Page in Source 272
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Has written a legal publication.
1: yes
0: no
Observed distribution1: 45%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aDM=+ p < .01
1: With publications: M=4.37
2: Without:           M=3,49
difference             +0,88


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudySmith (1982): study US 1972
TitleCollege Dropouts: An Analysis of the Psychological Well-Being of Various Educational Groups.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1982, Vol. 45, 50 - 53
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11997

Correlate
Author's labelSchool drop out
Page in Source 52
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
College Dropouts
0 Associate or bachelor's degree
1 Some college but no degree

Graduate School Dropouts
0 Graduate degree
1 Bachelor's with 5 or more years of   
  college but no graduate degree

Remarks
% happy:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.05 p < .01
degree:    37,9
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.03 ns
no degree: 34,9
       
         
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.08 p < .01
degree:    40,2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.04 ns
no degree: 35,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyBiersner et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleMood Scales as Predictors of Discharge and Sick Call Visits during Basic Military Training.
SourceMilitary Medecine, 1976, Vol. 141, 859 - 861
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1220

Correlate
Author's labelDischarge after basic training
Page in Source 860
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Registery data 
1 dismissed
0 stayed
Observed distribution1: 6%
Remarks
Reasons for dismissal: disciplinary action, poor 
academic performance, problems with mental or physical 
health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
Sample A, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.11 p < .05
Sample A, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.18 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.16 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta's controled for
- activity
- anger
- depression
- fear
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-a
The total sample was split in subsamples A 
(validation) and B (crossvalidation) equaled for 
discharge rates and sick call.

First assessment at first day of training, second 
assessment 3 days later.


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyRahe et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleSerum Uric Acids, Cholesterol and Psychological Moods throughout Stressfull Naval Training.
SourceNaval Health Research Center, Report nr. 76-18, 1976, San Diego, California, USA
PublicNavy recruits, followed 4 weeks, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelSucces in military training
Page in Source 883, 884, 886
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
51 volunteers had completed 5 weeks of basic recruit 
training and spent next 4 weeks in special 
pre-Underwater Demolition Team training program; on the 
basis of test results at the end of week 4 of the 
training men were divided into pass and fail groups. 66 
volunteers had also completed 5 weeks of basic recruit 
training and spent next 4 weeks in the Recruit Training 
Center choir program (control group).

Groups:
a. Pass
b. Fail
c. Control
Observed distributionN= a:27, b:24, c:66
Remarks
Underwater demolition team (UDT) training is a 4 month 
program with attrition rate of trainees between 30% and 
70%. A pre-UDT program was designed to select and 
pretrain volunteer naval recruits during their last 4 
weeks of a 9 week basic recruit training program.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mqr-v-3-aDM=-
a: M = 15,1
b: M = 13,2
c: M = 12,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyRyman et al. (1974): study US 1970
TitleReliabilities and Validities of the Mood Questionnaire.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1974, Vol. 35, 479 - 484
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1140

Correlate
Author's labelAquanaut performance
Page in Source 481
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.74 p < .01
Negative correlation!


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelRepeated grade
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: "Where
you ever kept back a grade?" 
1 = yes, 0 = no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.07  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAverage grade
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Respondent reported his average grade for all his 
courses for the year at T1, T2 and T3:
10 = failure, E or F (59% or less);
22 = D- (60 - 62); 25 = D  (63 - 66);
28 = D+ (67 - 69); 32 = C- (70 - 72);
35 = C  (73 - 76); 38 = C+ (77 - 79);
42 = B- (80 - 82); 45 = B  (83 - 86);
48 = B+ (87 - 89); 52 = A- (90 - 92);
55 = A  (93 - 96); 58 = A+ (97 - 100)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
             Average grade
Happiness    T1           T2            T3
T1       +.11 (01)    +.12 (001)    +.07 (ns)
T2       +.09 (05)    +.13 (001)    +.03 (ns)
T3       +.06 (ns)    +.08 (05)     +.02 (ns)
T4       +.02 (ns)    +.06 (ns)     +.02 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-percieved school ability
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Index at T1 and T2 of three items in which respondent 
rates himself in comparison to others his age on 
overall school ability, reading ability, and 
intelligence. Scale: 1 = far below average to 6 = far 
above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
                  Self-percieved school ability
Happiness            T1             T2
T1            tau = +.13 (001)     +.07 (ns)
T2            tau = +.11 (01)      +.11 (01)
T3            tau = +.08 (05)      +.05 (ns)
T4            tau = +.05 (ns)      +.05 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievement(grades
Page in Source 247
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Question on average grade in past year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.10 p < . 01
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived school ability
Page in Source 242
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on self-perceived 
school ability, intelli- gence, and reading ability 
compared with other boys of the same age.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < . 01
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyPorter (1967): study US 1965
TitleSex-Role Concepts, Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being and to Future Plans of Female College Seniors.
SourceDissertation, University of Rochester, 1967, USA
PublicFemale students college seniors, followed two months, Rochester, USA, 1965-66
Sample
Non-Response8%; unaffected by place of residence
Respondents N =162

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic status
Page in Source 96
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Cumulative grade point average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
T2 happiness by T2 grade


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic status_A
Page in Source 67
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Cumulative grade point average (GPA).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Posistive among males only.
Significant (05) among sophomore males only.
Unaffected by stage of study among females.


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic status (discrepancy betweenaptitude and achiev.
Page in Source 69
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Achievement index computed by subtracting the 
SAT-Verbal score from that associated with the 
cumulative grade point average.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aD%=+ ns
Computed for freshmen and juniors only (N=274).


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelCollege performance
Page in Source 123
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Student's yearly grade average.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.43 p < . 10
Freshman year   : r = +.50 (05)
Sophomore year  : r = +.53 (05)
Junior year     : r = +.15 (ns)
Senior year     : r = +.31 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-success
Subject code: S01ab02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic performancerelative to poten- tial abilities
Page in Source 123
Our classificationSchool-success, code S01ab02
Operationalization
Discrepancy between predicted rank list (PRL) before 
college entrance and ac- tual grade average for the 
four years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.34 ns
The PRL = expected college grade average on the 
basis of the student's previous secondary school
record, level of preparation, and aptitude tests.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment U-GIDS (Vertical integration)
Page in Source 206, 208
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Self-report on 8 items such as:
- 'I know for sure I was right to choose the school I 
attend' and 
- 'The school I attend gives me self-confidence'
Rated on a 5-point numerical scale ranging from 
1=completely untrue to 5=completely true
Observed distribution1: N=79; 2: N=95; 3:N=95
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=0,80
Remarks
U-GIDS (Utrecht Groningen Identity Development 
Scale)and gives a specific operationalization of the 
status variables themselves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.36 p < .001
Early adolescents, age 12-16 low school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.31 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-15 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.15 ns
Late adolescents, age 17-21 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- vertical integration concerning school
- exploration concerning school


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment U-GIDS (Horizontal integration)
Page in Source 206, 208
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Self-report on 8 items such as:
- 'I know for sure I was right to choose the school I 
attend' and 
- 'The school I attend gives me self-confidence'
Rated on a 5-point numerical scale ranging from 
1=completely untrue to 5=completely true
Observed distribution1: N=79; 2: N=95; 3:N=95
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=0,80
Remarks
U-GIDS (Utrecht Groningen Identity Development 
Scale)and gives a specific operationalization of the 
status variables themselves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.36 p < .001
Early adolescents, age 12-16 loz school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.27 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-15 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.15 ns
Late adolescents, age 17-21 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.04 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- horizontal integration concerning school
- exploration concerning school


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon usual studies
Page in Source 26
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon usual studies
Page in Source 27
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelSchool-related activity
Page in Source 193
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
% time doing school related activities when beeped
Remarks
Participants were beeped at random moments eight times 
a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each 
beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one 
of which happiness)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=
Beta controlled for;
- age
- gender
- SES
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=+2.3 p < .024

Average (trait) happiness is higher among 
teenagers who study more, though happiness of the 
moment (state) yends to be lower while studying 
than during most other activities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelEducation related activities
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "education related 
activities".

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.04 ns
PARTICIPATION:  working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.07 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.12 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.11 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.12 ns
                retired females
ß controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of hours of homework
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1, T2 and T3: "About how 
many hours do you spend in an average week on all your 
homework including both in and out of school?"
1 =       no hours; 2 =  1 to  4 hours;
3 =  5 to  9 hours; 4 = 10 to 14 hours;
5 = 15 to 19 hours; 6 = 20 to 24 hours;
7 = 25 or more hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
            Number of hours of homework
Happiness   T1            T2            T3
T1      +.07 (ns)     +.05 (ns)     +.07 (ns)
T2      +.03 (ns)     +.06 (ns)     +.06 (ns)
T3      +.02 (ns)     +.01 (ns)     +.10 (01)
T4      +.02 (ns)     -.00 (ns)     +.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelDoes best work in school
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1 and T2: "How close do you 
come to doing the best work you are able to do on 
school?"  1 = not at all close;
2 = not very close; 3 = somewhat close; 4 = quite 
close; 5 = very close

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
                 Does best work in school
Happiness           T1            T2
T1           tau = +.19 (001)    +.11 (01)
T2           tau = +.15 (001)    +.16 (001)
T3           tau = +.11 (01)     +.10 (01)
T4           tau = +.08 (05)     +.07 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in school-work
Subject code: S01ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelWorks harder than average
Our classificationInvolvement in school-work, code S01ab03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1 and T2: "How hard do you 
think you work in school compared to the other students 
in your class?" 1 = much less hard;
2 = less hard;  3 = about average: 
4 = harder;     5 = much harder

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
                 Works harder than average
Happiness           T1             T2
T1           tau = +.14 (001)     +.10 (01)
T2           tau = +.12 (001)     +.10 (01)
T3           tau = +.10 (01)      +.06 (ns)
T4           tau = +.06 (ns)      +.03 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelRebellious behaviors in school
Page in Source 243
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
13-item index of closed question on fighting with other 
students, not working hard, skipping classes, copying 
someone else's assignments.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.26 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelDelinquent behavior in school
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
At T1, T2 and T3: a mean of seven items measuring the 
amount of school-oriented delinquent behaviour. 
Included are questions on how often respondent has been 
suspended, damaged school property, and gotten into a 
serious fight at school. Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = 
five or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
              Delinquent behavior in school
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1     tau = -.19 (001)  -.14 (001)  -.12 (001)
T2     tau = -.10 (01)   -.15 (001)  -.11 (01)
T3     tau = -.07 (ns)   -.10 (01)   -.08 (05)
T4     tau = -.06 (ns)   -.04 (ns)   -.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSerious delinquent behaviors
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
A mean of 10 items asking the respondent how often he 
had done such things as 'set fire to someone else's 
property on purpose', 'hurt someone badly enough to 
need bandages or a doctor', 'taken something not 
belonging to you worth over $50' etc. Scale: 1.00 = 
never to 5.00 = five or more times.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Serious delinquent behavior
         T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T1     -.18    -.14    -.12    -.04 ns -.10
T2     -.09    -.11    -.09    -.03 ns -.07 ns T3  
   -.04 ns -.07 ns -.11    -.05 ns -.04 ns
T4     -.03 ns -.02 ns -.05 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless otherwise indicated
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTheft and vandalism
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
A mean of nine items which measure the number of times 
respondent has commited acts of theft or vandalism. 
Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = five or more times. 
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Theft and vandalism
       T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T1    -.19    -.14    -.13    -.03 ns -.11
T2    -.10    -.13    -.10    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3    -.06 ns -.09    -.11    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4    -.04 ns -.04 ns -.06 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless indicated otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelRebellious behavior in school
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
T1 and T2: a mean of 13 items in which respondent 
indicated how often he did such things as "argue with 
your teachers," "goof-off in class," "skip classes," 
"cheat on tests," etc. 
Scale: 1 = never to 5 = almost always

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
               Rebellious behavior in school
Happines           T1               T2
T1             tau = -.29         -.17 
T2             tau = -.25         -.25 
T3             tau = -.17         -.19 
T4             tau = -.18         -.16 
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelDelinquent behaviors
Page in Source 247
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
26-item index of closed questions on running away from 
home, hitting parents, stealing, fighting, drinking 
alcohol without permission, etc. (adapted from Gold, 
1966).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.21 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ab04

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelImpulse to aggression
Page in Source 122
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ab04
Operationalization
4-item index of closed questions on feelings of 
swearing, losing temper at teachers, being rude to 
teachers, picking a fight with parents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.33 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social characteristics of school
Subject code: S01ac01

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelPublic or private school
Page in Source 139
Our classificationSocial characteristics of school, code S01ac01
Operationalization
0  private religious school
1  public school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aDM=+
Child's rating of own happiness
                 Girls     Boys
- Private school M = 5,89  M = 5,44
- Public school  M = 5,94  M = 5,77
  Difference        +0,05     +0,33
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aDM=-
Parents rating of child's happiness
                 Girls      Boys
- Private school M = 5,82   M = 5,44
- Public school  M = 5,71   M = 5,81
  Difference        -0,11      +0,37
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=+.04 ns

Beta's controlled for childs:
- gender
- temperatement
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental 
  - spiritual practice/belief


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social characteristics of school
Subject code: S01ac01

StudyVanVaalen (2010): study NL 2009
TitleGeluk op School. (Happiness at School).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vanvaalen_m_2010.pdf
PublicSchoolchildren aged 9-12, the Netherlands, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =718

Correlate
Author's labelReligious signature of the school
Page in Source 23,42
Our classificationSocial characteristics of school, code S01ac01
Operationalization
0 No religious signature
1 religious signature

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aD%=-
% happy 
0          84 %
1          80 %
difference -4 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic level of school
Subject code: S01ac01a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSchool mean socioeconomic level
Our classificationSocio-economic level of school, code S01ac01a
Operationalization
High school's mean socioeconomic level computed from 
the combined S.E.L.'s of all the T1 respondents at that 
school. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.06 (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.07 (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.05 (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic level of school
Subject code: S01ac01a

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSchool social class
Page in Source 113/346
Our classificationSocio-economic level of school, code S01ac01a
Operationalization
Score on the basis of the percentage of juniors and 
seniors  of 'upper class' status.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
After control for participation in extra-curricu- 
lar activities          : Gs = +.12

Middle and upper class  : G  = +.11
Lower class             : G  = +.05
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.07
After control for participation in extracurricu-
lar activities: G = +.04.
Unaffected by social class.
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .04 p < . 01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .08 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic homogeneity of school
Subject code: S01ac01b

StudyVanVaalen (2010): study NL 2009
TitleGeluk op School. (Happiness at School).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vanvaalen_m_2010.pdf
PublicSchoolchildren aged 9-12, the Netherlands, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =718

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic homogeneity in school
Page in Source 41
Our classificationEthnic homogeneity of school, code S01ac01b
Operationalization
1 0-65 % non-western children
2 66-100 % non western children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aD%=
% Happy
1           82 %
2           82 %
difference : 0 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic homogeneity of school
Subject code: S01ac01b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAttendance of black segregated school
Our classificationEthnic homogeneity of school, code S01ac01b
Operationalization
Whether respondent did attend Black segregated (less 
than 10% white) school at T1, assesed separately for 
northern and southern states.  0 = no, 1 = yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
- Southern states:
T1 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
- Northern states:
T1 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic homogeneity of school
Subject code: S01ac01b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAttendance of integrated school
Our classificationEthnic homogeneity of school, code S01ac01b
Operationalization
Whether respondent did attend integrated (more than 10% 
white) HS
at T1; 0 = no, 1 = yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social climate in school
Subject code: S01ac02

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2015a): study ZZ Developed nations 2000
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2015, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdults, developed nations, 2000
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelParticipatory teaching
Page in Source 239
Our classificationSocial climate in school, code S01ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of teachers and pupils in secondary 
education on a questionnaire about practices in class
a: Vertical teaching (lecturing and note-taking)
b: Horizontal teaching (working in groups and 
cooperation among students

Participatory teaching = b-a
Remarks
Data obtained from two studies, the Civic Education 
Study (CES) and the Trends in International Mathematics 
and Science Study (TIMSS), both  by the International 
Association for the Evaluation of Educational 
Achievement (IEA).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.60
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE participatory 
teaching in 27 developed nations. All data is 
used.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.56
Only TIMSS data is used.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.55
Only CES data is used.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE horizontal teaching 
in 27 developed nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=-
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE vertical teaching in 
27 developed nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.32
rpc controled for social freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.32
rpc controled for psychological freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.48
rpc controled for potential freedom.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social climate in school
Subject code: S01ac02

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2015a): study ZZ Developed nations 1997
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2015, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdolescents, 22 developed countries, 1997-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102300

Correlate
Author's labelParticipatory teaching
Page in Source 241
Our classificationSocial climate in school, code S01ac02
Operationalization
a: Vertical teaching (lecturing and note-taking)
b: Horizontal teaching (working in groups and 
cooperation among students

Participatory teaching = b-a
Remarks
Data obtained from two studies, the Civic Education 
Study (CES) and the Trends in International Mathematics 
and Science Study (TIMSS), both  by the International 
Association for the Evaluation of Educational 
Achievement (IEA).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.2
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE participatory 
teaching in 22 developed nations.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.03
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE horizontal teaching 
in 22 developed nations.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.15
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE vertical teaching in 
22 developed nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social climate in school
Subject code: S01ac02

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelClassmates
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationSocial climate in school, code S01ac02
Operationalization
a: students being together
b: kind and helpful
c: accept me

1:strongly agree
2:agree
3:neither/nor
4:disagree
5:strongly disagree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.13 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intellectual level of school
Subject code: S01ac03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelattending school or university
Page in Source 94
Our classificationIntellectual level of school, code S01ac03
Operationalization
1: no post-secondary education (less than 
   13 years of schooling)
2: short post-secondary education (13-14  
   years)
3: intermediate post-secondary education 
   (15-16 years)
4: long post-secondary education(more than 
   16 years)
Observed distributionN: all:431, %: 1:23,4, 2:35,5, 3:19,7, 4:21,3
Remarks
Adult students only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.05 p < .3173
1: Mt=7.48
2: Mt=8.01
3: Mt=7.59
4: Mt=7.34
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.03 p < .2792
1: Mt=7.23
2: Mt=7.76
3: Mt=7.39
4: Mt=7.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.03 p < .4958
1: Mt=6.73
2: Mt=7.30
3: Mt=6.94
4: Mt=6.68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intellectual level of school
Subject code: S01ac03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelattending school or university
Page in Source 90
Our classificationIntellectual level of school, code S01ac03
Operationalization
1: no post-secondary education (less than 
   13 years of schooling)
2: short post-secondary education (13-14  
   years)
3: intermediate post-secondary education 
   (15-16 years)
4: long post-secondary education(more than 
   16 years)
Observed distributionN: all:231, 1:138, 2:34, 3:35, 4:24,
Remarks
Students only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.02 ns
 1: Mt=7.90
 2: Mt=7.86
 3: Mt=7.43
 4: Mt=8.13 
All Mt=7.85
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-03 ns
 1: Mt=7.39
 2: Mt=7.58
 3: Mt=6.71
 4: Mt=7.60
All Mt=7.34
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.04 ns
 1: Mt=6.90
 2: Mt=7.35
 3: Mt=6.64
 4: Mt=7.40
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intellectual level of school
Subject code: S01ac03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSchool mean intelligence scores
Our classificationIntellectual level of school, code S01ac03
Operationalization
High school's mean  GATB-J score, Gates score and Quick 
Test score, computed from the scores of all the T1 
respondents at that school. See also 
C 1.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
                  Quick     GATB-J    Gates
Happiness         Test                test
T1          tau = -.04      -.04      -.04
T2          tau = -.01      -.04      -.03
T3          tau = -.03      -.03      -.02
T4          tau = -.01      -.00      -.02
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelSchooltype
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
Kind of school the child attends
1: non-public school
2: public school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=-
% very happy
1: non-public school  30%
2: public school      28%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .891
Girls attending public school
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.03 p < .403
Boys attending public school
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.06 p < .247
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N=1192, boys N=1178)

girls attending public school
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.07 p < .156
boys attending public school 

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeltype of education
Page in Source 96
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
Single question:
"If you are attending school or university at present, 
indicate which type of education"
a: non-vocational
b: pedagogical (child-care, teaching)
c: the humanities
d: administration, clerical, commerce
e: the sciences
f: industrial and the trades
g: agricultural, fisheries, food
h: transportation
i: health
j: public safety etc
Observed distributionN: all:473, %: a:15,6, b:13,5, c:13,1, d:34,5, e:4,0, f:7,0, g:3,2, h:0,4, i:8,0, j:0,6
Remarks
Adult students only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.30
b: Mt=7.39
c: Mt=7.66
d: Mt=7.81
e: Mt=6.86
f: Mt=7.73
g: Mt=7.50
h: Mt=7.50
i: Mt=8.09
j: Mt=9.16
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=6.99
b: Mt=7.35
c: Mt=7.18
d: Mt=7.58
e: Mt=6.45
f: Mt=7.50
g: Mt=6.84
h: Mt=8.75
i: Mt=7.96
j: Mt=9.16
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=6.43
b: Mt=6.73
c: Mt=7.05
d: Mt=7.03
e: Mt=6.84
f: Mt=6.59
g: Mt=7.66
h: Mt=7.50
i: Mt=7.50
j: Mt=8.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltype of education
Page in Source 92
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
Single question:
"If you are attending school or university at present, 
indicate which type of education"
a: non-vocational
b: pedagogical (child-care, teaching)
c: the humanities
d: administration, clerical, commerce
e: the sciences
f: industrial and the trades
g: agricultural, fisheries, food
h: transportation
i: health
j: public safety etc
Observed distributionN: a:85, b:17, c:14, d:67, e:2, f:25, g:10, h:4, i:14, j:3
Remarks
Students only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
a: non-vocational                     Mt=8.03
b: pedagogical (child-care, teaching) Mt=7.65
c: the humanities                     Mt=8.75
d: administration, clerical, commerce Mt=7.76
e: the sciences                       Mt=8.75 
f: industrial and the trades          Mt=7.80
g: agricultural, fisheries, food      Mt=7.00
h: transportation                     Mt=7.50
i: health                             Mt=7.14
j: public safety etc                  Mt=8.34
All                                   Mt=7.85
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
a: non-vocational                     Mt=7.68
b: pedagogical (child-care, teaching) Mt=7.35 
c: the humanities                     Mt=7.86 
d: administration, clerical, commerce Mt=7.01 
e: the sciences                       Mt=8.75
f: industrial and the trades          Mt=7.30
g: agricultural, fisheries, food      Mt=7.00 
h: transportation                     Mt=7.50 
i: health                             Mt=6.96 
j: public safety etc                  Mt=7.50
All                                   Mt=7.38
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
a: non-vocational                     Mt=7.24
b: pedagogical (child-care, teaching) Mt=6.91
c: the humanities                     Mt=7.50
d: administration, clerical, commerce Mt=6.94
e: the sciences                       Mt=8.75 
f: industrial and the trades          Mt=7.00
g: agricultural, fisheries, food      Mt=6.50 
h: transportation                     Mt=5.00 
i: health                             Mt=6.25
j: public safety etc                  Mt=6.66
All                                   Mt=7.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelType of school
Page in Source 6,17,18
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
type of general school a young person has completed, 
visits currently or plans to visit and complete in the 
future.
A Hauptschule (9 or 10 years of schooling)
B Realschule (10 years of schooling)
C Gymnasium (13/12 years of schooling)(reference group)
D No degree
Observed distribution Mean SD A 0,190 (19%) 0.393 B 0.368 (37%) 0.482 C 0.340 (34%) 0.474 D 10 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
A  Hauptschule
probit result= 0,088
CI95=[ -0,25  0,42]

B Realschule
probit result= 0,269
CI95=[ -0,02 0,56]

C Gymnasium
probit result= 0,193
CI95=[ -0,12  0,50]

also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyVanVaalen (2010): study NL 2009
TitleGeluk op School. (Happiness at School).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vanvaalen_m_2010.pdf
PublicSchoolchildren aged 9-12, the Netherlands, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =718

Correlate
Author's labelSchool type
Page in Source 23,41
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
A Renewed education (Dalton, Montessori etc)
B Traditional

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aD%=+
% Happy children
A         83 %
B         81 %
difference 2 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 12
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
1 VMBO (Lower and Middle Secundary Education)
2 HAVO (Higher Secundary Education, aimed at 
professional education)
3 VWO (Higher Secondary Education, aimed at 
universitary study)
4 MBO (Middle Tertiary Education) 
5 HBO  (Higher Tertiary Education)
6 University
Observed distributionN=1:6412; 2:1907; 3: 2156; 4: 1658; 5: 291; 6: 219

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aD%=+
% unhappy (score 1-5, on 1-10 scale)
VMBO       8,3%
HAVO       7,4%
VWO        4,4%

No difference in average happiness, but some 
difference in % unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyTerBogt et al. (2003): study NL 2001
TitlePsychische Gezondheid, Risicogedrag en Welbevinden van Nederlandse Scholieren. ( Psychlogical Health, Risk Behavior and Well-Being of Dutch Adolescents).
SourceResearch Report Trimbos Institute, University of Utrecht, 2003, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/terbogt_t_2003.pdf
Public11-15 aged schoolchildren, the Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7556

Correlate
Author's labelSchool level
Page in Source 39
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
1) Vbo/Mavo(lower secundary school(vbo))
2) Mavo/Havo(middle secundary education (mavo)
3) Havo/Vwo(
higher secundary education (havo)
4) Vwo(pre-university education (vwo)
Observed distribution1: 24%, 2: 34,8 %, 3: 23,8 %, 4: 16,6 %
Remarks
Secondary school pupils only. N = 5730

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOR=0,71
Vbo
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOR=0,71
Mavo
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOR=0,90
Havo
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOR=1
Vwo

OR is chance of being happy (score 7 or higher)
OR controlled for :
- age
- gender
- ethnicity


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyTerBogt et al. (2003): study NL 2001
TitlePsychische Gezondheid, Risicogedrag en Welbevinden van Nederlandse Scholieren. ( Psychlogical Health, Risk Behavior and Well-Being of Dutch Adolescents).
SourceResearch Report Trimbos Institute, University of Utrecht, 2003, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/terbogt_t_2003.pdf
Public11-15 aged schoolchildren, the Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7556

Correlate
Author's labelSchool type
Page in Source 45
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
a Primary school
b Secondary school
Observed distributiona) 75 primary schools, b) 66 secondary schools N = 7556

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM= p < .05
Primary schools     M = 8,6
Secondary schools   M = 7,9
Difference             -0,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

Study~CBS (1984b): study NL 1979
TitleDe Leefsituatie van de Nederlandse Jeugd van 13-24 jaar in 1979. Deel 4.(Life Situation of the Dutch Youth of 13-24 in 1979, Vol. 4: An Analysis of Youth in One-Parent Families.)
SourceS.D.U./C.B.S. Publications, 1984, The Hague, Netherlands
PublicAdolescents, The Netherlands, 1979
Sample
Non-Response35%, of which: refusals 62%, no contact 27%, unable 8%
Respondents N =3113

Correlate
Author's labelDay time school
Page in Source 49
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
Direct question: Are you going to daytime education? 
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.04 ns
Beta's controlled for:
-  broken home
- age
- education of head of household
- head of household employed.
O-HP-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
A: In education
   2:Tertiary education
   1:Primary education or less

B: Reason for not contiuing education:
   a: No money for fees for education
   b: Education useless
   c: Failed examinations
   d: Cites problem with schooling
   e: Lack of books
   f: School fees too high
   g: Poor facilities
Observed distributiona:7%, b:44%, c:19%, d:4%, e:1%, f:3%, g:2%, h:1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=
                      % happy %neutral %unhappy
Tertiary education         65      12     23
Primary education or less  49      12     39

No money for fees          45      12     43
Education useless          45      12     43
Failed examinations        47      10     43
Lack of books              58      14     38
School fees too high       61      10     29
Poor facilities            62      10     29


Correlational finding on Happiness and School-type
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyBevans et al. (2010): study US 2005
TitleDevelopment of the Health Pathways Child-Report Scales.
SourceQuality Life Research, 2010, Vol. 19, 1195 - 1214
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-010-9687-4
PublicSchool children, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2095

Correlate
Author's labelschooltype
Page in Source 1204
Our classificationSchool-type, code S01ac04
Operationalization
a: Elementary
b: Middle class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH---mq-v-5-bDM=+
                  M        SD
Elementary class   4.24     0.67 
Middle class       4.13     0.72
-difference       +0.11
M-FH---mq-v-5-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Curriculum followed
Subject code: S01ac05

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelBeing engaged in vocational training
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationCurriculum followed, code S01ac05
Operationalization
vocational training=typically apprenticeship programs
Observed distributionM =0,226 (23%), SD = 0,418

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
probit result= 0,286
CI95=[ -0.10  0,67]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,217
CI95=[ -0,17  0,61]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Curriculum followed
Subject code: S01ac05

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelmajor
Page in Source 67
Our classificationCurriculum followed, code S01ac05
Operationalization
Single question: What is your major?
a: law
b: psychology
c: medicine
Observed distribution1: 31%, 2: 35%, 3: 34%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBMCT=+ p < .05
Law:        M = 7.64
Psychology: M = 7.85
Medicine:   M = 8.16
a < c
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBMCT=+ ns
Law:        M = 3.22
Psychology: M = 3.26
Medicine:   M = 3.40
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBMCT=0 ns
Law:        M = 1.63
Psychology: M = 1.47
Medicine:   M = 1.94
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBMCT=001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Curriculum followed
Subject code: S01ac05

StudyGonzalez (1967): study US 1967
TitleStudy of Student Teachers' Life Adjustment.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1967, Chapel Hill, USA
PublicStudents teachers,University of California, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelSubject-matter (in the program offered by school of educ.)
Page in Source 84
Our classificationCurriculum followed, code S01ac05
Operationalization
Foreign Languages / Humanities / English / Elementary 
Education / Physical or Special Education / Natural 
Sciences / Social Sciences / Mathematics.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy:
-foreign languages       -
-humanities              29%
-English                 45%
-elementary education    47%
-physical education      50%
-special education       -
-natural sciences        60%
-social sciences         86%
-mathematics             -


Correlational finding on Happiness and Curriculum followed
Subject code: S01ac05

StudyGonzalez (1967): study US 1967
TitleStudy of Student Teachers' Life Adjustment.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1967, Chapel Hill, USA
PublicStudents teachers,University of California, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelTeaching level
Page in Source 82
Our classificationCurriculum followed, code S01ac05
Operationalization
Elementary / secondary / fifth year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cG=+.09 ns
G' based on proportion very happy (vs not very 
happy).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Curriculum followed
Subject code: S01ac05

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelHigh school curriculum college preparatory
Our classificationCurriculum followed, code S01ac05
Operationalization
Respondent reported his program of high school study at 
T1, T2 and T3: 
0 = vocational, bussiness, general,        agricultural 
or other; 
1 = college preparatory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
               HS curriculum college preparatory
Happiness       T1          T2          T3
T1       tau = +.04        +.06        +.06
T2       tau = -.02        +.03        +.02
T3       tau = +.01        -.02        +.01
T4       tau = -.01        -.01        +.02
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and School size
Subject code: S01ac06

StudyVanVaalen (2010): study NL 2009
TitleGeluk op School. (Happiness at School).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2010, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vanvaalen_m_2010.pdf
PublicSchoolchildren aged 9-12, the Netherlands, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =718

Correlate
Author's labelSchool size
Page in Source 41
Our classificationSchool size, code S01ac06
Operationalization
1 Small school < 251 children
2 Big school > 251 children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aD%=-
% Happy
1 small    81 %
2 Big      88 %
Difference -7 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelSchool experience
Page in Source 185, 187, 189
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on seven questions:
A Liking school:How do you feel about school at 
present? 
B academic achievement: In your opinion, what does your 
class teacher(s) think about your school performance 
compared to your classmates? 
C Peer support was measured using three items:
* The students in my class(es) enjoy being together. 
* Most of the students in my class(es) are kind and 
helpful. 
* Other students accept me as I am.

D School pressure: How pressured do you feel by the 
schoolwork you have to do?

Classified as having 
3 Positive
2 Middle school experience
1 negative school experience
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N =50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+
% Happy    Girls Boys  Total
- Negative 53.0  63.4  57.6
- Middle   78.2  85.4  81.6
- Positive 93.4  94.7  94.0
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelLiking school
Page in Source 185,186
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about school at present? 
4 I like it a lot
3 I like it a bit
2 I don’t like it very much
1 I don’t like it at all.
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N = 50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ers=+
Girls:rs = +.25
Boys :rs = +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelPeer support
Page in Source 185,186
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on three questions
A The students in my class(es) enjoy being together. 
B Most of the students in my class(es) are kind and 
helpful. 
C Other students accept me as I am.
Response categories were: Strongly agree, Agree, 
Neither agree nor disagree, Disagree, Strongly 
disagree.

Recoded as:
3 Positive: agree or strongly agree with all these 
statments
2 Middle: Do not agree with one of these three 
statements
1 Negative: Do not agree with at least two of the three 
statements
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N =50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ers=+
Girls: rs = +.24
Boys : rs = +.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyBradshaw et al. (2006): study ZZ OECD member states 2001
TitleComparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods.
SourceInnoocenti Working Paper no. 2006-3, Unicef Research Centre, 2006, Florence, Italy
URLhttps://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/464/
PublicAdolescents, 29 nations, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =137682

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling an outsider
Page in Source 4, 70-72,75
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
I feel like an outsider (or left out of things)
Observed distributionOECD countries: Austria = 5,8 Belgium = 7,9 Canada = 8,9 Czech Republic = 9,7 Denmark = 5,3 Finland = 5,5 France = 7,7 Germany = 6,1 Greece = 6,3 Hungary = 9,3 Ireland = 5,6 Italy = 4,9 Netherlands = 3,9 Norway = 5,6 Poland = 8,2 Portugal = 6,4 Spain = 3,3 Sweden = 5,2 Switzerland = 7,1 United Kingdom 6,8 United States = NA . Average of OECD countries: 6,4 %, SD = 1,7 % Non-OECD Countries: Croatia = NA Estonia = NA Israel = 2,3 Latvia = 5,2 Lithuania = NA Malta = NA Russian Federation = 6,1 Slovenia = NA
Remarks
source: PISA 2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.44 p < .05
% happy in nation by % feeling an outsider


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyBradshaw et al. (2006): study ZZ OECD member states 2001
TitleComparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods.
SourceInnoocenti Working Paper no. 2006-3, Unicef Research Centre, 2006, Florence, Italy
URLhttps://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/464/
PublicAdolescents, 29 nations, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =137682

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling awkward and out of place
Page in Source 70, 72, 73
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
I feel awkward and out of place
- disagree
- agree
Observed distributionOECD countries: Austria = 8,2, Belgium = 15,6, Canada = 10,5 Czech Republic = 6,4 Denmark = 11,8 Finland = 8,4 France = 12,3 Germany = 11,4 Greece = 8,3 Hungary = 7,6 Ireland = 7,8 Italy = 6,2 Netherlands = 6,9 Norway = 9,1 Poland = 9,9 Portugal = 11,7 Spain = 8,9 Sweden = 4,9 Switzerland = 11,7 United Kingdom 8,7 United States = NA Average of OECD countries: 6,4 %, SD = 1,7 % Non-OECD Countries: Croatia = NA Estonia = NA Israel = 3,6 Latvia = 9,6 Lithuania = NA Malta = NA Russian Federation 14,3 Slovenia NA
Remarks
Data: PISA 2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.10 ns
% happy in nation by %feeling awkward


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyBradshaw et al. (2006): study ZZ OECD member states 2001
TitleComparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods.
SourceInnoocenti Working Paper no. 2006-3, Unicef Research Centre, 2006, Florence, Italy
URLhttps://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/464/
PublicAdolescents, 29 nations, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =137682

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling lonely
Page in Source 4, 70, 75
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
"I feel lonely"
Observed distributionOECD countries: Austria = 7,2 Belgium = 6,4 Canada = 7,6 Czech Republic = 7,0 Denmark = 6,2 Finland = 6,2 France = 6,4 Germany = 6,2 Greece = 6,5 Hungary = 7,3 Ireland = 4,6 Italy = 6,0 Netherlands = 2,9 Norway = 7,0 Poland = 8,4 Portugal = 5,0 Spain = 4,4 Sweden = 6,7 Switzerland = 6,6 United Kingdom = 5,4 United States = NA Average of OECD countries: 7,4 %, SD = 5,3 % Non-OECD Countries: Croatia = NA Estonia = NA Israel = 2,7 Latvia = 9,0 Lithuania = NA Malta = NA Russian Federation = 8,5 Slovenia = NA
Remarks
Data: PISA 2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.42 ns
% happy in nation by % feeling lonely


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Correlate
Author's labelExploration U-GIDS (Vertical integration)
Page in Source 206,208
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self-report on 5 items such as:
- 'I give the school I attend a lot of thougt' 
- 'I try to find out a lot about the school I attend'
Rated on a 5-point numerical scale ranging from 
1=completely untrue to 5= completely true
Observed distribution1: N=79; 2: N=95; 3:N=95
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=0,72
Remarks
U-GIDS (Utrecht Groningen Identity Development Scale) 
gives a specific operationalization of the status 
variables themselves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.03 ns
early adolescents, age 12-16 low school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=.00 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.05 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-15, high level school
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.04 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.02 ns
Late adolescents, age 17-21, high level school
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- vertical integration concerning school
- commitment concerning school


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Correlate
Author's labelExploration U-GIDS (Horizontal integration)
Page in Source 206, 208
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self-report. Questions not reported
Observed distribution1: N=79; 2: N=95; 3:N=95
Remarks
U-GIDS (Utrecht Groningen Identity Development 
Scale)and gives a specific operationalization of the 
status variables themselves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.03 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-16 low school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.05 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-15 high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.10 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.02 ns
Late adolescents, age 17-21, high school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.04 ns
Beta's controlled for: 
- horizontal integration concerning school
- commitment concerning school


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelSchool
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
A Academic Achievement:
 1=Very Good
 2=Good
 3=Average
 4=Below Average
B Enjoying School as assessed by self-report:
 1=Like A Lot
 2=Like A Bit
 3=Not Very Much
 4=Not At All

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.11 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelLearning related satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on questions about satisfaction with:
a:  school performance
b:  learning
c:  preparation for the future
Full text of questions not reported

Rated 0 (very dissatisfied) to 10 (very satisfied)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.27 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelUse of time and learning related satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on use of time and learning related 
satisfaction.
Full questionaire not report.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.26 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 1999
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicAdolescents, Spain 1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelLearning related satisfaction
Page in Source 99
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Self report on questions about satisfaction with:
a:  school performance
b:  learning
c:  preparation for the future
Full text of questions not reported

Rated 0 (very dissatisfied) to 10 (very satisfied)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-ar=+.37 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01ad

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with school
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01ad
Operationalization
Happiness with school rated on a 11 point scale 0 very 
unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM = 7,3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.45 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelUniversity useful for preferred future work
Page in Source 52, 54
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How useful do you think your univeristy experience will 
be for obtaining future work I'd like to do?
1. not at all useful
.
.
5. extremely useful
Observed distributionM = 4.0, SD = 1.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.15 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyConstantinople (1967): study US NewYork 1966
TitlePerceived Instrumentality of the College as a Measure of Attitudes toward College.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, Vol. 5, 196 - 201
PublicUniversity students, Rochester, USA, 1966
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =165

Correlate
Author's labelProduct score
Page in Source 198
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Participant were presented 14 statements about goals in 
college, such as:
- learning
- contexts
- self discovery
They rated each of these statements for: 
a: its importance as a goal in the subject's own 
college experience
b: the degree to which the University was percieved as 
helping or hindering progress toward that the goal. 

Rating were made on a 7 step scale

The product of the two ratings was obtained and summed 
over all 14 statements leading to a range of 14 to 686.
Error Estimatesinternal consistency +.72
Remarks
Perceived Instrumentality of the College Test (PICT)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+
        happy  unhappy  difference
males   M=417  M=356    DM= 61 (05)
females M=437  M=391    DM= 46 (ns)


Results similar to an earlier study among students 
of the same university reported in Constantinople 
1965.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSchool attitudes
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Positive and negative school attitudes were measured at 
T1, T2 and T3. Positive school attitude: a mean of 
15 items which stress the intrinsic value of education; 
scale: 1.00 = low (education has little value) to 4.00 
= high (education has high value)
Negative school attitude: a mean of 8 
items indicating the respondent's negative or avoidance 
attitudes toward school. Scale: 1.00 = low negativity;
4.00 = high negativity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= p < .001
              Positive school attitudes
Happiness     T1        T2        T2
T1      tau = +.41      +.27      +.25
T2      tau = +.33      +.39      +.32
T3      tau = +.23      +.27      +.37
T4      tau = +.20      +.23      +.27
All tau's significant (001)

              Negative school attitudes
Happiness     T1        T2        T3
T1        _ = -.25      -.21      -.22
T2        _ = -.21      -.26      -.23
T3        _ = -.17      -.18      -.27
T4        _ = -.18      -.16      -.19
All _ significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic achievementvalue
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Index at T1, T2 and T3 of four items that indicate the 
extent to which the respondent considers it to be "a 
good thing" to demonstrate behavior indicative of 
academic achievement. Items: "studying constantly in 
order to become a well-educated person; working hard to 
achieve academic honors; striving to get the top 
grade-point average in the group; studying hard to get 
good grades in school." 
Scale: 1 = low to 6 = high in academic achievement 
value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
              Academic achievement value
Happiness     T1          T2          T3
T1     tau = +.26 (001)  +.15 (001)  +.15 (001)
T2     tau = +.16 (001)  +.22 (001)  +.14 (001)
T3     tau = +.12 (01)   +.18 (001)  +.25 (001)
T4     tau = +.10 (01)   +.13 (001)  +.18 (001)
All tau's significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelPositive attitude towards school
Page in Source 242
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
15-item index containing items that stress the 
intrinsic value of education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelNegative attitude toward school
Page in Source 242
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
8-item index containing questions ranging from general 
dissatisfaction with school to a devaluation of school 
in comparison to other sources of experiences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.24 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelHaving plans to go to college
Page in Source 243
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Open question on future plans; other plans vs plan to 
enter post-high school education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.07 p < . 05
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyConstantinople (1970): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Average Level of Happiness among College Students.
SourcePaper 1970 based on unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/constantinople_ap_1970.pdf
PublicUndergraduate college students, University of Rochester, USA, followed 12 month, 1965-68
Sample
Non-Response50% return of mailed questionnaire.
Respondents N =581

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived instrumentality of college
Page in Source 11
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Closed questions on the degree of which the university 
is perceived as helping or hindering progress toward 
each of the goals mentioned. (Perceived Instru-
mentality of College Test; see Constantinople 1965, 
1967).

 a. Learning how to learn from books
    and teachers.
 b. Acquiring an appreciation of ideas.
 c. Establishing own personal, social
    and academic values.
 d. Developing relationships with
    opposite sex.
 e. Contributing in a distinguished,
    meaningful manner to some campus
    group.
 f. Developing ability to get along
    with different kinds of people.
 g. Becoming self-confident.
 h. Personal independence.
 i. Finding a spouse.
 j. Achieving academic dinstinction.
 k. Having many good friends.
 l. Discovering own strong points and
    limitations.
 m. Preparing for career which
    requires further study beyond the
    B.A. or B.S.
 n. Preparing for acareer wich begins
    right after graduation.
Remarks
See also above under CONST 1965.

The goals were each scored for their importance as a 
goal in the S's own college experience too. These 
rating generally correlate less than .10 with 
happiness.
                 
                       

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
a:learning how to learn
-freshman males   : r = -.09 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.23 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.06 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.03 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
b:appreciation of ideas
-freshman males   : r = +.14 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.29 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.07 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.17 (05)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
c:establishing own values
-freshman males   : r = +.11 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.34 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.20 (05)
-senior females   : r = -.01 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
d:opposite sex
-freshman males   : r = +.17 (05)
-senior males     : r = +.30 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.30 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.06 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
e:campus group
-freshman males   : r = +.08 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.10 (ns)
-freshman females : r = +.11 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.22 (05)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
f:ability to get along
-freshman males   : r = +.27 (01)
-senior males     : r = +.26 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.18 (05)
-senior females   : r = +.30 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
g:self-confident
-freshman males   : r = +.32 (01)
-senior males     : r = +.32 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.28 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.23 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
h:personal independence
-freshman males   : r = +.07 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.22 (05)
-freshman females : r = +.05 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.09 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
i:finding a spouse
-freshman males   : r = +.01 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.30 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.25 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.01 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
j:academic distinction
-freshman males   : r = +.16 (05)
-senior males     : r = +.23 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.19 (05)
-senior females   : r = -.01 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
k:many good friends
-freshman males   : r = +.24 (01)
-senior males     : r = +.22 (05)
-freshman females : r = +.15 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.11 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
l:strong points
-freshman males   : r = +.10 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.28 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.22 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.24 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
m:career
-freshman males   : r = +.05 (ns)
-senior males     : r = -.03 (ns)
-freshman females : r = +.05 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.27 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
n:graduate school
-freshman males   : r = +.16 (05)
-senior males     : r = +.27 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.10 (ns)
-senior females   : r = -.08 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelAttitude toward college
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Product score of the subjective relevance of the goal 
mentioned and perceived instrumentality of the 
University of Rochester for the attainment of that 
goal; as assessed by a 14-item inventory of important 
goals (Perceived Instrumentality of College Test).
                          
                          
1. Learning how to learn from books and    teachers.
                
              
               
2. Acquiring an appreciation of ideas.
                
                         
                             
                       
3. Establishing own personal, social      and academic 
values.
                  
                 
                         
4. Developing relationships with the      opposite sex.
                    
                      
                      
5. Contributing in a distinguished, 
   meaningful manner to some campus      group.
                        
                      
6. Developing the ability to get along
   with different kinds of people.
               
                       
                     
7. Becoming self-confident.
                 
                     
                     
                     
8. Personal independence.
                
                   
                  
                   
9. Finding a spouse.
             
               
                 
                  
10. Achieving academic distinction.
              
               
                
              
11. Having many good friends.
             
                
           
             
12. Discovering own strong points and      limitations.
             
                
                     
13. Preparing for a career which begins
    right after graduation.
                 
                
                
14. Preparing for a career which        requires 
further study beyond the 
    B.A. or B.S. 
Remarks
Correlations of the Elation-Depression Scale with both 
the individual subjective relevance scores and the 
Rochester instrumentality scores for each goal indicate 
that happiness is more closely associated with 
perceived Rochester instrumentality than with 
subjective relevance of each goal. In most cases the 
correlations of happiness with the subjective relevance 
scores are less than .10 (ns).
                       
                                             

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+
Analysis on the basis of data from the 16 most 
happy and 16 least happy freshman and junior males 
and females who returned the second questionnaire.

Strongest among freshman males (01).
Lowests among junior females (ns).
Significant among junior males and freshman 
females (05).
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.29 (05)
freshman females: r=+.07 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.16 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.00 (ns)
                             
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.25 (05)
freshman females: r=+.25 (05)
junior males    : r=+.05 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.02 (ns)
                      
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.15 (ns)
freshman females: r=+.44 (05)
junior males    : r=+.31 (05)
junior females  : r=+.17 (ns)
                    
                      
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.29 (05)
freshman females: r=+.29 (05)
junior males    : r=+.18 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.14 (ns)
                          
                      
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.11 (ns)
freshman females: r=+.29 (05)
junior males    : r=-.02 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.21 (05)
                 
                            
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.19 (ns)
freshman females: r=+.14 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.15 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.14 (ns)
                   
                          
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.39 (05)
freshman females: r=+.02 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.38 (05)
junior females  : r=+.32 (05)
                      
                          
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.24 (05)
freshman females: r=+.17 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.28 (05)
junior females  : r=+.05 (ns)
                        
                        
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.21 (05)
freshman females: r=+.20 (05)
junior males    : r=+.18 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.11 (ns)

A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.27 (05)
freshman females: r=+.08 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.24 (05)
junior females  : r=+.03 (ns)

A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.36 (05)
freshman females: r=+.28 (05)
junior males    : r=+.17 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.19 (ns)
             
                          
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.12 (ns)
freshman females: r=+.10 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.20 (05)
junior females  : r=+.07 (ns)

A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.11 (ns)
freshman females: r=+.13 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.05 (ns)
junior females  : r=+.15 (ns)
            
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
freshman males  : r=+.36 (05)
freshman females: r=+.04 (ns)
junior males    : r=+.28 (05)
junior females  : r=+.07 (ns)
                           
                      


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefulness of schooling
Subject code: S01ad01

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in study habits
Page in Source 292
Our classificationPerceived usefulness of schooling, code S01ad01
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived pressure of school-work
Subject code: S01ad02

StudyCurrie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleYoung People's Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4
SourceWHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004.
URLhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/110231/e82923.pdf
Public11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162306

Correlate
Author's labelSchool pressure
Page in Source 185,186
Our classificationPerceived pressure of school-work, code S01ad02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How pressured do you feel by the schoolwork you have to 
do?
1 not at all
2 a little
3 some
4 a lot.
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
15 year olds only (N =50816)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ers=-
Girls:rs = -.16
Boys :rs = -.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived pressure of school-work
Subject code: S01ad02

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelPressure of academicwork
Page in Source 216/222
Our classificationPerceived pressure of school-work, code S01ad02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on immediate pressure during 
past day, scored every day during one month: none / 
rather light / moderate / fairly heavy / very heavy / 
extremely heavy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.21 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived pressure of school-work
Subject code: S01ad02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with own school work
Our classificationPerceived pressure of school-work, code S01ad02
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1 and T2: "How satisfied are 
you with the way you're actually doing in school?" 
1 = not at all; 2 = not very; 
3 = somewhat;   4 = quite; 
5 = very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
             Satisfaction with own school work
Happiness      T1              T2
T1       tau = +.20  (001)     +.11 (01)
T2       tau = +.17  (001)     +.16 (001)
T3       tau = +.10  (01)      +.12 (01)
T4       tau = +.10  (01)      +.11 (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived pressure of school-work
Subject code: S01ad02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicFemale college students, Radcliff USA, followed 6 weeks, 1957
Sample
Non-Response16%
Respondents N =21

Correlate
Author's labelPressure of academicwork
Page in Source 277
Our classificationPerceived pressure of school-work, code S01ad02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on immediate pressure during 
past day, scored every day during six weeks: none / 
rather light / moderate / fairly heavy / very heavy / 
extremely heavy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.33 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived pressure of school-work
Subject code: S01ad02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPressure of academicwork
Page in Source 66
Our classificationPerceived pressure of school-work, code S01ad02
Operationalization
Repeated closed question on immediate pressure during 
past day, scored every day during six weeks: none / 
rather light / moderate / fairly heavy / very heavy / 
extremely heavy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.34 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own school-performance
Subject code: S01ad03

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelSchool ability
Page in Source 466
Our classificationSatisfaction with own school-performance, code S01ad03
Operationalization
School ability subscale of self-rating scale (Fleming 
and Courtney, 1984). 6 point-scale
Error Estimatesalpha=.72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.29 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own school-performance
Subject code: S01ad03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with own school work
Our classificationSatisfaction with own school-performance, code S01ad03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1 and T2:
"How satisfied are you with the way you're actually 
doing in school?"
1 = not at all; 2 = not very; 
3 = somewhat; 4 =  quite; 5 = very
satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
          Satisfaction with own school work
Happiness      T1              T2
T1       tau = +.20 (001)      +.11 (01)
T2       tau = +.17 (001)      +.16 (001)
T3       tau = +.10 (01)       +.12 (01)
T4       tau = +.10 (01)       +.11 (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with instructors
Page in Source 52, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your instructors?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.9, SD = 1.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.25 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.22 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Courses
Page in Source 52, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your courses?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.2, SD = 1.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.23 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.17 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.22 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfactiion with library services
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with library services?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.6, SD = 1.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSdatisfaction with food services
Page in Source 52, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with food services?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 3.7, SD = 1.7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.17 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.14 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with fitness services
Page in Source 52, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with fitness services?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.2, SD = 1.6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.15 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with bookstore services
Page in Source 52, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with bookstore services?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.5, SD = 1.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.21 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.24 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyHulin (1969): study CA 1967
TitleSource of Variation in Job and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Community and Job-Related Variables.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1969, Vol. 53, 279 - 291
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0027853
PublicWhite collar workers, living in company towns, Columbia Canada, 196?
Sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =470

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with community's school facilities
Page in Source 285
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Question rated on a graphic rating scale very 
dissatisfied / somewhat dissatisfied / neither 
dissatisfied nor satisfied / somewhat satisfied / very 
satisfied.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-sq-f-7-ar=+
Males  : r = +.12 (05)
Females: r = +.08 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyHulin (1969): study CA 1967
TitleSource of Variation in Job and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Community and Job-Related Variables.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1969, Vol. 53, 279 - 291
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0027853
PublicWhite collar workers, living in company towns, Columbia Canada, 196?
Sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =470

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with school teachers in the community
Page in Source 285
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Question rated on a graphic rating scale very 
dissatisfied / somewhat dissatisfied / neither 
dissatisfied nor satisfied / somewhat satisfied / very 
satisfied.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-sq-f-7-ar=+
Males  : r = +.15 (01)
Females: r = +.07 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Barasi, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived village needs: school for boys
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Village needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 1,96%; 1: 9,9%; 2: 20,9%; 3: 35,0% M: 35,0%
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=_.13 p < .05
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Barasi, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived village needs: school for girls
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Village needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 1,64% 1: 8,5%; 2: 34,2% 3: 41,5%; M: 15,8%
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.1 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyButtel et al. (1977): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleIdeology and Social Indicators of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 353 - 369
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353138
Public18+ aged, general public, Winconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =548

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with quality of public schools
Page in Source 358
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a 5-point scale: How do 
you feel about the quality of public schools in this 
school district, do you think they are: very good / 
fairly good / both good and bad / not very good / not 
good at all.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-br=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with school facilities in the area
Page in Source 113
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the schools in 
this area?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with school-facilities
Subject code: S01ad04

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with university
Page in Source 71
Our classificationSatisfaction with school-facilities, code S01ad04
Operationalization
1. Closed question on satisfaction with    one's 
experience as a student at the
   University of Rochester, rated on a
   7-point graphic scale extremely dis-
   satisfied / neither satisfied nor
   dissatisfied / extremely satisfied.

2. Direct yes/no question: 'Given the
   same alternatives, would you again 
   choose to come to the University of
   Rochester?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
1. The happy students had a mean score of 5.5 and  
  the unhappy a score of 3.7
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aD%=+
                
               
            
             
                
2. 71% of the happy students and 37.5% of the 
   unhappy students responded affirmatively.

   The 16 most happy and the 16 most unhappy stu-
   dents in each of 8 sex/class groups (N=256) 
   were compared.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

"Mood is usually applied to states lasting for minutes or hours, but most people can estimate their average or typical mood over a long period of time. Using the following scale, please indicate which statement best describes your typical mood for the current spring semester. Draw a circle around the number of the statement which best describes your average level of happiness or unhappiness during this semester.
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue"
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely "blue"
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aRating by parents in response to single question:

Overall how does your child usually feel?
1 sad face
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy face

Seven faces presented ranging from sad to happy, without verbal or numerical labels
A-AOL-g-rdv-?-0-aRating of 'cheerfulness' by investigator, based on interrview with child and additional information obtained from parents and head-teacher of school
A-AOL-g-sq-f-5-aSelf report on single question:

How do you feel USUALLY?
5
4
3
2
1

Response options indicated with faces, without verbal or numerical labels
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall how do you usually feel?
1 sad face
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy face

Seven faces presented ranging from sad to happy, without verbal or numerical labels
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aSelf report on repeated questions (experience sampling)

How happy did you feel at the moment you were beeped?
0 not happy
1 probably not happy
2 probably happy
3 happy
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 7 questions:

Below is a list of words describing moods and feelings. Indicate how each of these words applies to how you feel now.
A Contented
B Calm
C Happy
D Pleased
E Satisfied
F Cheerful
G Good

Rating options (same for all items):
1 not at all
2 somewhat or slightly
3 mostly or generally

Name: Happiness subscale of Ryman et al (1974) Mood Questionnaire (MQ)
A-ASA-m-mqr-v-3-aSelfreport on 7 questions, repeated 15 times during 2 month (experience sampling)

Below is a list of words describing moods and feelings. Indicate how each of these words applies to how you feel now.
A Contented
B Calm
C Happy
D Pleased
E Satisfied
F Cheerful
G Good

Rating options (same for all items):
1 not at all
2 somewhat or slightly
3 mostly or generally


Summation: average over 2 months.

Name: Happiness subscale of Ryman et al (1974) Mood Questionnaire (MQ)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aSelfreport of momentary mood on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much you feel each of the emotions below. Put a number from 1 to 7 to accurately reflect how much you feel that emotion RIGHT NOW.
A worry
B affection
C anger
D joy
E sadness
F guilt
G contentment
H pride

1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 extremely intense

Computation: (B+D+G+H) - (A+C+E+F) / 8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance' DRM format
A-Bde-c-mq-n-5-aSelfreport on 40 items

Lead sentence and items not reported

Positive affect dimensions
A Joy
B Contentment
C Vigor
D affection

Negative affect dimensions
E Anxiety
F Depression
G Guilt
H Hostility

Rated
0 not at all
1
2
3
4 extremely

Computation:
Positive Affects Total (PTOT): A+B+C+D
Negative Affects Total (NTOT): E+F+G+H
Affects Balance Index (ABI) : PTOT-NTOT/20

Name: Derogatis Affects Balance Scale, short (DBAS)
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
C-A-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"How do you feel about what you are accomplishing in life...?"
7 completely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 satisfied
4 satisfied-dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied.
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
C-RA-h-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Sofar, I have achieved the most important things I want in life.
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
M-AO-g-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"...... satisfaction with life in general........"
(Full question not reported.)

Responses scored on pictorial scale consisting of seven smilies, expressing variations from very unhappy to very happy.
1 unhappy face
2
3
4 neutral face
5
6
7 happy face
(Pictures not reproduced here.)

Name: Kunin's `Faces Scale'.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Questions indicated both happiness and a sense of contentment and well-being (Full questions not reported)

Summation: not reported

Name: `Happiness subtest' of Washburn's `Social Adjustment Scale'.
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: I wish I had a different kind of life
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2
3
4.
5: strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
1 strongly disagree
2
3
4
5 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH---mq-v-5-bSelf report on five questions:

A Thinking about the past 4 weeks: Has your life been enjoyable?
B How often do you feel happy?
C How much of the time do you feel satisfied with your life?
D How often do you have a lot of fun?
E Thinking about the past 4 weeks; Have you felt pleased that you were alive?

Rated:
1 not at all/never
2 slightly/almost never
3 moderately/sometimes
4 very/ almost always
5 extremely/always
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question

How happy are you currently?
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Labeling of scale ends not reported
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nSelfreport on single question:

In general, I am happy with how things are in my life right now
1 disagree strongly
2 disagree
3 agree
4 strongly agree
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tSelf report on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your present life?
4 I feel very happy
3 I feel happy
2 I feel not very happy
1 I feel unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are these days.....?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 pretty happy
4 not too happy
3 a bit unhappy
2 pretty unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Generally, how happy are you.....?
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely

(Originally presented on a horizontal line scale)
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-bSelfreport on single question:

How happy would you say your life is in general.....?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4 neither happy
5 nor
6 unhappy
7
8
9 very happy
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you right now?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Would you say you are:......?
1 unhappy?
2 reasonably happy?
3 happy ?
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eSelfreport on single question

I am a very happy person
2 true
1 false
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you consider yourself as a happy person......?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 neither happy nor unhappy
1 not too happy
- don't know
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

To what extent do you think of yourself as a happy person?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
- don't know
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"........life-satisfaction........."
(Full text not reported)
1 -
2
3
4
5 +
(Response options: not reported)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

The conditions of my life are excellent
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, to what extend are you satisfied with your life?
0 the minimum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the maximun
O-SLu-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

I am satisfied with my life.
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
O-SLW-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question

..satisfaction with life as a whole.. (full item not reported)
7 very satisfied
6
5
4 just as satisfied as dissatisfied
3
2
1 very dissatisfied

(numbering reversed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 very dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bSelfreport on single question:

When you consider your life-as-a-whole, are you..........?
0 quite dissatisfied
1
2
3
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, I am satisfied with my life
2 true
1 false
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question :

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 completely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 satisfied
4 satisfied/dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how do you judge your quality of life?
4 very satisfactory
3 sufficiently satisfactory
2 not too satisfactory
1 unsatisfactory
- don't know
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
O-V-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In most ways my life is close to ideal
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
lgtLOGIT COEFFICIENT
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: unlimited

Meaning:
lgt = 0 « no association at all;
lgt -> -/+ infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows a perfect prediction of the happiness.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
SNRStatistic Not Reported
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
VCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
S01SCHOOLC09ab02aEducation
S01SCHOOLE01EDUCATION
S01SCHOOLN04ag01dSpending on education
S01aa01cEarlier school successE01aaEducational career
S01aa01caDoubled a classE01aaEducational career
S01aa01cbSchool drop outS01ab02School-success
S01aa01cbSchool drop outE01aaEducational career
S01ab01aInvolved in schooling or notE02ab04Not in labour force
S01ab01aInvolved in schooling or notO01ab01In working-force or not
S01ab01bAbsenteeismW06ab01aAbsenteeism at work
S01ab01cExtra-curricular activityL03ac01Leisure activity level
S01ab02School-successS01aa01cbSchool drop out
S01ab02School-successI03INTELLIGENCE
S01ab02School-successE01ab02Level of school-education
S01ab03Involvement in school-workT01adCurrent time-usage
S01ac01aSocio-economic level of schoolS09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
S01ac01bEthnic homogeneity of schoolE03afEthnic diversity in environment
S01ac02Social climate in schoolN04ag01cTeaching practices
S01adAttitudes to schoolL10ad02dSatisfaction with local schools
S01ad01Perceived usefulness of schoolingE01adAttitudes to one's education
S01ad02Perceived pressure of school-workS01ab03Involvement in school-work
S01ad03Satisfaction with own school-performanceS02ae02Satisfaction with own accomplishments
S01ad04Satisfaction with school-facilitiesL10ad02dSatisfaction with local schools

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings