Findings on Happiness and ROLES

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and ROLES
Subject Code: R04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
R04ROLES0
R04aaRole career0
R04aa01Earlier roles1
R04aa02Change in roles0
R04aa02aRole loss1
R04aa02bNew roles1
R04aa03Later roles1
R04abCurrent roles2
R04ab01Current number of roles5
R04ab02Characteristics of current role-set0
R04ab02aRole ambiguity1
R04ab02bRole conflict4
R04ab02dRole stress1
R04ab03Specific roles0
R04ab03aFamily roles4
R04ab03bWork roles3
R04acAttitudes to own roles5
R04ab02cRole number2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and ROLES
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=R04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier roles
Subject code: R04aa01

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelEarly multiple role occupancy
Page in Source 265
Our classificationEarlier roles, code R04aa01
Operationalization
Number of roles occupied beyond marriage and 
motherhood.These included frequent contact with 
relatives, neighbors and/or friends, regular church 
attendance, club memership and volunteering. (indicator 
of social integration)

Assessed at T1 (1956)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=+
T1 roles               T2 happiness          
- low                  Ma = 2,30
- high                 Ma = 2,62

Ma controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role loss
Subject code: R04aa02a

StudyMoriwaki (1973): study US 1971
TitleSelf-Disclosure, Significant Others and Psychological Well-Being in Old Age.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1973, Vol. 14, 226 -232
Public60+ aged, retirees, Los Angeles County, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71

Correlate
Author's labelRole loss.
Page in Source 229
Our classificationRole loss, code R04aa02a
Operationalization
Number of lost roles. (As a spouce, parent, worker, 
etc.)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and New roles
Subject code: R04aa02b

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Get it all'
Page in Source 19
Our classificationNew roles, code R04aa02b
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)
Remarks
Only SOEP data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.35 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in.. ONLY
A: made career only                   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.22 p < .01
Ba: got partnered only                (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+12 p < .05
Bc: started family only               (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.25 p < .05
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE to career + partner

Among women who work half-time, while partner 
works full-time and has a high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.36 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner does 
not and has a relatively low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.40 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner also 
works full time and has a relatively high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
b-fix's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later roles
Subject code: R04aa03

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent role conflict
Page in Source 264
Our classificationLater roles, code R04aa03
Operationalization
Ss were asked how much conflict or difficulty they felt 
between five different role combinations. These number 
of role combinations each respondent desribed as 
creating great or moderate conflict are totaled to 
derive a role conflict scale ranging from zero to five.

Assessed at T2 (1986)
Observed distributionPossible range 0-5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=-
T1 happiness          T2 role conflict         
- low                 Ma = 3,20
- high                Ma = 1,15

Ma role conflict controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current roles
Subject code: R04ab

StudyZautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975
TitleThe Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00884787
Public18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelFamily responsibility
Page in Source 88-92
Our classificationCurrent roles, code R04ab
Operationalization
Factor loading on:
a: Family responsibilities: respondent score depended 
on whether or not he mentioned "family" on the 
open-ended question "What are some of the 
responsibilities you have at home, at work, and 
elsewhere?"
b: Leisure time:  measured by subjective estimates of  
the percentage of time the respondent felt he could 
spent as he wished.
C: Number of daily activities: measured by the number 
of answers to the uestion "What are some of the things 
you do every day?".
D: Requests for assistance:  how many professional 
agencies the respondent had requested help for 
"personal problems in living"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current roles
Subject code: R04ab

StudyGove & Zeiss (1987): study US 1974
TitleMultiple Roles and Happiness.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 125 -137
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1975
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response23,3%
Respondents N =2248

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 126,129
Our classificationCurrent roles, code R04ab
Operationalization
0 Not married
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
WOMEN
Has work, no children
- Married      M = 3,56
- Not married  M = 3,23
Difference      +0,33
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
Has work, children at home
- Married      M = 3,38
- Not married  M = 3,17
Difference      +0,21
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
Has work, children away
- Married      M = 3,36
- Not married  M = 2,97
Difference      +0,39
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, no children
- Married      M = 3,40
- Not married  M = 3,04
Difference      +0,36
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, children at home
- Married      M = 3,37
- Not married  M = 2,97
Difference      +0,30
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, children away
- Married      M = 3,36
- Not married  M = 2,87
Difference      +0,39
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
MEN
Has work, no children
- Married      M = 3,37
- Not married  M = 3,03
Difference      +0,30
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=-
Has work, children at home
- Married      M = 3,17
- Not married  M = 3,21
Difference      -0,04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
Has work, children away
- Married      M = 3,50
- Not married  M = 3,01
Difference      +0,49
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, no children
- Married      M = 2,97
- Not married  M = 2,84
Difference      +0,13
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work,children at home
- Married      M = 3,14
- Not married  M = 2,59
Difference      +0,55
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, children away
- Married      M = 3,44
- Not married  M = 2,82
Difference      +0,62
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current number of roles
Subject code: R04ab01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelFamilial roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent number of roles, code R04ab01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: 
- spouse
- parent
- grandparent
- sibling
- child
- grandchild

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r=+.37 ns females: r=+.54 01
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.24 p < .05
Youngest (hs seniors + newly weds)       
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.42 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.16 ns
Women only (no curvilinearity has been found in 
the correlation egocentricity and well-being)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.06 ns
men only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current number of roles
Subject code: R04ab01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent number of roles, code R04ab01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview
- employee/employer
- student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns       females: r= ns 
newly weds   males: r= ns       females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns       females: r= ns
preretired   males: r=-.39 (05) females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.18 ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.17 ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current number of roles
Subject code: R04ab01

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelTotal role scope
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent number of roles, code R04ab01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: spouse, parent, grandparent, 
sibling, child, grandchild, friend, neighbor, 
churchgoer, organization member, employee/employer, 
student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Newelyweds: men
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.51 p < .01
Newlyweds: women
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.22 p < .05
Younger: high school seniors + mewly weds
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Older: middle aged parents + elderly planning to 
retire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current number of roles
Subject code: R04ab01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelTotal role scope
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent number of roles, code R04ab01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview:
a: spouse
b: parent
c: grandparent
d: sibling
e: child
f: grandchild
g: friend
h: neighbor
i: churchgoer
j: organization member
k: employee/employer
m: student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns       females: r= ns 
newly weds   males: r= ns       females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r=+.37 (ns) females: r= ns 
preretired   males: r= ns       females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns 
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.51 (01)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns 
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.22 p < .05
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current number of roles
Subject code: R04ab01

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelSocial integration
Page in Source 574
Our classificationCurrent number of roles, code R04ab01
Operationalization
Number of roles beyond that of wife and mother: 
- paid worker
- club member
- religious member
- friend
- neighbor
- relative
Rated: yes/no
Observed distributionM = 4,11, SD = 1,05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
Betas controlled for:
- age
- education
- husband's occupation (professional or not)
- life-cycle stage (chlid < 6 years or not)
- number of children
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .001
Additional control for employment 
(paid work omitted from list of roles)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Unaffected by interactions between
- roles/employment
- roles/ husband's occupation
- employment/husbands occupation
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Squared roles: To test for curvi-linearity life 
satisfaction was regressed on the square of the 
number of roles, controlling for individual and 
structural variables and number of roles
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
To assess whether the number of roles or one role 
in particular mattered most, each role was entered 
separately into a regression equation along with 
with the control variables and a summary measure 
of other roles. No single role proved 
statistically significant, while the contribution 
of the number of roles remained significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role ambiguity
Subject code: R04ab02a

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelHome stress
Page in Source 263
Our classificationRole ambiguity, code R04ab02a
Operationalization
Self report on three questions about role ambiguity 
experienced in home life. Questions  focussed on 
certainity on how well one was handling household 
responsibilities and what their spouce expected of them 
at home.

Full questions not reported

Rated: very unsure (1) to very sure (5)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3: .70
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 homestress by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.36 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.15 p < .05
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.40 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.00 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.28 p < .05
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.02 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.34 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls   N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.05 ns
Beta's controlled for: 
- personal control
- network support
- spouse conflict
- coping style


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role conflict
Subject code: R04ab02b

StudyWalters & McKenry (1985): study US 1983
TitlePredictors of Life Satisfaction Among Rural and Urban Employed Mothers: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 1067 - 1071
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2445
PublicEmployed mothers, rural and urban areas USA,1983
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =237

Correlate
Author's labelJob family conflict
Page in Source 1068
Our classificationRole conflict, code R04ab02b
Operationalization
Self report on extent to which employment and family 
life were perceived as not interfering with one another
Remarks
only rural women (N = 165)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.63 p < .05
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.66 p < .05
controlled for expectation of working
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.60 p < .05
Controlled for neighbors support
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.60 p < .05
controlled for children's support
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.62 p < .05
Controlled for Friends'support
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.57 p < .05
Controlled for reason for working
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.63 p < .05
controlled for:
- expectation of working
- neighbors support
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.60 p < .05
controlled for:
- expectation of working
- reason for working
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.54 p < .05
Controlled for:
- Neighbors support
- reason for working
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.57 p < .05
controlled for:
- neighbors support
- expectation of working
- reason for working


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role conflict
Subject code: R04ab02b

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelDivergence real and ideal sex- role
Page in Source 238
Our classificationRole conflict, code R04ab02b
Operationalization
The Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) was administered 
twice to each repondent. In the first instance the 
respondent was asked to describe him/herself as he/she 
is now. In the second instance the respondent was asked 
to describe him/herself as he/she would like to be.
0 Small divergence.
1 Big divergence.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.15 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role conflict
Subject code: R04ab02b

StudyHarry (1976): study US 1973
TitleEvolving Sources of Happiness for Men over the Life Cycle: A Structural Analysis.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1976, Vol. 38, 289 -296
Public18+ aged males, living with family, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =374

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional malintegration
Page in Source 292
Our classificationRole conflict, code R04ab02b
Operationalization
Absolute difference between satisfaction with job and 
with family: both assessed by means of a single direct 
question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.17 ns
Single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.25 ns
Married, no children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.35 ns
Married, pre-school children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.27 p < .05
Married, schoolage children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.27 ns
Married, teenage children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.25 p < .05
Married, children grown up


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role conflict
Subject code: R04ab02b

StudyTownsend & Gurin (1981): study US 1972
TitleRe-examining the frustrated homemaker hypothesis: Role fit, personal dissatisfaction, and collective discontent.
SourceSociology of Work and Occupations, 1981, Vol. 8, 464 - 488
URLhttp://wox.sagepub.com/content/8/4/464.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, white women, USA, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =946

Correlate
Author's labelRole-fit
Page in Source 477
Our classificationRole conflict, code R04ab02b
Operationalization
a: Employed women
b: Career-oriented home-makers
c: Home-oriented homemakers
Observed distributionN = a: 428, b: 156, c: 154
Remarks
Employed at the time of the interview, both full-time 
and part-time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bDMa=
              raw mean   adjusted mean
employed      M = 1,90   Ma = 1.90
career-home   M = 1,84   Ma = 1.82
home-home     M = 1,94   Ma = 1.94

O-Slu recided 1-2
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bEČ=+.01 ns
(raw)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bBeta=+.02 p < .001
(adjusted)
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aDMa=
              raw mean   adjusted mean
employed      M = 1,67   Ma = 1.67
career-home   M = 1,57   Ma = 1.53
home-home     M = 1,74   Ma = 1.75

Ma's adjusted for
- marital status
- education
- age
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aEČ=+.01 ns
(raw)
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 p < .001
(adjusted)

Happiness reversed (in original presented as 
'dissatisfaction')


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role number
Subject code: R04ab02c

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Have it all'
Page in Source 18
Our classificationRole number, code R04ab02c
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.42 p < .01
A only: Relative high income     (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.73 p < .01
Ba only: Cohabiting             (vs living alone)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.39 p < .01
Bb only: Children:              (vs childless)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.54 p < .01
Bc only Family                  (vs not living 
with partner and child)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
A+Ba: high income and cohabiting  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .05
A+Bb: high income and children  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .01
A+Bc: high income and family   (vs not)

b's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort

b's for  A, Ba, Bb and Bc only differ slightly in 
analyses A-B combinations

Similar results for 40-54 aged women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role number
Subject code: R04ab02c

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Get it all'
Page in Source 19
Our classificationRole number, code R04ab02c
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)
Remarks
Only SOEP data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.35 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in.. ONLY
A: made career only                   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.22 p < .01
Ba: got partnered only                (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+12 p < .05
Bc: started family only               (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.25 p < .05
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE to career + partner

Among women who work half-time, while partner 
works full-time and has a high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.36 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner does 
not and has a relatively low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.40 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner also 
works full time and has a relatively high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
b-fix's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort


Correlational finding on Happiness and Role stress
Subject code: R04ab02d

StudyChassie & Bhagat (1980): study US 1978
TitleRole Stress in Working Women: Differential Effect on Selected Organizational Outcomes.
SourceGroup & Organizational Studies, 1980, Vol. 5, 224 - 233
URLhttp://gom.sagepub.com/content/5/2/224.full.pdf
PublicWorking women, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =115

Correlate
Author's labelRole stress
Page in Source 228 + 230
Our classificationRole stress, code R04ab02d
Operationalization
The absolute differences between actual
time allocation in eight relevant roles
and preferred time allocation for these
roles. The roles being: employee, volunteer, wife, 
mother, housekeeper, 
student, committee member, leisure time
pursuer (see also Anrews & Farris, 1972)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aDM=-
High stress:   Mt=5.6
Low  stress:   Mt=6.6
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.20
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-arpc=-.20
Controlled for organizational commitment
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-arpc=-.17
Controlled for total job satsifaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family roles
Subject code: R04ab03a

StudyCloin & Wennekers (2007): study NL 2004
TitleEen Gelukkige Combinatie. (A Happy Combination).
SourceSchnabel, P. ; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 51 - 56
Public20-65-aged; Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1491

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold type
Page in Source 53
Our classificationFamily roles, code R04ab03a
Operationalization
Household-situations for men:
a: couple, no child, man works part time (substantial), 
woman has a job
b: couple, with child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
c: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
d: couple with child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
e: couple, with child, man works part-time 
(substantial), woman has a job
f: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
g: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has no job
h: man lives alone, works full-time
i: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has a job, 
man does housekeeping
j: man lives alone, works part-time (substantial or 
small)
k: man lives alone, has no job

Household-situations for women:
a: couple, with child, woman works full-time, man works
b: couple, with child, woman works part-time 
(substantial), man works 
c: couple, no child, woman works full-time, man works
d: couple, no child, woman works part-time, man works
e: couple, with child,woman has no job, man works
f: woman lives alone,works full-time
g: couple, no child, man has no job and keeps the 
house, woman works
h: couple with child,woman works part-time (small), man 
works 
i: couple, no child, woman has no job, man has no job
j: couple, no child, woman has no job, man works
k: woman lives alone, works part-time (small or 
substantial)
l: mother lives alone, has a job
m: woman lives alone, has no job
n: mother lives alone, has no job
Observed distributionN: Men: 696: a: 25; b: 127; c: 48; d: 74; e: 16; f: 129; g: 49; h: 107; i: 29. N: Women: 795: a: 21; b: 119; c: 54; d: 100; e: 57; f: 60; g: 35; h: 27; i: 63; j: 76; k: 64; l: 26; m : 69; n: 24.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
% (very) happy by their household-situation: MALES
a: 92
b: 91
c: 90
d: 88
e: 88
f: 84
g: 84
h: 76
i: 69
j: 69
k: 45

% (very) happy by their household-situation: 
FEMALES
a: 95
b: 94
c: 93
d: 91
e: 88
f: 87
g: 86
h: 85
i: 83
j: 76
k: 67
l: 62
m: 54
n: 50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family roles
Subject code: R04ab03a

StudyIngersoll -Dayton et al. (2004): study TH 1999
TitleMeasuring psychological Well-Being: Insights from Thai Elders.
SourceThe Gerontologist, 2004, Vol. 44, 596 - 604
Public60+aged, Thailand, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =460

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal well-being
Page in Source 601-602
Our classificationFamily roles, code R04ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on nine questions:
A. Harmony:
   a: In your extended family, people get along well 
together.
   b: Members of your extended family care about each 
other.
   c: In your neighborhood, people are friendly to each 
other.

B. Interdependence:
   a: In your extended family, people can depend on 
each other for help.
   b: People in your extended family take care of you.
   c: Neighbors depend on each other.

C. Respect:
   a: Younger members of your extended family or other 
younger people obey you. 
   b: Younger members of your extended family or other 
young people talk and behave politely toward you. 
   c: Younger members of your extended family or other 
young people treat you with respect.

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2: disagree
3: agree
4: strongly agree
Observed distributionM=3.31 SD=0.52
Remarks
Interpersonal well-being index was created by 
confirmatory factor analyses and it is a mean of the 
harmony, interdependence and respect subscales.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-?-0-ar=+.31 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family roles
Subject code: R04ab03a

StudyBaruch & Barnett (1986a): study US 1980
TitleConsequences of Fathers' Participation in Family Work: Parents' Role Strain and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, Vol. 51, 983 - 992
PublicMothers with children age 4-10, USA,1980
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60%
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelFathers participation in family work
Page in Source 989
Our classificationFamily roles, code R04ab03a
Operationalization
a Fathers Total interaction time with children
b Fathers Solo interaction time
c Child-care tasks
d Feminine scores
e Mothers' work status

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aRaČ=+.05 ns
a+b+c+d+e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family roles
Subject code: R04ab03a

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelFamilial roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationFamily roles, code R04ab03a
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: spouse, parent, grandparent, 
sibling, child, grandchild.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.37 p < .10
Newlyweds: men
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.54 p < .01
Newlyweds: women
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.42 p < .01
Younger: high school seniors + mewly weds
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Older: middle aged parents + elderly planning to 
retire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work roles
Subject code: R04ab03b

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationWork roles, code R04ab03b
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: employee/employer, student.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.17 p < .10
Younger: high school seniors + mewly weds
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Older: middle aged parents + elderly planning to 
retire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work roles
Subject code: R04ab03b

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationWork roles, code R04ab03b
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview
- employee/employer
- student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns       females: r= ns 
newly weds   males: r= ns       females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns       females: r= ns
preretired   males: r=-.39 (05) females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.18 ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.17 ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work roles
Subject code: R04ab03b

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelSocial integration
Page in Source 574
Our classificationWork roles, code R04ab03b
Operationalization
Number of roles beyond that of wife and mother: 
- paid worker
- club member
- religious member
- friend
- neighbor
- relative
Rated: yes/no
Observed distributionM = 4,11, SD = 1,05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
Betas controlled for:
- age
- education
- husband's occupation (professional or not)
- life-cycle stage (chlid < 6 years or not)
- number of children
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .001
Additional control for employment 
(paid work omitted from list of roles)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Unaffected by interactions between
- roles/employment
- roles/ husband's occupation
- employment/husbands occupation
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Squared roles: To test for curvi-linearity life 
satisfaction was regressed on the square of the 
number of roles, controlling for individual and 
structural variables and number of roles
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
To assess whether the number of roles or one role 
in particular mattered most, each role was entered 
separately into a regression equation along with 
with the control variables and a summary measure 
of other roles. No single role proved 
statistically significant, while the contribution 
of the number of roles remained significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own roles
Subject code: R04ac

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelPrivate collective self-esteem
Page in Source 466
Our classificationAttitudes to own roles, code R04ac
Operationalization
Ss were asked to think of the ascribed social 
categories to which they belong, such as sex, gender 
and religion. They  then rated how good they feel about 
these categories on a 6-point Likert scale.

Private collective esteem subscale of Korean Collective 
Self-esteem Scale (Kim 1994; Luhtanen & Croker 1992)
Error Estimatesalpha=.77

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.36 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own roles
Subject code: R04ac

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelPublic collective self-esteem
Page in Source 466
Our classificationAttitudes to own roles, code R04ac
Operationalization
Ss were asked to think of the ascribed social 
categories to which they belong, such as sex, gender 
and religion. They  then rated how positive other 
people evaluate these categories on a 6-point Likert 
scale.

Public collective esteem subscale of Korean Collective 
Self-esteem Scale (Kim 1994; Luhtanen & Croker 1992)
Error Estimatesalpha=.64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.35 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own roles
Subject code: R04ac

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelMembership esteem
Page in Source 466
Our classificationAttitudes to own roles, code R04ac
Operationalization
Ss were asked to think of the ascribed social 
categories to which they belong, such as sex, gender 
and religion. They  then rated how worthy they are as 
members of these categories on a 6-point Likert scale.

Membership esteem subscale of Korean Collective 
Self-esteem Scale (Kim 1994; Luhtanen & Croker 1992)
Error Estimatesalpha=.71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own roles
Subject code: R04ac

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelCollective self-esteem
Page in Source 466
Our classificationAttitudes to own roles, code R04ac
Operationalization
Ss were asked to think of the ascribed social 
categories to which they belong, such as sex, gender 
and religion. They  then rated:
A How good they feel about these categories (private 
collective esteem)
B How good they think that others evaluate these 
categories (public collective self esteem)
C How worthy they feel as members of these categories 
(membership esteem)
D How important membership is to their selfesteem 
(importance to identity)

Ratings made on a 6-point Likert scale

Korean Collective Self-esteem Scale. (Kim 1994; 
Luhtanen & Croker 1992)
Error Estimatesalpha=.85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-br=+.41 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own roles
Subject code: R04ac

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelOverall role adjustment
Page in Source 38
Our classificationAttitudes to own roles, code R04ac
Operationalization
Combined 13-item marital tension index and 3-item job 
satisfaction index.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.43 p < . 01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question.:

Up to now, have you been able to satisfy most of your ambitions in life or have you had to settle for less than you had hoped for .....?
2 able to satisfy ambitions
1 settled for less
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".......satisfaction with life........."
(full question not reported)

Responses scored pictorial faces scale consisting on several
smilies, expressing variations from very unhappy to very happy.
(Pictures not presented here)
1 unhappy face
2
3
4 neutral face
5
6
7 happy face
(Pictures not presented here)

Name: Kunin's `Faces Scale'
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

Overall, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 pretty happy
2 not too happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".......describe your present life......."
(Full question not reported)
7 rewarding
6
5
4
3
2
1 disappointing
O-SLu-c-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall how satisfied are you with your life now?

Answer options not reported
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how satisfying do you find your life these days? Would you call it....?."
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not satisfying
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as whole.....?
7 completely satisfied
6 satisfied
5 mostly satisfied
4 satisfied/dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B … happiness… (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called hČ or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for EČ x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
EČ = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
EČ = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
RaČADJUSTED COEFFICIENT OF MULTIPLE CORRELATION
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0 ; 1]

Meaning:
Ra = 0 « not any association
Ra = 1 « strongest possible association
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
R04ROLESL02LEADERSHIP
R04ROLESL09LIFE STYLE
R04aa01Earlier rolesL08LIFE HISTORY
R04aa02Change in rolesL06LIFE EVENTS
R04aa02aRole lossC03aa02cLeaving home of children (empty nest)
R04aa02aRole lossR03RETIREMENT
R04aa02bNew rolesC03aa02bBirth of children
R04ab01Current number of rolesA01ACTIVITY (how much one does)
R04ab02cRole numberW05agPerceived conflict between work and home life
R04ab03aFamily rolesC01aaGrand-children
R04ab03aFamily rolesC03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)
R04ab03aFamily rolesG01abGender roles
R04ab03aFamily rolesM02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
R04ab03bWork rolesE02EMPLOYMENT
R04ab03bWork rolesO01OCCUPATION
R04acAttitudes to own rolesR04ab02bRole conflict
R04acAttitudes to own rolesR04ab02dRole stress

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings