Findings on Happiness and RETIREMENT

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and RETIREMENT
Subject Code: R03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
R03RETIREMENT0
R03aaRetirement career3
R03aa01Pre-retirement conditions2
R03aa01aEarlier attitudes to retirement5
R03aa02Change in retirement status11
R03aa02aTime since retirement6
R03aa03Later retirement1
R03abCurrent status: retired or not82
R03aeConditions of retirement1
R03ae01Sudden retirement (vs gradual)2
R03ae02Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)6
R03ae03Full retirement (vs partial)1
R03ae04Planned retirement (vs unexpected)2
R03ae05Age at retirement2
R03acActivities in retirement1
R03ac01Post-retirement job2
R03agAttitudes to retirement13
R03ag01Self-definition in terms of earlier job2
R03ag02Satisfaction with retirement3
R03ae06Early retirement2
R03afReasons for retirement0
R03af01heath reasons1
R03adAdjustment to retirement3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and RETIREMENT
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=R03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Retirement career
Subject code: R03aa

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement career (exit-age)
Page in Source 1496,1510
Our classificationRetirement career, code R03aa
Operationalization
0: Retirement before 50
1: Retirement between 50 and 55
2: Retirement after 55 (reference)
Observed distributionMen: 0: 3; 1: 2; 2: 93 Women: 0: 36; 1: 7; 2: 51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIREMENT BEFORE 50 (vs after age 50)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.34 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.17 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-upward mobility
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIREMENT BETWEEN 50 and 55 (vs after age 55)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.22 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.17 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-upward mobility

Early retirement has has a negative impact on 
happiness for men, but not for women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retirement career
Subject code: R03aa

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationRetirement career, code R03aa
Operationalization
Employment status:
a)unemployed
b)retired
c)student
d)self-employed
f)long term(LT) unemployment (experienced unemployment 
longer than three months in the past 2 years)

Each rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.73 p < .001
1999 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 p < .05
2008 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.54 p < .001
1999 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .001
2008 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.94 p < .001
1999 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.38 p < .001
2008 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
1999 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .01
2008 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 ns
1999 LT unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.29 p < .001
2008 LT unemployment

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
No significant change when additionally controlled 
for:

-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retirement career
Subject code: R03aa

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelEarly retirement
Page in Source 113, 123
Our classificationRetirement career, code R03aa
Operationalization
1: Retired before age 55
   a: at age 51-55
   b: at age 50 or earlier
0: Retired after age 55 (reference group)
Observed distribution1a: males 7,6%, females 7,1% 1b: males 8,7%, females 67,5% 0: males 83,7%, females 25,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIRED BEFORE AGE 50 (vs after age 55)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.15 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.04 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIRED BETWEEN AGE 51-55 (vs after age 55)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.11 ns
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
- parental history
- marital history
- occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Pre-retirement conditions
Subject code: R03aa01

StudyRitter et al. (1999): study US 1998
TitleCurrent Concepts Review: Retirement from Orthopaedic Surgery.
SourceThe Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1999, Vol. 81, 414 - 418
PublicRetired orthopaedic surgeons, United States, 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1293

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal or family reasons for retirement as opposed to health
Page in Source 415
Our classificationPre-retirement conditions, code R03aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport of reason for retirement: personal or family 
reasons as opposed to health reasons. Full text not 
reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aOR=1.88 p < .0207
CI95: [1.09-3.23]
OR controlled for:
- Self reported health now 
- Better health now than before retirement
- Better relationship with spouse
- Increase in travel or vacation activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Pre-retirement conditions
Subject code: R03aa01

StudyDobson (1985): study US 1964
TitleAttitudes and Perceptions.
SourcePowers, E.A.;et al,;Eds.: "Late Life Transitions", Kluwer, 1985, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 123 - 136
Public50+ aged males, fulltime employed at T1, followed ten years, Iowa, USA, 1964-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-ResponseT1 refusals: 8% T1-T2 drop-out: 29%, of which 20% deceased
Respondents N =1870

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 125
Our classificationPre-retirement conditions, code R03aa01
Operationalization
1. full-time employed at T2
2. part-time employed at T2
3. retired at T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-h-sq-v-4-aD%=-
% very contented:  T1    T2
- ful time         58    57
- part-time        53    57
- retired          49    53
- all              54    55


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03aa01a

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelPositive anticipation of retirement
Page in Source 630
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to retirement, code R03aa01a
Operationalization
Single direct question: 'Looking back in time, did you: 
 
0: dislike retirement
1: look forward to retirement'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.21 p < .01
All
           
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.19 p < .05
-65 years old
ß  controlled for:
-  Satisfaction with health
-  Perceived financial adequacy
-  No pension income
-  Community elder
-  Has a confidant
-  Is  happy as grandparents were
-  Aged gradually


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03aa01a

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelApproval of early retirement
Page in Source 630
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to retirement, code R03aa01a
Operationalization
Single direct question: ' Some people  think migrant 
workers should retire when they are still healthy and 
strong so they can enjoy leisure.
Other people think migrant workers should wait until 
pension age so that they have enough money at old age.
What do you think?'
0: regular retirement at pension age
1: early retirement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.23 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.26 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03aa01a

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement wanted
Page in Source 28, 43
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to retirement, code R03aa01a
Operationalization
Self report on direct questions: full text not reported
A: Retirement wanted?
B: Retirement partly wanted?
C: Retirement forced?

Each rated:
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionWanted 64,3%; Partly wanted 8,9%; Forced 26,8%
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.06 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by retirement wanted (vs 
forced)
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.05 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by retirement partly 
wanted (vs forced)

B' s controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-spouse death                
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                       
-white Non-Hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03aa01a

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations: associations
Page in Source 567
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to retirement, code R03aa01a
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in 
voluntary associations
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in voluntary 
associations
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1 year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.06 p < .221
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .464
Direction of difference: Ss that spend more time 
with voluntary associations than expected did not 
get happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness

Negative in poor health category (r=-.21) and aged 
in poor health (r=-.39)
No correlation among healthy (r=.+.03)and older 
(r=+.08) Ss 
Positive in healthy and recent retired Ss (r=.23)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03aa01a

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in community area
Page in Source 567
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to retirement, code R03aa01a
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in the 
community
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in the 
community
Remarks
T1-T2 difference: 1 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.12 ns
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .221
Direction of difference; Ss with spend more time 
than expected became slightly less happy

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyGall et al. (1997): study CA Ontario 1981
TitleThe Retirement Adjustment Process: Changes in the Well-Being of Male Retirees across Time.
SourceJornal of Gerontology, 1997, Vol.52b, 110 - 117
PublicMale retirees, Canada, followed 6-7 years, 1981-1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response47,8%
Respondents N =224

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment
Page in Source 113, 115
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 2 to 4 months pre-retirement
T2: 1 year post-retirement
T3: 6-7 years post-retirement
Remarks
T1: 1981, T3: 1989

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+
                   M     SD     Difference
T1: 2-4 month pre  2,12  0,52
T2: 1 year post    2,20  0,50    +0,08
T3: 6-7 year post  2,22  0,50    +0,02
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 14,36
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness after age 50.

Life satisfaction appears quite stable for those 
who retire at age 65.

Early retirees were originally less happy, but 
reach about the same level after retirement.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 15, 18, 19, 37
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
a: men and women retiring at age 55 to 59 and legally 
disabled
b: all other men and women retiring at age 55 to 59
c: men retiring at age 60 to 62
d: women retiring at age 60
e: men retiring at age 63 or later
f: women retiring at age 61 or later (short employment 
history).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness before and after retirement.

The most unhappy are those who retire early and 
are disabled at retirement.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
CHANGE happiness before and after retirement. 
Controled for:
- log household income
- individual disability status.

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Women only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE happiness by age of retirement.

Among males retirement is followed by a rise in 
happiness:both among early male retirees because 
of disability and among male retirees at age 
60-62.

Happiness is lowest at the year of retirement 
(retirement dip).

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Among females retirement is not followed by a rise 
in happiness.

Women only.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in retirement
Page in Source 331
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in retirement status
a: became retired
b: came out of retirement
c: stayed retired
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
retirement
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.07 ns
became retired
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.26 ns
came out of retirement
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.07 ns
stayed retired

Beta's controlled for change in:
- static variables
  - age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking)
  - marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange to retired
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
1: Got retired
0: Not
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.24 p < .001
CURRENT retired by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 p < .001
CURRENT retired by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.03 ns
BECAME retired by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 27
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
Change in in happiness after retirement between T1 and 
T2.
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bDM=-.02 ns
T1 happiness (when employed):  +0,295
T2 happiness (when retired):   +0,273
               difference:     -0,022


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of volutary associations
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend in the area of 
voluntary associations
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .216
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+13 p < .054
Direction of difference: Ss who come to spend more 
time with voluntary associations become more happy

Correlations with T1-T2 change in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of the family
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend with family
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .359
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.05 p < .282
Direction of difference; Ss who spend more time 
with family became slightly less happy

Correlation with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
T1: pre-retirement
T2: Post-retirement
Difference 1 year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eD%=- p < .005
t=-.3.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRole set disruption in the area of the community
Page in Source 160
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in hours spend in the area of 
community
Remarks
T1: pre-retirement, T2: Post-retirement. Difference 1 
year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.20 p < .005
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .353
Direction of the difference: Ss who came to spend 
more time with community activities did not become 
happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in retirement status
Subject code: R03aa02

StudyThompson et al. (1960): study US 1952
TitleThe Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1960, Vol. 15, 165 - 169
Public60+ aged, employed at start, followed 2 years, USA, 1952-54
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1559

Correlate
Author's labelRecent retirement.
Page in Source 167-168
Our classificationChange in retirement status, code R03aa02
Operationalization
0 Employed: Both at T1 and T2
1 Retired: Between T1 and T2
Observed distributionN = 0: 1082, 1: 477
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aD%=
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness   happy    unhappy
                            to       to
                            unhappy  happy
Gainfull employed thoughout 34%(550) 22%(532)
Retired                     44%(238) 26%(239)
- willing voluntary         31%(75)  29%(65)
- willing administrative    39%(74)  42%(84)
- reluctant voluntary       64%(22)  26%(23)
- reluctant administrative  57%(67)  19%(67)
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aOR=1,04 ns
No more change in happiness among retired
 
Unaffected by
- voluntary vs compulsory retirement.
- economic deprivation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since retirement
Subject code: R03aa02a

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 15, 18, 19, 37
Our classificationTime since retirement, code R03aa02a
Operationalization
a: men and women retiring at age 55 to 59 and legally 
disabled
b: all other men and women retiring at age 55 to 59
c: men retiring at age 60 to 62
d: women retiring at age 60
e: men retiring at age 63 or later
f: women retiring at age 61 or later (short employment 
history).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness before and after retirement.

The most unhappy are those who retire early and 
are disabled at retirement.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
CHANGE happiness before and after retirement. 
Controled for:
- log household income
- individual disability status.

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Women only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE happiness by age of retirement.

Among males retirement is followed by a rise in 
happiness:both among early male retirees because 
of disability and among male retirees at age 
60-62.

Happiness is lowest at the year of retirement 
(retirement dip).

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Among females retirement is not followed by a rise 
in happiness.

Women only.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since retirement
Subject code: R03aa02a

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with prepension or pension state.
Page in Source 381
Our classificationTime since retirement, code R03aa02a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How much more happy do 
you usually feel on a scale of 0 to 10 since you are in 
pre-retirement or retirement?
Error EstimatesN= 0:2%, 1:2%, 2:3%, 3:4%, 4:2%, 5:8%, 6:8%, 7:14%, 8:19%, 9:17%, 10:17%,DKNA:3%
Remarks
Retired subjects only N=322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.1  M = 6.9             +1.2
top 3:  M = 8.1  M = 6.2             +1.9 
top 5:  M = 7.6  M = 5.5             +2.1
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N=  67, Others: 8-0 N= 255
Top 3: 10-8 N= 159, Others: 7-0 N= 164
Top 5: 10-6 N= 252, Others: 5-0 N=  70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since retirement
Subject code: R03aa02a

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of years retired (from migrant work)
Page in Source 630
Our classificationTime since retirement, code R03aa02a
Operationalization
0: Less than 6 years
1: 6- 10 years
2: More than 10 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.03 ns
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=-.13 p < .05
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.04 ns
All
ß controlled for: 
- Satisfied with health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- Has a confidant
- Keeps goats
- Higher monthly income
- More active person
- Worked for many tears in jobs
- No desire to return to work
- Agrees: Modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.10 ns
-65 years old
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Higher monthly income
- Religious traditionalist
- Grows cash crop   
- Feels land is secure
- Worked for many years in jobs
- No desire to return to work
- Achieved/confident of becoming wealthy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since retirement
Subject code: R03aa02a

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelYears since last employment
Page in Source 28, 43
Our classificationTime since retirement, code R03aa02a
Operationalization
Years since last employment
Observed distributionrange 1-12 years
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by years since 
retirement

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-spouse death                
-improved health             
-male                        
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since retirement
Subject code: R03aa02a

StudySkrabanek (1969): study US 1968
TitleAdjustment of Former University Faculty Members to Retirement.
SourceProceedings of the Southwestern Sociological Association, 1969, Vol. 19, 65 - 69
PublicRetired faculty members, University, USA, 1968
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelYears of retirement
Page in Source 68
Our classificationTime since retirement, code R03aa02a
Operationalization
1-7 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-bD%=
U-shaped curve: Those who retired in 1961, 1966 
and 1967 were happier than those who retired 
during the years in-between. Especially those who 
had been retired for 4 years were relatively 
unhappy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since retirement
Subject code: R03aa02a

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of years retired
Page in Source 31
Our classificationTime since retirement, code R03aa02a
Operationalization
Single closed question at T2.
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.00 ns
Earlier retirement by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement
  - health  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                       
  - dependents in household         
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fb=-.01 ns
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income
    
Same for blacks and whites.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later retirement
Subject code: R03aa03

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelStage of life
Page in Source 87
Our classificationLater retirement, code R03aa03
Operationalization
Four groups facing major life-change: 
a: high school seniors (facing work, marriage)
b: newly-married (facing parenthood)
c: middle aged (facing empty nest) 
d: preretired (facing retirement)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 5.3  females: Ms'= 5.3
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 5.9  females: Ms'= 6.1
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 5.7  females: Ms'= 5.9
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 6.0  females: Ms'= 6.2
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 6.2  females: Ms'= 7.1
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 8.0  females: Ms'= 7.8
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 7.5  females: Ms'= 7.0
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 7.9  females: Ms'= 7.6
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% very happy:                        
a: hs seniors  males: = 25%  females: = 26 %
b: newly weds  males: = 48%  females: = 52 %
c: middle aged males: = 37%  females: = 33 %
d: preretired  males: = 52%  females: = 37 %
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMt=+
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 5.6  females Mt'= 5.7
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 5.9  females Mt'= 6.1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
youngest (a+b) males = 37%   females = 39%
oldest   (c+d) males = 45%   females = 35%
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.00 ns
women only
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.01 ns
men only 
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMt=
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 7.1  females Mt'= 7.5
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 7.7  females Mt'= 7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFull time Work Status
Page in Source 175+
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
g: Full time Student
Observed distributionN = a: 750, b: 517, c: 39, d: 13, e: 208, f: 94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,60
b Mt = 8,14; SD = 1,57
c Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,92
d Mt = 8,62; SD = 0,96
e Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,81
f Mt = 6,55; SD = 2,53
g Mt = 7,16; SD = 1,42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFull time Work Status
Page in Source 177
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full ttime retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
Observed distributionN = a: 1433; b: 1007, c: 86, d: 22, e: 366, f: 233
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 8,08; SD = 1,65
c Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,69
d Mt = 8,32; SD = 1,25
e Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
f Mt = 6,61; SD = 2,36
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
f<(a,b,c,d,e)
a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelWork Status
Page in Source 178+179
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid work
b: Full time paid work & part time     
   volunteer
c: Full time Retired
d: Full time Retired & part time 
   volunteer
e: Semi retired
f: Full time Home & Family Care
g: Full time Student
h: Unemplyed
Observed distributionN = a: 1276, b: 157, c: 812, d: 195, e: 86; f: 366, h: 233
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,58
b Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,52
c Mt = 8,07; SD = 1,66
d Mt = 8,12; SD = 1,58
e Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,69
f Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
g Mt = 7,16; SD = 1,42
h Mt = 6,61; SD = 2,36
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .042
a>h
a>h
b>h
b>g
c>a
c>h
c>g
d>a
d>h
d>g
e>h
f>h
f>g;
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,37
b Mt = 8,06; SD = 1,32
c Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,37
d Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,30
e Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,16
f Mt = 7,91; SD = 1,35
g Mt = 7,58; SD = 1,38
h Mt = 7,18; SD = 1,96
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .046
a>h
b>h
c>a
c>h
d>a
d>h
e>h
f>h


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelFulltime Work Status
Page in Source B90
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a:705; b:152; c:5; d:75; e:70; f:654; g:50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .000
a Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,47
b Mt = 7,67; SD = 1,72
c Mt = 8,00; SD = 7,10
d Mt = 7,99; SD = 1,24
e Mt = 6,83; SD = 2,47
f Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,67
g Mt = 7,54; SD = 2,11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
d>e
f>(a,b,e)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's label Work Status
Page in Source B100
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 759, b: 240, c: 4, d: 112, e: 56, f: 501, g: 56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,73
c Mt = 8,26; SD = 2,36
d Mt = 7,51; SD = 1,74
e Mt = 6,54; SD = 2,13
f Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,70
g Mt = 8,15; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
b>e
f>(a.d,e)
g>e
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,43; SD = 1,72
b Mt = 7,45; SD = 1,93
c Mt = 9,00; SD = 1,16
d Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,71
e Mt = 6,16; SD = 2,16
f Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
g Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,97
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT=
a>e
b>e
f>(a,d,e)
g>e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelWork Status
Page in Source B101
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 2192, b: 606, c: 26, d: 186, e: 234, f: 1507, g: 150
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,75
c Mt = 8,31; SD = 1,41
d Mt = 7,37; SD = 1,63
e Mt = 6,76; SD = 2,18
f Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,67
g Mt = 7,14; SD = 2,37
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
b>(d,g,e)
c>(d,g,e)
d>e
f>(b,a,g,e)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,59; SD = 1,56
b Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,70
c Mt = 8,77; SD = 1,03
d Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,56
e Mt = 6,91; SD = 2,02
f Mt = 8,03; SD = 1,58
g Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,98
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT=
a>e
b>e
c>(f,b,a,d,g,e)
d>e
f>(b,a,d,g,e,)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia 2003-2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFulltime Work Status
Page in Source B91
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full tme Volunteer
d: Full time Student
e: Unemployed
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN= a:2897, b:750, c:31, d:261, e:359, f:2161, g:192
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDMt= p < .000
a Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,55
b Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,75
c Mt = 8,26; SD = 1,32
d Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,55
e Mt = 6,64; SD = 2,34
f Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,67
g Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,81
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBMCT=
a>(c,d)
b>(c,d)
f>(c,d)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =1999

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 118
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 :no
2 :yes
Observed distributionN = 1: 1417; 2: 545

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .002
1  Mt=7,70  SD=1,66
2  Mt=7,96  SD=1,88


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Which of these categories best describes your main 
activity since you last worked or looked for work?
1: Retired / Voluntarily Inactive
0: Full-time employed
Observed distribution1: 11%, 0: 34%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.16 p < .05
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.22 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- level of education
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 131
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.04 ns
1                             M'=1.88  Mt'=4.4
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.22 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 130-131
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other 
   a general public
   b all women
   c working people
   d retired
Observed distributionN=1:313; 0a=945; 0b=386; 0c=386;0d=27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
General public    M=2.02 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.11 p < .49
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
All women         M=1.98 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.05 p < ..89
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
Working people    M=2.06 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.11
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.17 p < ..27
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+.07
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
Retired           M=1.88 SD=0.51
-difference       +0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.10 p < .53
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.08 p < .01
1                             M'=1.95  Mt'=4.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.14 p < .01
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyFessel (1985): study AT 1985
TitleSoziologische und Psychologische Ursachen des Wertwandel Phänomens. (Sociological and Psychological Determinants of Value Change).
SourceResearch Report, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung, IFES, 1985, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/fessel_wd_1985.pdf
Public14+ aged, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1027

Correlate
Author's labelPension
Page in Source 111
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a. working
b. not working
c. pensioned

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dDMt=
a.  Mt' = 7.25  
b.  Mt' = 7.40
c.  Mt' = 7.55


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 january 2011
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelAge groups
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 aged 18-24
1 aged 25-34
2 retirees

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
0: M=6.77
1: M=6.68
2: M=7.71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmain occupation
Page in Source 112
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
"What is your main occupation "
a: independent businessman/tradesman
b: assistant in spouse's business
c: unskilled/semi-skilled worker
d: skilled worker
e: housewife
f: salaried employee/civil servant
g: student
h: pensioner
i: social security recipient
Observed distributionN: All:4467; %:a:6,2; b:0,6; c:17,2; d:16,5; e:1,7; f:47,5; g:3,9; h:2,3; I:4,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=8.00
b: Mt=8.08
c: Mt=7.83
d: Mt=7.89
e: Mt=7.70
f: Mt=7.86
g: Mt=7.28
h: Mt=6.09
i: Mt=6.35
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.70
b: Mt=8.08
c: Mt=7.41
d: Mt=7.61
e: Mt=7.56
f: Mt=7.55
g: Mt=6.81
h: Mt=5.88
i: Mt=5.99
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.18
b: Mt=7.79
c: Mt=6.96
d: Mt=7.11
e: Mt=7.46
f: Mt=7.13
g: Mt=6.60
h: Mt=6.06
i: Mt=6.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 14,36
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness after age 50.

Life satisfaction appears quite stable for those 
who retire at age 65.

Early retirees were originally less happy, but 
reach about the same level after retirement.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 25
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 employed(reference group)
1 a self-employed
  b unemployed
  c some work
  d non-working
  e maternity leave
  f military service
  g in education
  h retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.26 p < .01
a: Self-employed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0 p < .01
b: Unemployed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.67
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
c: Some work
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
d: Non-working
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .01
e: Maternity leave 
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
f: Military service
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.46
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
g: In education
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
h: Retired
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.01

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 156-157
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:85 0a=3371; 0b=1766; 0c=2976; 0d=305

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
General public    M=1.57 SD=0.54
-difference       -0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.07 p < .77
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
All women         M=1.59 SD=0.55
-difference       -0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.11 p < .67
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
Working people    M=1.59 SD=0.55
-difference       -0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.12 p < .15
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
Retired           M=1.41 SD=0.51
-difference       +0.11
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.22 p < .26
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.01 ns
1                             M'=1.53  Mt'=2.6
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.08 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 157
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.09 p < .01
1                             M'=1.41  Mt'=2.0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.31 p < .01
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 148
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.11 p < .01
1                             M'=1.12  Mt'=0.6
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.59 p < .01
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 147-148
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:264; 0a=1000; 0b=476;0c=632; 0d=53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
General public    M=1.36 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.07 p < .79
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
All women         M=1.36 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.05 p < .92
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
Working people    M=1.38 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.09 p < .59
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
Retired           M=1.12 SD=0.33
-difference       +0.21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.04 ns
1                             M'=1.33  Mt'=1.7
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.43 p < .07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.08 ns
                             
         e02ab


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelProfesional status
Page in Source 1
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: employable
b: school/studying
c: unemployed
d: retired
Observed distribution1: 1478, 2: 226, 3: 103, 4: 322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
employable:      M = 7.2
school/studying: M = 7.2
unemployed:      M = 6.2
retired:         M = 7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table4, 5
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on employment status:
a. employed (reference)
b. not employed
c. retired
d. in education
e. unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
NOT EMPLOYED (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 ns
RETIRED    (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.12 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.21 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.20 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.16 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.20 p < .05
IN EDUCATION (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.15 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.21 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.18 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.88 p < .001
UNEMPLOYED   (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.80 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.72 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.71 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.65 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a) Unemployed
b) Retired
c) Any other responses to occupation position 
(reference group)
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) Unemployed: 0.06 (0.24) b) Retired: 0.25 (0.43)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.27 p < .01
a) unemployed (vs working)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.00 ns
b) retired (vs working)

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Monthly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Slightly larger results for pooled OLS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
A: Not in Labour Force
B: Retired
C: Unemployed

Rated as:
1: Yes
2: No
Observed distributionA: M = 0,139 SD = 0,346; B: M = 0,203 SD = 0,402; C: M = 0,051 SD = 0,219

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.16 ns
FIXED EFFECTS analysis

Not in falour force (vs not)

OPRC controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - education
- health
- age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.17 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- Net Wealth
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.22 ns
Retired             (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.37 p < .01
Unemployed          (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.06 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

Not in labour force (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.09 ns
Retired    (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 ns
Unemployed (vs not)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - education
- health
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Using this card, which of these descriptions applies to 
what you have been doing for the last 7 days?
1: retired
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 26.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=.11 ns
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- gender
- friends
- partner
- children
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial situation
Page in Source 575
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Self-reported occupation:
a leading employee/civil servant
b qualified high employee/civil
  servant
c unqualified simple employee/civil 
  servant
d foreman, master
e skilled worker
f unskilled worker
g independent professional,entrepreneur
h unemployed
i disabled
j homemaker
k trainee
l early retired
m never employed
Remarks
18-60 aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                                  West    East
a leading employee/civil servant  M=8,2   M= -
b qualified high employee/civil   
  servant                         M=7,9   M=7,4
c unqual.simple employee/civil    
  servant                         M=7,5   M=7,0
d foreman, master                 M=8,2   M= -
e skilled worker                  M=7,4   M=6,9
f unskilled worker                M=7,0   M=6,2
g independent professional,
  entrepreneur                    M=8,1   M=6,9
h unemployed                      M=6,2   M=5,9
i disabled                        M=6,5   M= -
j homemaker                       M=7,7   M= - 
k studying, trainee               M=7,3   M= -
l early retired                   M=7,9   M= -
m never employed                  M=7,5   M= -

- = N too small
West = Western Germany
East = former communist Eastern Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial situation
Page in Source 575
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Self-reported occupation:
a still employed
b never employed
c retired (former worker)
d retired (former c.servant, employee)
Remarks
61+ aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                                  West    East
a still employed                  M=7,8   M= -
b never employed                  M=7,6   M= -
c retired (former worker)         M=7,3   M=7,3
d retired (former c.servant, 
  employee)                       M=7,8   M=7,2

- = N too small
West = Western Germany
Eas t =former communist Eastern Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 retired
0 other
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.14 sd=0.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.05 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelemployment status
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: paid employment
b:  retired
c: unemployed
d: domestic duties
e: full-time student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=
paid employment:     M = 7.68
retired:             M = 7.91
unemployed:          M = 6.43
domestic duties:     M = 8.11
full-time student:   M = 7.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: entrepreneur/self employed
b: clerk/teacher
c: worker/ farmer
d: housewife
e: retired
f: student
g: unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
% Satisfied:
a: 85,5 
b: 83,8 
c: 84,7 
d: 80,8 
e: 86,0 
f: 83,2 
g: 53,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 176
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.02 ns
1                             M'=1.61  Mt'=3.1
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.06 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 175-176
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:294; 0a=1078; 0b=520; 0c=499; 0d=156

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
General public    M=1.57 SD=0.59
-difference       +0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.05 p < .73
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
All women         M=1.60 SD=0.59
-difference       0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=0 p < .1
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
Working people    M=1.53 SD=0.59
-difference       +0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.11 p < .21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
Retired           M=1.61 SD=0.59
-difference       -0.01
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.01 p < .99
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.02 ns
1                             M'=1.60  Mt'=3.0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.06 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyPalmore (1975): study JP 1973
TitleThe Honorable Elders: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Aging in Japan.
SourceDuke University Press, 1975, Durham, USA
Public60+ aged, Japan, 1973
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelStill working
Page in Source 124
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 Not working
1 Still working

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-cD%=+
- still working      83% happy
- not working        65% happy

Computed for those of age 60+ only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 188-189
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN = 1: 457 0a=1752; 0b=1000; 0c=1178; 0d=61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
General public  M = 1.59  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+07 p < .39
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
All women       M = 1.60  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+05 p < .65
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
working people  M = 1.58  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+07 p < .33
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.81
Retired people  M = 1.59  SD = 0,74
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.06 p < .59
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.04 p < .05
1                             M'=1.64  Mt'=3.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.09 p < .05
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 189
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.00 ns
1                             M'=1.59  Mt'=3.0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.04 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 13
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1: yes
2: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.04 ns
B controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - income
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - housewife
  - student
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 = employed (reference)
1 = retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.35 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.13 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.10 ns
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.17 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a paid work
b in education
c unemployed and actively looking for job
d unemployed and not actively looking for job
e permanently sick or disabled
f retired
g housework
h other (reference category).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.05 ns
	paid work (vs other)
b(0.0454) controlled for:
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.02 ns
paid work (vs other)
b(-.245) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.27 p < .001
in education (vs other)
b(0.271) controlled for:
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.22 p < .001
in education (vs other)
b(0.216) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
unemployed and actively looking for job (vs other)
b(-1.066) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income 
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
unemployed and actively looking for job (vs other)
b(-1.059) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.66 p < .001
unemployed and not actively looking for job (vs 
other)
	b(-.664) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.61 p < .001
unemployed and not actively looking for job (vs 
other)
	b(-.613) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
disabled (vs other)
		b(-1.117) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.34 p < .001
disabled (vs other)
b(-.337) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.08 p < .01
retired (vs other)
	b(0.0813) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.19 p < .001
retired (vs other)
	b(0.185) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.04 p < .05
housework (vs other)
b(0.0425) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.03 ns
housework (vs other)
b(0.0342) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBartram (2013b): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleHappiness among North-to-South Migrants in Europe.
SourceWorking Paper, 16-12-2013, University of Leicester, Department of Sociology, UK
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2290154
DOIDOI:10.2139/ssrn.2290154
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2002-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56395

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 22-24
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Using this card, which of these descriptions applies to 
what you have been doing for the last 7 days?
1: retired 
0: otherwise
Observed distribution23.3% retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.14 p < .000
B controlled for:
- Income
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Gender
- Religiosity
- Partner
- Unemployed
- Education
- Friends
- Health
- Immigrant status
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~Eurobarometer (2000a): study ZZ EU 15 2000
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 53,
SourceEuropean Commission, 2000, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb53/eb53_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16078

Correlate
Author's labelMain economic activity
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a.Selfemployed
b.Managers
c.Other white collars
d.Manual workers
e.House persons
f.Unemployed
g.Retired
Observed distributiona: 9%, b: 9%, c: 11%, d: 23%, e: 12%, f: 6%, g: 21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
a.Selfemployed       M=2,87 CI95:2,83-2,91     
b.Managers           M=3,02 CI95:2,98-3,05
c.Other white collarsM=2,96 CI95:2,93-2,99
d.Manual workers     M=2,91 CI95:2,89-2,93 
e.House persons      M=2,86 CI95:2,83-2,89
f.Unemployed         M=2,57 CI95:2,51-2,62
g.Retired            M=2,87 CI95:2,84-2,90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT= p < .05
b>a,d,e,g,f
c>a,e,f,g
f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~Eurobarometer (2000b): study ZZ EU 15 2000 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 54.
SourceEuropean Commission, 2000, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb54/eb54_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelMain Economic Activity
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a.Self employed
b.Managers
c.Other white collars
d.Manual workers
e.House persons
f.Unemployed
g.Retired
Observed distributiona: 9%, b: 9%, c: 11%, d: 23%, e: 12%, f: 5%, g: 21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
a.Self employed    M=2,97 CI95:2,93-3,01       
b.Managers         M=3,17 CI95:3,14-3,20
c.OtherwhitecollarsM=3,01 CI95:2,98-3,04
d.Manual workers   M=3,01 CI95:2,99-3,03
e.House persons    M=2,97 CI95:2,94-3,00
f.Unemployed       M=2,61 CI95:2,56-2,67
g.Retired          M=3,03 CI95:3,01-3,05
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT= p < .05
b>a,c,d,e,g>f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~Eurobarometer (1999): study ZZ EU 15 1999 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 52.
SourceEuropean Commission,1999, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb52/eb52_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15010

Correlate
Author's labelMain economic activity
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a.Self employed
b.Managers
c.Other white collars
d.Manual workers
e.House persons
f.Unemployed
g.Retired
Observed distributiona: 9%, b: 9%, c: 11%, d: 23%, e: 13%, f: 6%, g: 21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
a.Self employed      M=3,00 CI95:2,96-3,03     
b.Managers           M=3,09 CI95:3,06-3,12
c.Other white collar M=3,01 CI95:2,98-3,04
d.Manual workers     M=2,97 CI95:2,95-2,99 
e.House persons      M=2,96 CI95:2,93-2,99
f.Unemployed         M=2,66 CI95:2,61-2,71 
g.Retired            M=2,99 CI95:2,96-3,01
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT= p < .05
b> a,c,d,e,f,g
f< a,b,c,d,e,g


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~Eurobarometer (1998): study ZZ EU 15 1998
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 49.
SourceEuropean Commssion, 1998, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://europa.eu/comm/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb49/eb49_en.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16165

Correlate
Author's labelMain Economic Activity
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Self employed
b: Managers
c: Other white collars
d: Manual workers
e: House Persons
f: Unemployed
g: Retired or unable to work
Observed distributiona: 9%, b: 10%, c: 11%, d: 23%, e: 11%, f: 8%, g: 19%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
a: Self employed      M=2,87 CI95 = 2,83-2,91
b: Managers           M=3,11 CI95 = 3,08-3,14
c: Other white collar M=2,96 CI95 = 2,93-2,99  
d: Manual workers     M=2,92 CI95 = 2,90-2,94
e: House persons      M=2,91 CI95 = 2,87-2,94
f: Unemployed         M=2,59 CI95 = 2,54-2,63
g: Retired            M=2,91 CI95 = 2,88-2,94
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT= p < .05
f< a,g,e,d,c,b  
b> c,d,e,g,a,f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 514
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a part time
b self employed
c retired
d housewife
e unemployed
f student
g employed (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02 p < .472
part time             (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .029
self employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.02 p < .558
retired               (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
housewife             (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.21 p < .001
unemployed            (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .022
student               (vs employed)

Betas controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)

No difference if controlled for country variables 
instead of dummies.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelType of employment
Page in Source 207,210
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
A household, student
B full-time employee
C part-time employee
D family helper
E apprentice
F unemployed
G pensioner
H allowance
I widow pension
Observed distributionA: M=0,04, SD=0,19; B: M=0,59, SD=0,49; C: M=0,01, SD=0,12; D: M=0,004, SD=0,06; E: M=0.001, SD=0.03; F= 0.06, SD= 0,24; G: M=0.26, SD=0,44; H: M=0,02, SD=0,16; I: M=0,02, SD=0,16

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
A household, student    r=+0.03
B full-time employee    r=+0.05
C part-time employee    r=-0,02
D family helper         r=+0,01
E apprentice            r=-0,01
F unemployed            r=-0,12
G pensioner             r=-0,01
H allowance             r=+0,03
I widow pension         r=-0,03
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.49 p < .01
Household, student (vs. Full-time employee) SE 
=.15
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.09 ns
Part-time (vs. Full-time employee)  SE =.23
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.30 ns
Family helper (vs.full time employee)SE =.44
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.08 ns
Apprentice (vs. Full-time employee) SE =.84
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.68 p < .01
Unemployed (vs.full-time employee) SE =.12
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=.07 ns
Pensioner (vs. Full-time employee)  SE =.08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=.05 ns
Allowance (vs. Full-time employee) SE=.18
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.31 ns
Widow pension (vs full-time employee)  SE =.31

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- income
- community size
- church attendance
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a:  self-employed (reference group)
b:  other occupation
c:  housekeeping
d:  retired
e:  unemployed
f:  in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.10 p < .001
Other occupation (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .001
Housekeeping (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .001
Retired (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.31 p < .001
Unemployed (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.16 p < .001
In education (vs self employed)

b's controled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Similar results in analysis using:
- Probit Adjusted OLS (POLS)
- Instrumental Variable (VI)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBlanchflower (2004): study ZZ Europe 1975 /1
TitleSelf-Employment: More May not be Better.
SourceNBER Working Paper 10286, 2004, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w10286
Public18+aged, general public, 17 European countries, 1975-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =480000

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 45-46
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1: Retired 
0: Not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-blgt=+.01
Lgt controls not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment state
Page in Source 29
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a)employed (reference)
b)unemployed
c)self-employed
d)retired
e)keeping home
f)in school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.49 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by employment state
Unemployed    (vs. employed)
OPRC (-0.491)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.03 p < .05
Self-employed (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.031)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.05 p < .05
Retired       (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.046)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.01 p < .10
Keeping home  (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.014)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.20 p < .05
In school     (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.202)

OPRC's controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment situation
Page in Source 33
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: Study/ school
b: No day job outside the house 
c: Retired
d: Working (reference category)
Observed distributionN = 1: 216 2: 273 3: 329 4: 1125

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
            Study  No day job Retired Working 
Very happy   25.5%    29%       24%     24,5%
Happy        69%      65%       65%     67,5%
Not happy    5,5%     15%       11%     8%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled  observed  controlled
Study      0,93  0,71       0,98       0,93
No job     2,67* 2,46*      1,19       1,14
Retired    1,95* 1,89*      1,18       1,12 
Working    1     1          1          1

Control variables are:
- gender
- education 
- family stage 
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = P<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

Study~CBS (2004): study NL 2002
TitleWaardering Leefsituatie, 2002 . (Appreciation Living Condition 2002.)
SourceCentral Bureau for Statistics, 2004, The Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://statline.cbs.nl
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =37482

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 1
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: higher management
b: further white collar
c: small business
d: skilled blue collar
e: unskilled manual
f: unemployed
g: in education
h: unfit for labor
i: pre-retired, retired
j: homemaker (with children)
k: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
higher management    M = 4,20 CI95 [4,18-4,22]
further white collar M = 4,15 CI95 [4,13-4,17]
small business       M = 4,16 CI95 [4,12-4,20]
skilled manual       M = 4,15 CI95 [4,12-4,18]
unskilled manual     M = 4,01 CI95 [3,98-4,04] 
unemployed           M = 3,86 CI95 [3,97-3,94]
in education         M = 4,11 CI95 [4,08-4,14]
unfit for labor      M = 3,65 CI95 [3,59-3,71]
retired              M = 4,07 CI95 [4,02-4,13]
homemaker            M = 4,07 CI95 [4,02-4,12]
other                M = 3,95 CI95 [3,91-3,99]
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBMCT=
a,c,d>f,g,h.i.j>e>k>f>h
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bDMt=
higher management    M = 3,51 CI95 [3,49-3,54]
further white collar M = 3,44 CI95 [3,40-3,47]
small business       M = 3,43 CI95 [3,36-3,50]
skilled manual       M = 3,43 CI95 [3,38-3,47]
unskilled manual     M = 3,27 CI95 [3,38-3,47] 
unemployed           M = 2,83 CI95 [2,74-2,93]
in education         M = 3,44 CI95 [3,40-3,49]
unfit for labor      M = 2,66 CI95 [2,59-2,73]
retired              M = 3,50 CI95 [3,42-3,57]
homemaker            M = 3,28 CI95 [3,21-3,34]
other                M = 3,21 CI95 [3,16-3,26]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bBMCT= p < .05
a,i,g > b,d,e,h,j,f,k
a,b,c,d,g,i > e,k > f > h


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelLabor force status
Page in Source 42,48
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1. Employed:
   a: on contract
   b: own business
   c: free profession, self-employed
   d: volunteer
   e: unpaid work
2. Unemployed:
   a: looking for a job after lost job
   b: looking for a job first time
   c: student
   d: retired
   e: disabled
3. Other (not in labor force)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+-
1. Employed:
   a: on contract           M = 4,18
   b: own business          M = 4,04
   c: free profession       M = 4,09
   d: volunteer             M = 4,01
   e: unpaid work           M = 3,81
2. Unemployed:
   a: looking for a job     M = 4,07
   b: looking for first job M = 3,75
   c: student               M = 3,75
   d: retired               M = 4,04
   e: disabled              M = 4,04

3. Other                    M = 3,99
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.33
Employed on contract              (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.19
Own business                      (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.35
Free profession                   (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.82
Looking for a job: after lost job (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-1.0
Looking for a job: first time     (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.16
Student                           (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.45
keeping the house                 (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.43
Disabled                          (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.91
Unpaid work                       (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.36
Volunteer                         (vs Not)

OLRCs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
  - household size
  - income
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyHenkens (1997): study NL 1992
TitleInactiviteit en Sociaal Isolement, Gezondheid en Welbevinden: Mannelijke Werkelozen, Arbeidsongeschikten, Werkenden en Vutters Vergeleken. (Inactivity and Social Isolation, Health and Well-Being: Employed and Unemployed Compared).
SourceNIDI Working Paper, 1997/2, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/henkens_k_1997.pdf
Public55-64 aged men, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response61,7
Respondents N =575

Correlate
Author's labellabour market position
Page in Source 6
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a unemployed
b unable to work
c employed
d early retired
Observed distributiona 2,2% b:??% c: ?? D: ?? %
Remarks
unemployed: N =13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: M = 3,9
b: M = 3.8
c: M = 4,2
d: M = 4,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyHenkens & Bronsema (2000): study NL 1992
TitleArbeiden Welbevinden. Oudere Werklozen, Arbeidsongeschikten, Werkenden en Vutters Vergeleken. (Work and Well-Being. Comparison between Older Unemployed, Disabled Employers, Employers and Early Retired Workers.)
SourceDemos, 2000, May, 37 - 39
Public55-65 years old,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelPosition on labour maket
Page in Source 40
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: still employed 
b: early retired 
c: unemployed 
d: disabled

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-cD%=-
% happiness:
               (very) happy    not (so) happy 
still employed    90%             >1,5%
early retired     90%              1,5%
unemployed        88%              2,2%
disabled          80%              6,0%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyDrenth et al. (1983): study NL 1981 /1
TitleThe Meaning of Working. Results of a Survey on a National Sample and Ten Specific Target Groups in tghe Netherlands: A source Book.
SourceFree University Press, 1983, Amsterdam, Netherlands
PublicEmployed, unemployed and retired people, Netherlands, 1981
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =905

Correlate
Author's labelJob categories
Page in Source tabel 78
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
A target groups
  a unemployed
  b retired
  c chemical engineer
  d teacher
  e selfemployed
  f tool and die makers
  g clerical workers
  h production workers
  i temporary workers
  j students
B national survey
Observed distributionN = a: 90, b: 85, c: 90, d: 90, e: 103, f: 97, g: 88, h: 84, i: 88, j: 90, total: 992
Remarks
Results of national survey reported in DRENT 1983/1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Aa  M    = 6,49 SD = 2,14
Ab  M    = 7,82 SD = 1,23
Ac  M    = 7,51 SD = 0,97
Ad  M    = 7,66 SD = 1,10
Ae  M    = 7,86 SD = 1,48
Af  M    = 7,48 SD = 1,20
Ag  M    = 7,55 SD = 1,33
Ah  M    = 8,01 SD = 1,04
Ai  M    = 7,35 SD = 1,58
Aj  M    = 7,48 SD = 1,40
all M    = 7,52 SD = 1,44

B   M    = 7,67 SD = 1,27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NL 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 197
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.04 ns
1                             M'=1.64  Mt'=3.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.14 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NO 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Norway, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 205-206
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:264; 0a=1030;0b=533; 0c=673;0d=40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
General public  M = 2.11  SD = 0.55
-difference        +0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.06 p < .53
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
All women       M = 2.16  SD = 0.55
-difference        -0.01
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.02 p < .74
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
Working people  M = 2.09  SD = 0.56
-difference        +0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.11 p < .33
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives       M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
Retired          M = 2.10  SD = 0.55
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.09 p < .91
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.04 ns
1                             M'=2.15  Mt'=5.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.08 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NO 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Norway, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 206
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.00 ns
1                             M'=2.10  Mt'=5.5
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.02 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 323,327
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0: non-retired
1: retired
Observed distribution1: T1: M=0,24; SD=0,24; T2: M=0,31; SD=0,46;
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.30
T1:1995 Retired (vs non-retired)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.38
T2:2000 Retired (vs non-retired)

Beta's controlled for: 
- gender
- marital status
- income
- education level
- minority
- student
- age
- housewife
- employment
- self-employed
- health index

T1-T2 difference in Beta: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent occupation
Page in Source question 124
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
What is your occupational status?
a work as an employee on regular basis
b work regularly (temporaly) on contract basis
c have my own business
d self-employed, have my own farm
e serve in the army, police, work for the Ministry of 
Internal Affairs
f student
g retired
h housewife (including maternity leave cases)
i unemployed
j other
Observed distributionN = 1: 60,9% 2: 5,7% 3: 3,2% 4: 0,9% 5: 0,5% 6: 5,2% 7: 16,3% 8: 4% 9: 2,9% 10: 0,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
a: M = 2,52
b: M = 2,60
c: M = 3,02
d: M = 2,84
e: M = 2,80
f: M = 2,67
g: M = 2,34
h: M = 2,59
i: M = 2,30 
j: M = 2,67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment (males)
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 still working
1 retired
Observed distributionN = 0: 50, 1: 50
Remarks
Males only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aAoV= ns
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
F (1, 99) = 0.002; p = .96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status (females)
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: still working
b: retired
c: still housewife
Observed distributionN = a: 50, b: 50, c: 50
Remarks
Females only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aAoV= ns
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
F (2,149) = 1.51; p = .224


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyFrey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992
TitleMaximizing Happiness?
SourceGerman Economic Review, 2000, Vol. 1, 145 - 167
URLhttps://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/C_335_2000.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Switzerland, 1992
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 156
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
o Employed (reference)
1 a Unemployed
  b Self-employed
  c At home
  d School
  e Retired
  f Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.83 p < .01
Unemployed              (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
Self employed           (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.17 p < .01
At home                 (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02
At school               (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.12 p < .01
Retired                 (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.18 p < .01
Other                   (vs. employed)

Betas controlled for
- Income
- Education
- Demographic factors (gender, age, marital 
status)
- Institutional factor (direct democratic rights)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement status
Page in Source 546, 552
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 self employed
0 not self employed
  a self employed (reference)
  b full time
  c part time
  d retired
  e housewife
  f students
  g unemployed
  h other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.08 ns
full time               (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.28 p < .05
part time               (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.14 ns
retired                 (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.30 p < .01
housewife               (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.20 p < .10
students                (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.41 p < .01
unemployed              (vs. self employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.21 ns
other                   (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.05 ns
full time               (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.36 p < .01
part time               (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.17 ns
retired                 (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.39 p < .01
housewife               (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.26 p < .05
students                (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.13 ns
unemployed              (vs. self employed)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.43 p < .05
other                   (vs. self employed)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Coefficients denote relative differences, 
e.g. greater difference in happiness between self 
employed and unemployed. Comparison is only 
possible across associations with the same 
happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelPensioner
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1: pensioner
0: not
Observed distributionM= 0.24

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=+.18 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - income
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 12
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a Employed 
b Unemployed     
c Retired         
d Sick/disabled       
e Looking after family
Observed distributiona: 51%, b: 4%, c: 21%, d: 4%, e: 7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of employment 
status  

          2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif.
Employed         0           20          -20%
Unemployed       0            9           -9%
Retired          100         16          +84%
Sick/disabled    0           38          -38%
Looking 
after family     0           14           -14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange to retired
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1: Got retired
0: Not
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.24 p < .001
CURRENT retired by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 p < .001
CURRENT retired by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.03 ns
BECAME retired by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyScales & Scase (2001): study GB 1991
TitleFit and Fifty? Britain Towards 2010.
SourceReport, Foresight Programme's Leisure and Earning, 2001, UK
Public50-59 aged, general public, UK, 1991-1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status and income stream
Page in Source 48
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
Self report on employment status and income stream:
a working
b inactive
c inactive - no occupational pension
d inactive - receives occupational pension
e inactive - not receiving disability allowance
f inactive - receives ddisability allowance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=
% satisfied
a: 86%
b: 61%
c: 48%
d: 80%
e: 82%
f: 50%

percentages estimated from bar chart
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an old age pensioner
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 All
1 Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDMt= -
Total population   : Mt = 6.84
Old age pensioners : Mt = 4.74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study GB 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1195

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 138
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.03 ns
1                             M'=1.71  Mt'=3.6
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.08 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study GB 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1195

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 137-138
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:277; 0a=1195; 0b=590;0c=727; 0d=109

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
General public    M=1.78 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.09
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.13 p < .25
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
All women         M=1.76 SD=0.62
-difference       -0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.10 p < .32
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
Working people    M=1.80 SD=0.66
-difference       -0.10
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.16 p < .21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
Retired           M=1.72 SD=0.58
-difference       -0.02
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.03 p < .70
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.06 p < .05
1                             M'=1.69  Mt'=3.5
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.13 p < .05
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyJackson & Gibson (1985): study US 1979
TitleWork and Retirement among the Black Elderly.
SourceSmith-Blau, Z.;Ed.: "Current Perpectives of Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 1", JAI Press, 1985, 193 - 222
Public55+ aged blacks, USA, 1979-80
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =544

Correlate
Author's labelretirement status
Page in Source 205-206
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: working more than 20 hours a week
b: retired, not working or working less tahn 20 hours
c: nonretired, not working or working less than 20 hrs
Observed distributionN = a: 41, b. 250, c: 150

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=
%        very      somewhat   somewhat/very
         satisfied satisfied  dissatisfied
working     44.7     44,3        12,1    M=2,32
retired     54.4     33,6        12,0    M=2,42
nonretired  46.0     36,0        18,0    M=2,28

%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=
%          very     pretty      not too  
           happy    happy       happy
working     36,6     54,2        9,2     M=2,27
retired     59.8     32,9        7,2     M=2,52
nonretired  42.7     46,7       10,7     M=2,32
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=
% got what you hoped for out of life
         mostly     less
working     69,5     30,5                M=1,70
retired     79,4     20,6                M=1,79
nonretired  68,7     31,3                M=1,69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired
Page in Source 408
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 Working 
1 Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.21 p < .01
1957 Working 36% happy, retired 27% happy.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=+.09 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.17 p < .01
1976 Working 32% happy, retired 40% happy.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyLee (1978): study US Washington 1975
TitleMarriage and Morale in Later Life.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 131 - 139
Public60+ aged marrieds, Washington State USA, 1975
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =439

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 retired
0 not retired
Observed distributionmean: 0.7 sd: 0.4
Remarks
males only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=+.02
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.02
males
beta controlled for
-age
-length of marriage
-education
-self perceived health
-marital satisfaction
-satisfaction with standard of living


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 225
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 Working
1 Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for:                
1: education, occupation, income, level of living
2: live alone, married, children, contact with
   relatives, contact with friends, church 
   attendance, organizational  membership. 
3: health problems, recent move, separated/ 
   divorced, unemployed.
4: widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

ß in different age groups:
50-64  ß= -.04 (ns)    over 64 ß= -.08 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =534

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 229
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 Working
1 Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
ß controlled for education, occupation, income, 
live alone, married status, contact with 
relatives, contact with friends, church 
attendance, organization membership, separated / 
divorced, widowed,place of residence, sexe, age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudySpreitzer & Snyder (1974): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Life Satisfaction among the Aged.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 454 - 458
Public18+ aged, married or widowed, USA,1972-73
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1547

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 456
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0. Working full-time 
1. Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aD%= -
Computed for males of age 65 - 70 only.
55% of those still working full-time, and 45% of 
the retired males report a high degree of life 
satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyWard (1979): study US 1972
TitleThe Never-Married in Later Life.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1979, Vol. 34, 861 - 869
Public50+ aged, USA, 1972-1977
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3557

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 865
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 Working 
1 Retired
Remarks
50+ aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agD%=+
MARRIEDS: % very happy
- working 40.9%
- retired 47,5%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agChi²=7.3 p < .03
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agD%=
NEVER MARRIEDS: % very happy
- working 32.4%
- retired 21,0%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agChi²=4.4 p < .11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyCampbell et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleThe Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions.
SourceRussel Sage Foundation, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 423
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 Housewives
1 Working women (single and married)

0 Retired males
1 Working males (single and married)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aG=-.24 p < .01


O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aG=-.23 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyThurnher (1974): study US 1969
TitleGoals, Values, and Life Evaluations at The PreRetirement Stage.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 85 - 96
URLhttps://www.geron.org/
Public55+ aged, people in transition, United States, 196?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelTransition of Retirement
Page in Source 86, 90
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
a: empty nest stage
   e.g. Ss whose youngest child was a high school 
senior and who were facing the imminent completion of 
the family cycle
b: pre-retired stage
   e.g. Ss anticipating retirement or retirement of 
spouse within 3 years
Observed distributionN: Males:a=26, b=28; Women:a=25, b=30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-?-sq-v-3-aDM=
MALES              
a:Empty nest:  M=2,19; SD=0,57    
b:Pre-retired: M=1,57; SD=0,69    
- difference:   -0,62            

WOMEN
a:Empty nest:  M=1,88; SD=0,70
b:Pre-retired: M=2,03, SD=0,81
- difference:   +0,15
C-W-?-sq-v-3-aBMCT=
d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired
Page in Source 14
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
0 All
1 Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= -
Males   : G' = -.29 (01)
Females : G' = -.27 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study US 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retired, independent
Page in Source 214
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Retired or independent
0 Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.01 ns
1                             M'=1.86  Mt'=4.3
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.05 ns
                  
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current status: retired or not
Subject code: R03ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study US 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 213-214
Our classificationCurrent status: retired or not, code R03ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a general public
   b all women
   c working people
   d retired
Observed distributionN=1: 337; 0a=1015; 0b=498; 0c=491;0d=71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
General public    M=1.89 SD=0.64
-difference       -0.02
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.03 p < .81
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
All women         M=1.84 SD=0.62
-difference       +0.03
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.05 p < .80
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
Working people    M=1.92 SD=0.64
-difference       -0.05
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.08 p < .60
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
Retired           M=1.86 SD=0.64
-difference       +0.01
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.02 p < .95
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.02 ns
1                             M'=1.87  Mt'=4.4
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.04 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Activities in retirement
Subject code: R03ac

StudyRitter et al. (1999): study US 1998
TitleCurrent Concepts Review: Retirement from Orthopaedic Surgery.
SourceThe Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1999, Vol. 81, 414 - 418
PublicRetired orthopaedic surgeons, United States, 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1293

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease in travel or vacation activity since retirement
Page in Source 415
Our classificationActivities in retirement, code R03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of travel or vacation activities after 
retirement. Full text not reported
1: increased
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aOR=2.36 p < .0001
CI95: [1.74-3.20]
OR controlled for:
- Excellent health at present time 
- Better health now than before retirement
- Better relationship with spouse
- Personal or family reasons for retirement as 
opposed to health reasons


Correlational finding on Happiness and Post-retirement job
Subject code: R03ac01

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived increase in occupational prestige
Page in Source 181
Our classificationPost-retirement job, code R03ac01
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on present job in 
comparison with former military job with respect to: 
it's general importance, level of skill and knowledge 
required, authority over other people.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+.22
Positive Affects: G= +.30
Negative Affects: G= -.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Post-retirement job
Subject code: R03ac01

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived amount of change in occupation
Page in Source 181
Our classificationPost-retirement job, code R03ac01
Operationalization
5-item index of closed questions on amount of change in 
present occupation compared with former military 
occupation, rated on 4-point scales ranging from 'the 
same' to 'very different'.
Items used: actual work performed, knowledge and skill 
used, amount of time spent working, type of 
organization, kind of people one works with.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-.16
Positive Affects: G= -.17
Negative Affects: G= +.12

Increased occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= -.29
-positive affect: G= -.25
-negative affect: G= +.20

Same occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= +.17
-positive affect: G= +.05
-negative affect: G= -.12

Decreased occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= -.19
-positive affect: G= -.17
-negative affect: G= +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to retirement
Subject code: R03ad

StudyBraithwaite et al. (1986): study AU 1981
TitleAn Exploratory Study of Poor Adjustment Styles Among Retiress.
SourceSocial. Science and Medicine 1986, Vol. 23, 493 - 499
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953686900092
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2
Public60+aged, retired people, Sydney Australia, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1050

Correlate
Author's labelGetting used to change
Page in Source 495-496
Our classificationAdjustment to retirement, code R03ad
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question, text not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fr=0 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to retirement
Subject code: R03ad

StudyBraithwaite et al. (1986): study AU 1981
TitleAn Exploratory Study of Poor Adjustment Styles Among Retiress.
SourceSocial. Science and Medicine 1986, Vol. 23, 493 - 499
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953686900092
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2
Public60+aged, retired people, Sydney Australia, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1050

Correlate
Author's labelNothing good
Page in Source 495-496
Our classificationAdjustment to retirement, code R03ad
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question, text not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fr=-.20 p < .001
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.20 p < .001
rpc controled for current economic well-being.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.18 p < .01
rpc controled for current income adequacy.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.14 p < .01
rpc controled for current health.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.19 p < .001
rpc controled for community involement.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.19 p < .001
rpc controled for reluctance.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.15 ns
rpc controled for boredom.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to retirement
Subject code: R03ad

StudyBraithwaite et al. (1986): study AU 1981
TitleAn Exploratory Study of Poor Adjustment Styles Among Retiress.
SourceSocial. Science and Medicine 1986, Vol. 23, 493 - 499
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953686900092
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2
Public60+aged, retired people, Sydney Australia, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1050

Correlate
Author's labelBoredom
Page in Source 495-496
Our classificationAdjustment to retirement, code R03ad
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question, text not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fr=-.17 p < .001
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.21 p < .001
rpc controled for economic well-being.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.21 p < .001
rpc controled for income adequacy.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.16 p < .01
rpc controled for reluctance.
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.11 p < .05
rpc controled for nothing good.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conditions of retirement
Subject code: R03ae

StudyRitter et al. (1999): study US 1998
TitleCurrent Concepts Review: Retirement from Orthopaedic Surgery.
SourceThe Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1999, Vol. 81, 414 - 418
PublicRetired orthopaedic surgeons, United States, 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1293

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal or family reasons for retirement as opposed to health
Page in Source 415
Our classificationConditions of retirement, code R03ae
Operationalization
Selfreport of reason for retirement: personal or family 
reasons as opposed to health reasons. Full text not 
reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aOR=1.88 p < .0207
CI95: [1.09-3.23]
OR controlled for:
- Self reported health now 
- Better health now than before retirement
- Better relationship with spouse
- Increase in travel or vacation activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sudden retirement (vs gradual)
Subject code: R03ae01

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelSudden retirement (from migrant work)
Page in Source 630
Our classificationSudden retirement (vs gradual), code R03ae01
Operationalization
'Did you retire from your job in town from one day to 
the next, or did you retire gradually, say by working 
fewer hours, doing lighter jobs or returning home for 
longer periods of time?' 
0: gradual
1: sudden

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 p < .01
All
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.20 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.12 p < .05
All
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Voluntary retirement
- More active person
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Community elder
- Satisfied with job while working
- Enjoys aspects of retirement
- Is happy as grandparents were
- Agrees:planning is key to success
- Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
- Higher modernity score
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.15 p < .05
65+ years old, Beta controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Grows cash crop
- Voluntary retirement  
- Need to purchase maize
- Owns cattle  
- Keeps chicken
- Satisfied with job while working
- Feels relatively young
- Agrees: planning is key to success


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sudden retirement (vs gradual)
Subject code: R03ae01

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelPrompt retirement (vs gradual)
Page in Source 8, 27, 28, 30, 43
Our classificationSudden retirement (vs gradual), code R03ae01
Operationalization
1: Prompt retirement ("cold turkey"): Ss reported 'not 
retired' in every wave prior to the wave designated 
definition
0: Gradual retirement: Subject must have one or more 
sequential waves with "not retired" responses 
immediately followed by one or more waves "partly 
retired" responses, immediately followed by full 
retirement.
Observed distribution1. Prompt/Cold Turkey: 1733 (73%) 2. Gradual/Phased: 656 (27%)
Remarks
Individuals are classified as 'fully employed' if they 
work at least 30 hours per week and report themselves 
as 'not retired'. 

Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Individuals are classified as 'fully retired' if they 
have zero hours of work and report themselves 
'completely retired'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bDM=0 ns
T1 Happiness
- promt retirement      M=0,295 (SD=0,231)
- gradual retirement    M=0,295 (SD=0,228)
difference                0
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bDM=-.01 ns
T2 Happiness
- prompt retirement      M=0,276 (SD=0,256)
- gradual retirement     M=0,264 (SD=0,269)
difference                -0,012
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bDM=-.01 ns
T1-T2 Difference in Happiness (DM):
- prompt retirement     M=-0,018 (SD=0,235)
- gradual retirement    M=-0,031 (SD=0,242)
difference                 -0,013 (ns)
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=0 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness (regression)

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement (partly) wanted           
-spouse death    
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
Subject code: R03ae02

StudyBraithwaite et al. (1986): study AU 1981
TitleAn Exploratory Study of Poor Adjustment Styles Among Retiress.
SourceSocial. Science and Medicine 1986, Vol. 23, 493 - 499
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953686900092
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2
Public60+aged, retired people, Sydney Australia, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1050

Correlate
Author's labelReluctance
Page in Source 495-496
Our classificationCompulsory retirement (vs free choice), code R03ae02
Operationalization
Self-repoted on question that whether respondents would 
have preferred retire later than they did.
1:Yes
2:No
Remarks
Reasons for retiring were sought throuh an open-ended 
question.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fr=-.05 ns
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.01 ns
rpc controled for nothing good and boredom.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
Subject code: R03ae02

StudyPeretti & Wilson (1975): study US 1973
TitleVoluntary and Involuntary Retirement of Aged Males and Their Effect on Emotional Satisfaction, Usefulness, Self-Image, Emotional Stability and Interpersonal Relationships.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 38 - 51
Public60-70 aged living in a retirement home, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelVoluntary retirement
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCompulsory retirement (vs free choice), code R03ae02
Operationalization
0 Involuntary retirement
1 Voluntary retirement

Both groups matched for years of retirement, 
occupational level and length of stay in the 
institution.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-c-mq-v-2-aC=+.32 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
Subject code: R03ae02

StudySkrabanek (1969): study US 1968
TitleAdjustment of Former University Faculty Members to Retirement.
SourceProceedings of the Southwestern Sociological Association, 1969, Vol. 19, 65 - 69
PublicRetired faculty members, University, USA, 1968
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelCompulsory retire- ment
Page in Source 68
Our classificationCompulsory retirement (vs free choice), code R03ae02
Operationalization
0. Not compulsory 
1. Compulsory retirement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-bD%= -
Only 83% of those retired under a policy of com- 
pulsory retirement considered themselves happy as 
compared with 90% of those who retired because 
they personally desired to do so.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
Subject code: R03ae02

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelReason retirement: health
Page in Source 31
Our classificationCompulsory retirement (vs free choice), code R03ae02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question on reasons for 
retirement: 
0 voluntary
1 because of health
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.17 p < .001
Earlier reason for retirement by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                      
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.16 p < .001
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income

Same for blacks and whites


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
Subject code: R03ae02

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelReason retirement: compulsory plan
Page in Source 31
Our classificationCompulsory retirement (vs free choice), code R03ae02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about reasons for 
retirement:
0 Voluntary
1 Compulsory plan
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working
T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.06 p < .05
Earlier reason for retirement by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement  
  - health
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                       
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.06
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income

Same for blacks and whites


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
Subject code: R03ae02

StudyThompson et al. (1960): study US 1952
TitleThe Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1960, Vol. 15, 165 - 169
Public60+ aged, employed at start, followed 2 years, USA, 1952-54
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1559

Correlate
Author's labelCompulsory retirement.
Page in Source 168
Our classificationCompulsory retirement (vs free choice), code R03ae02
Operationalization
Retirement between T1 and T2
0 Willing
1 Reluctant
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aD%=
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness   happy    unhappy
                            to       to
                            unhappy  happy
Gainfull employed thoughout 34%(550) 22%(532)
Retired                     44%(238) 26%(239)
- willing voluntary         31%(75)  29%(65)
- willing administrative    39%(74)  42%(84)
- reluctant voluntary       64%(22)  26%(23)
- reluctant administrative  57%(67)  19%(67)
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aOR=-
OR -1,04 
Unaffected by  T1 orientation to retirement


Correlational finding on Happiness and Full retirement (vs partial)
Subject code: R03ae03

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelReason retirement: unemployment
Page in Source 31
Our classificationFull retirement (vs partial), code R03ae03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about reasons for 
retirement:
0 voluntary
1 because of unemployment
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.02 ns
Earlier reason for retirement by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement  
  - compulsory plan
  - health
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems 
  - marital status                      
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.02
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income

Same for blacks and whites


Correlational finding on Happiness and Planned retirement (vs unexpected)
Subject code: R03ae04

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelWork Status
Page in Source 144
Our classificationPlanned retirement (vs unexpected), code R03ae04
Operationalization
Single quetion:
I am going to ask about your work status.Please tell me 
which of the following categories best applies to you 
at the present time,Are you in---
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time Volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
Observed distributionN = a: 683, b: 490, c: 47,d: 9, e: 158, f: 139

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=
a Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,53
b Mt = 8,01; SD = 1,73
c Mt = 8,21; SD = 1,45
d Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,54
e Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,72
f Mt = 6,42; SD = 2,36
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cBMCT= p < .00
a>f
a>e
a>d
a>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Planned retirement (vs unexpected)
Subject code: R03ae04

StudySkrabanek (1969): study US 1968
TitleAdjustment of Former University Faculty Members to Retirement.
SourceProceedings of the Southwestern Sociological Association, 1969, Vol. 19, 65 - 69
PublicRetired faculty members, University, USA, 1968
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelAdvanced planning ofretirement
Page in Source 68
Our classificationPlanned retirement (vs unexpected), code R03ae04
Operationalization
No plans / some plans / planned a great deal.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-bD%= +
± 91% of those who had planned a great deal are 
happy in retirement as compared with 84% of those 
who had planned some, but comparatively little, 
and only 79% of those who had made no plans.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age at retirement
Subject code: R03ae05

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 15, 18, 19, 37
Our classificationAge at retirement, code R03ae05
Operationalization
a: men and women retiring at age 55 to 59 and legally 
disabled
b: all other men and women retiring at age 55 to 59
c: men retiring at age 60 to 62
d: women retiring at age 60
e: men retiring at age 63 or later
f: women retiring at age 61 or later (short employment 
history).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness before and after retirement.

The most unhappy are those who retire early and 
are disabled at retirement.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
CHANGE happiness before and after retirement. 
Controled for:
- log household income
- individual disability status.

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Women only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE happiness by age of retirement.

Among males retirement is followed by a rise in 
happiness:both among early male retirees because 
of disability and among male retirees at age 
60-62.

Happiness is lowest at the year of retirement 
(retirement dip).

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Among females retirement is not followed by a rise 
in happiness.

Women only.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Age at retirement
Subject code: R03ae05

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelAge at retirement from wage labour (migrant work)
Page in Source 630
Our classificationAge at retirement, code R03ae05
Operationalization
0: 35-49
1: 50-54
2: 55-59
3: 60-64
4: 65+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.16 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.14 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Early retirement
Subject code: R03ae06

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 14,36
Our classificationEarly retirement, code R03ae06
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness after age 50.

Life satisfaction appears quite stable for those 
who retire at age 65.

Early retirees were originally less happy, but 
reach about the same level after retirement.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Early retirement
Subject code: R03ae06

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 15, 18, 19, 37
Our classificationEarly retirement, code R03ae06
Operationalization
a: men and women retiring at age 55 to 59 and legally 
disabled
b: all other men and women retiring at age 55 to 59
c: men retiring at age 60 to 62
d: women retiring at age 60
e: men retiring at age 63 or later
f: women retiring at age 61 or later (short employment 
history).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE in happiness before and after retirement.

The most unhappy are those who retire early and 
are disabled at retirement.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
CHANGE happiness before and after retirement. 
Controled for:
- log household income
- individual disability status.

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Women only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
CHANGE happiness by age of retirement.

Among males retirement is followed by a rise in 
happiness:both among early male retirees because 
of disability and among male retirees at age 
60-62.

Happiness is lowest at the year of retirement 
(retirement dip).

Men only.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Among females retirement is not followed by a rise 
in happiness.

Women only.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and heath reasons
Subject code: R03af01

StudyBraithwaite et al. (1986): study AU 1981
TitleAn Exploratory Study of Poor Adjustment Styles Among Retiress.
SourceSocial. Science and Medicine 1986, Vol. 23, 493 - 499
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953686900092
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2
Public60+aged, retired people, Sydney Australia, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1050

Correlate
Author's labelHealth related retirement
Page in Source 495-496
Our classificationheath reasons, code R03af01
Operationalization
Reasons for retiring were sought through an open-ended 
question, after affirmative answer the question whether 
they would have preferred retiring later than they did.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fr=-.13 p < .05
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-frpc=-.03 ns
rpc controled for current health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyBraithwaite et al. (1986): study AU 1981
TitleAn Exploratory Study of Poor Adjustment Styles Among Retiress.
SourceSocial. Science and Medicine 1986, Vol. 23, 493 - 499
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953686900092
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2
Public60+aged, retired people, Sydney Australia, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1050

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulty adjusting
Page in Source 495
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Self-reported on question that wether their adjustment 
was difficult:
1:not at all
2:somewhat
3:difficult
Remarks
Problems encountered upon retirement were ascertained 
from respondents listings  of the worst things about 
retirement along with the best.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fr=-.21 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment to retirement
Page in Source 257-260
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 4-point scale with 
the choice statements: 'very diff.', 'some diff.', 
'accept.' and 'easy'.
Remarks
Controled for: self-rated health, lonely, marital 
status and number of friends in city. B = +.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.39 p < .001
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atc=+.30 p < .001
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.29 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyLehr & Dreher (1969): study XZ Germany West 1965 /1
TitleDeterminants of Attitudes towards Retirement.
SourceHavighurst, R.J.;et al;Eds.: "Adjustment to Retirement: A Cross National Study", VanGorcum, 1969, Assen, Netherlands, 116 - 137
PublicRetired and employed steelworkers, Germany 1965
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =290

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment to retirement
Page in Source 126
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Self-report on questions concerning 
A: Attitude to future retirement
   (50-55 aged)
B: Satisfaction with current retirement
   (70-75 aged) 

Rated on a 9-point numerical scale (1=low to 9=high)

Coded:
1: negative
2: positive
Observed distributionSteelworkers aged 50-55 N =94 positive attitude: 59, negative attitude: 38 Steelworkers aged 70-75 N=95 (satisfied=72, dissatisfied=23)
Remarks
Dissatisfactiom with retirement is lowest shortly after 
retirement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aDMe=+ ns
Attitude to future retirement (50-55 aged)
1: negative attitude    Me = 5,43
2: positive attitude    Me = 6,72
- difference                +1,29
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aDMe=+ p < .01
Satisfaction with current retirement (70-75 aged) 
1: dissatisfied        Me = 5,00
2: satisfied           Me = 6,85
- difference               +1,85

Statistical significance according to U Test of 
Mann-Whitney


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived financial deprevation in retirement
Page in Source 630
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Now that you are retired, is your standard of living 
better or worse than during most of your working 
life-time?'
0: worse
1: better

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.28 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement meets expectations
Page in Source 632
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
'Would you say that retirement turned out?'
0: better or worse
1: same as expected

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.46 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.40 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to return to work
Page in Source 632
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
'Have you ever thought about returning to town to find 
another job?'
0: often, sometimes
1: hardly ever

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=-.28 p < .01
All
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.16 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.17 p < .01
All
ß controlled for: 
- Satisfied with health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- Has a confidant
- Keeps goats
- Higher monthly income
- More active person
- Worked for many tears in jobs
- Retired for many years
- Agrees: Modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.15 p < .01
65+ years old
ß controlled for:
- Seldom restricted by poor health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- More active person
- Keeps chicken
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Keeps goats
- Larger size field
- Higher monthly income
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.17 p < .05
-65 years old
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Higher monthly income
- Religious traditionalist
- Grows cash crop   
- Feels land is secure
- Retired for many years
- Worked  for many years in jobs
- Achieved/confident of becoming wealthy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyEden et al. (1998): study SE 1992
TitleIs Disability Pension related to Quality of Life?
SourceScandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, 1998, Vol. 7, 300 - 309
Public25-59 aged disability pensioners, Kristianstad, Sweden, 1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response16.4%
Respondents N =450

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life since unfit to work
Page in Source 302-303
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
Do you think they your life as a whole has become 
better or worse since you got your early retirement 
pension compared to the year just before this pension?
5 much better
4 better
3 unchanged
2 worse
1 much worse

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ltc=+.28 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement wanted
Page in Source 28, 43
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Self report on direct questions: full text not reported
A: Retirement wanted?
B: Retirement partly wanted?
C: Retirement forced?

Each rated:
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionWanted 64,3%; Partly wanted 8,9%; Forced 26,8%
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.06 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by retirement wanted (vs 
forced)
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.05 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by retirement partly 
wanted (vs forced)

B' s controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-spouse death                
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                       
-white Non-Hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyWozniak et al. (1993): study US 1985
TitleDomains of Subjective Well-Being in Farm Men and Women.
SourceJournal of Family and Economic Issues, 1993, Vol. 14, 97 - 114
Public18-65 aged farm-couples, USA, 1985
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1110

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with farm plans
Page in Source 105-106
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Considering everything about your life at the present 
time, how would you rate your overall satisfaction with 
the plans for the farm, after you and your spouse 
retire?
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionM=3.40 SD=0,899

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mr=+.43 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.10 p < .001
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-control of life
-standard of living
-children
-farm income
-household
-retirement plans
-farm tasks

Women enployed off the farm rely less on 
satisfaction with plans for the farm for their 
overall happiness than women not employed off the 
farm. However: men employed off the farm rely more 
on satisfaction with plans for the farm than men 
who are not employed off the farm.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyWozniak et al. (1993): study US 1985
TitleDomains of Subjective Well-Being in Farm Men and Women.
SourceJournal of Family and Economic Issues, 1993, Vol. 14, 97 - 114
Public18-65 aged farm-couples, USA, 1985
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1110

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with retirement-plans
Page in Source 105-106
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Considering everything about your life at the present 
time, how would you rate your overall satisfaction with 
your plans for retirement?
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionM=3.27 SD=1,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mr=+.48 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.12 p < .01
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-control of life
-standard of living
-farm plans
-children
-farm income
-household
-farm tasks

Satisfaction with retirement plans is more 
strongly related to overall happiness for men than 
for women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in family area
Page in Source 566, 567
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend with 
family
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend with family
Remarks
T1-T2 1 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.25 p < .001
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.23 p < .002
Direction of difference; Ss who spend more hours 
with family than expected became less happy.

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
Unaffected by age, income, health, SES and 
retirement duration


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyKeith (1985a): study US 1969
TitleWork, Retirement and Well-Being among Unmarried Men and Women.
SourceGerontologist, 1985, Vol. 25, 410 - 416
Public58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1398

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement attitudes
Page in Source 414
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Selfreport in 3 questions:
A retirement is a pleasant time of life
B people who don't retire when they're  financially 
able to are foolish
C older workers should retire when they  can, so as to 
give younger people more  of a chance on the job

Rated  (4) strongly agree to (1) strongly disagree:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
Happiness assessed at T2:
Widowed             r= +.21 (ns)   ß= +.18 (05)
Divorced/Separated  r= +.16 (ns)   ß= +.17 (05)
Never married       r= +.23 (ns)   ß= +.20 (05)
ß's controlled for sex, earlier education, age, 
earlier occupation, earlier happiness, health, 
income and employment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R03ag

StudyGoudy et al. (1975): study US 1964
TitleThe Work-Satisfaction, Retirement-Attitude Typology: Profile Examination.
SourceExperimental Aging Research, 1975, Vol. 1, 267 - 279
Public50+, employed, male, USA 1964
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1868

Correlate
Author's labelWork-retirement attitudinal types
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R03ag
Operationalization
Self report using several questions for positive or 
negative attitudes toward work and retirement
a: +W, +R 
b: +W, -R 
c: -W, +R 
d: -W, -R
Observed distributionN = a: 403, b: 508, c: 428, d:529
Remarks
Authors note that relatively more respondents were aged 
65 and over for category B (+W,-R), while relatively 
more respondents were aged 50-54 for category C 
(-W,+R).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-h-sq-v-4-aD%=
%happy (very well vs. fairly well/not very 
well/not well at all):
a:73% b: 68% c: 41% d: 35%
M-CO-h-sq-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
d,c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-definition in terms of earlier job
Subject code: R03ag01

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelCivilian reference group salience aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 196
Our classificationSelf-definition in terms of earlier job, code R03ag01
Operationalization
8-item index of statements indicating orientation 
towards and identification with civilian life and 
current civilian career.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Positive Affects only: G= +.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-definition in terms of earlier job
Subject code: R03ag01

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelMilitary reference group salience aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 208
Our classificationSelf-definition in terms of earlier job, code R03ag01
Operationalization
8-item index of statements indicating orientation 
towards and identification with the army and former 
military career.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Positive Affects only: G= +.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with retirement
Subject code: R03ag02

StudyLehr & Dreher (1969): study XZ Germany West 1965
TitleDeterminants of Attitudes towards Retirement.
SourceHavighurst, R.J.;et al;Eds.: "Adjustment to Retirement: A Cross National Study", VanGorcum, 1969, Assen, Netherlands, 116 - 137
Public60-75 aged middle class employees or former employees, Germany, 1965
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =200

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment to retirement
Page in Source 128
Our classificationSatisfaction with retirement, code R03ag02
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning retirement, rated on 
a 9-point numerical scale (1 dissatisfied to 9 
satisfied)

Recoded
1: dissatisfied 
2: satisfied
Observed distributionN:Middle class 60-65 aged=59 (satisfied=26, dissatisfied=23); Middle class 70-75 aged=55 (satisfied=31, dissatisfied=24,)
Remarks
Satisfaction with retirement tends to be lowest shortly 
after retirement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bDMe=+ p < .01
Middle Class retirees aged 60-65:
1: dissatisfied  Me = 6,62
2: satisfied     Me = 8,50
-difference          +1,68
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aDMe=+ ns
1: dissatisfied  Me = 6,03
2: satisfied     Me = 6,75
-difference          +0,72
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bDMe=+ p < .05
Middle Class retirees aged 70-75:
1: dissatisfied  Me = 7,36
2: satisfied     Me = 8,33
-difference          +0.97
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aDMe=+ p < .01
1: dissatisfied  Me = 5,50
2: satisfied     Me = 7,45
-difference          +1,95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with retirement
Subject code: R03ag02

StudyLehr & Dreher (1969): study XZ Germany West 1965 /1
TitleDeterminants of Attitudes towards Retirement.
SourceHavighurst, R.J.;et al;Eds.: "Adjustment to Retirement: A Cross National Study", VanGorcum, 1969, Assen, Netherlands, 116 - 137
PublicRetired and employed steelworkers, Germany 1965
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =290

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment to retirement
Page in Source 126
Our classificationSatisfaction with retirement, code R03ag02
Operationalization
Self-report on questions concerning 
A: Attitude to future retirement
   (50-55 aged)
B: Satisfaction with current retirement
   (70-75 aged) 

Rated on a 9-point numerical scale (1=low to 9=high)

Coded:
1: negative
2: positive
Observed distributionSteelworkers aged 50-55 N =94 positive attitude: 59, negative attitude: 38 Steelworkers aged 70-75 N=95 (satisfied=72, dissatisfied=23)
Remarks
Dissatisfactiom with retirement is lowest shortly after 
retirement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aDMe=+ ns
Attitude to future retirement (50-55 aged)
1: negative attitude    Me = 5,43
2: positive attitude    Me = 6,72
- difference                +1,29
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aDMe=+ p < .01
Satisfaction with current retirement (70-75 aged) 
1: dissatisfied        Me = 5,00
2: satisfied           Me = 6,85
- difference               +1,85

Statistical significance according to U Test of 
Mann-Whitney


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with retirement
Subject code: R03ag02

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelEvaluation of retirement
Page in Source 631
Our classificationSatisfaction with retirement, code R03ag02
Operationalization
0: negative
1: positive
Remarks
Direction of correlation unclear in original report. 
Sign in table is negative, but text indicates positive 
relationship. Present version approved by author.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.15 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.18 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.11 p < .05
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Voluntary retirement
- More active person
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Community elder
- Satisfied with job while working
- Retired suddenly
- Is happy as grandparents were
- Agrees:planning is key to success
- Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
- Higher modernity score


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

I now mention some experiences, moods. Please tell me how often you feel so ......." happy." (one of several moods)
1 seldom or never
2 sometimes
3 often
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 12 questions:

During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..?
A So sad nothing could cheer you up
B Nervous
C Restless or fidgety
D Hopeless
E That everything was an effort
F Worthless
G Cheerful
H In good spirits
I Extremely happy
J Calm and peaceful
K Satisfied
L Full of life

Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F)

Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale
A-CP-g-rc-n-9-bRating by several clinicians on the basis of interviews and tests during 5 days

Balance of mood in everydat life
1 unpleasant
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 pleasant
C-W-?-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question

… attainment of 'wants out of life '(full text notreported)
1 ambivalent, not succesful
2 faily succesful
3 very succesful
M-ACO-c-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 7 questions:

Questions are indicative for contentment, good spirits, happiness and satisfaction with present status or condition.
(Full items not reported)

Response options:
no = 1
yes = 2

Summation:
On basis of these questions Ss were dichotomized in;
b emotionally satisfied
a not emotionally satisfied.
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, life gives me a lot of pleasure
B On the whole, I am very satisfied with my life today
C Things are getting just worse for me as I get older
D All in all, I find a great deal of happiness today
E I have a lot to be sad about
F Nothing ever turn out for me the way I want it

Scoring
4 strongly agree
3
2
1 strongly disagree

Computation: simple addition. Possible range 6-24
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in life today......?
3 a great deal
2 some but not very much
1 almost none

B In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits.....?
1 I am usually in low spirits
2 I am sometimes in good spirits, sometimes in low spirits
3 I am mostly in good spirits

C On the whole, how satisfied are you with your way of life today.....?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not satisfied at all

Items selected by Guttman scaling.
M-CO-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel things have worked out for you generally?
4 very well
3 fairly well
2 not very well
1 not at all well
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question

Do you feel happy?
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree or disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question:

Taking everything into acount about what has happened in ther last year and what you expect in the near future, how do you feel about your life in general?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 equally satisfied as dissatisfied
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
- no feelings at all
- never thought about it
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
1 unhappy
2 not very happy
3 not happy, not unhappy
4 happy
5 very happy
- DK
- NA
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how would you say things are these days. Would you say you were.…?
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are with your life......?
3 very happy
2 somewhat happy
1 unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now..."
3 very satisfied
2 all right
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abSelf report on single question

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now?
3 very satisfied
2 satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not very satisfied
3 very satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you ........ with the life you lead?
4 fully satisfied
3 not fully but to an extend satisfied
2 as yet unsatisfied
1 very unsatisfied
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now?
3 very satisfied
2 all right
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLS-g-rc-n-9-aRating by several clinicians on the basis of interviews and tests during 5 days

General satisfaction with present life situation
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 very good
4 rather good
3 neither good nor bad
2 rather bad
1 very bad
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aSelf report on single question:

Taken all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

"On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life.....?"
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Talking all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 about as dissatisfied as satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-fSelf report on single question:

.. Satisfaction with life as a whole (full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3
2
1 not very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"How dissatisfied would you say you are with things in general today?'
Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

'Taking all tings together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 very dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bSelfreport on single question:

When you consider your life-as-a-whole, are you..........?
0 quite dissatisfied
1
2
3
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life at present? Choose one of the following:
5 satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 cannot decide
2 not so satisfied
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbSelfreport on single question

To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general these days?
5 fully satisfied
4 rather satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 fully dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as whole.....?
7 completely satisfied
6 satisfied
5 mostly satisfied
4 satisfied/dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how do you judge your quality of life?
4 very satisfactory
3 sufficiently satisfactory
2 not too satisfactory
1 unsatisfactory
- don't know
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
CPearson's CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [0; SQRT(1-1/s)], where s = the lesser of c and r, the number of columns and rows respectively.

Meaning:
C = 0 « no association.
C = SQRT( 1-1/s) « strongest possible association
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMeDIFFERENCE IN MEDIAN
Type: descriptive statistic
Measurement level: happiness metric
correlate; dichotomous or nominal
Seldom used in happiness research.
DMsSTANDARDIZED DIFFERENCE of MEANS (CRITICAL RATIO)
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning: DMs is the ratio of the difference of the, either untransformed or transformed, means and its standard error.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
DyxSOMERS' ASYMMETRIC TEST STATISTIC
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
Dyx = 0 «no rank correlation
Dyx = +1 «strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness ratings.
Dyx = -1 «strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
lgtLOGIT COEFFICIENT
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: unlimited

Meaning:
lgt = 0 « no association at all;
lgt -> -/+ infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows a perfect prediction of the happiness.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
R03RETIREMENTA04aa02Stage of life
R03RETIREMENTR04aa02aRole loss
R03aa02aTime since retirementL06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
R03abCurrent status: retired or notE02ab04Not in labour force
R03abCurrent status: retired or notN02aa01aiTrend happiness in retired
R03acActivities in retirementA01ACTIVITY (how much one does)
R03acActivities in retirementA02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)
R03ac01Post-retirement jobO01adAttitudes to one's occupation
R03ac01Post-retirement jobE02EMPLOYMENT
R03ae02Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)L07ac02Perceived realization of life-goals
R03ae03Full retirement (vs partial)E02adSize of current job
R03ae04Planned retirement (vs unexpected)L07ac02Perceived realization of life-goals
R03ae05Age at retirementA04AGE
R03af01heath reasonsP06acCurrent functional health
R03ag01Self-definition in terms of earlier jobS02abCurrent self-characterization

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings