Findings on Happiness and RESOURCES

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and RESOURCES
Subject Code: R02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
R02RESOURCES0
R02aaResource career0
R02aa01Earlier resources0
R02aa02Change in resources1
R02aa03Later resources0
R02abCurrent resources12
R02ab01Personal qualities3
R02ab02Resource-variety0
R02acAttitudes to own resources5
R02ab03Relative resources8
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and RESOURCES
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=R02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in resources
Subject code: R02aa02

StudyGraney (1973): study US 1967
TitleThe Affect Balance Scale and Old Age.
SourcePaper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, 1973, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelGains in social status over 4 years
Page in Source 7
Our classificationChange in resources, code R02aa02
Operationalization
Comparison of T1 and T2.
A significant move to a fully independent household, 
marriage, and taking paying employment were defined as 
status gains. Institutionalization, the death of 
supportive family members and friends, and recent 
geographic dispersion of supportive children were 
defined as losses. Ss classified as having experienced: 
losses / no change / gains

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.13 ns
At T1 all Ss were in good health, able to care for 
themselves and lived alone.
Happiness assessed at T2.

% happy at T2:
- losses     22%
- no change  28%
- gains      40%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBöhnke (2002): study DE 1998
TitleLebensbedingungen und ihre Bewertung. (Living Conditions and its Valuation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt; Eds.: "Daten Report 2002", Bonn, Germany, 464 - 473
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1998,1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelliving conditions
Page in Source 471
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
1. pecarious condition
2. well-being

When two or more of the following conditions are 
present, the term 'precarious conditions' is used:
- low standard of living
- not enough money
- bad housing condition (little room, no bath/toilet)

When none of these conditions are present, the term 
well-being is used.
Remarks
Measures valid for 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-bMAoV=
% mostly happy
1. precarious 45%
2. Well-being 85%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyLeonardi et al. (1999): study IT 1995
TitleThe Top-Down/Bottom-Up Controvercy from a Constructionist Approach: A Method for Measuring Top-Down Effects Applied to Sample of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 187 - 216
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006977717925
Public55+aged, Italy, followed 5 years 1995-200
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response50.5%
Respondents N =297

Correlate
Author's labelBottom-up factor
Page in Source 66
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
T1 life conditions

Factor extracted from 20 living conditions. Conditions 
not mentioned

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-ea=.731
T1 happines by T1 resources
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eBeta=
T2 happiness by T1 life conditions, controling T1 
top down effect
1 out of 20 life conditions significant
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eBeta=
T2 happiness by T2 life conditions, controling T1 
top down effect
7 out of 20 life conditions significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelVulnerability
Page in Source 53
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
0 Vulnerable (never married, low income, no job, low 
education)
1 Endurable (other)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceDM=+3.5
Vulnerable        M=2.88
Endurable         M=6.41
-difference        +3.47
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+3.2
Vulnerable        M=3.40
Endurable         M=6.57
-difference        +3.17
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+3.0
Vulnerable        M=3.12
Endurable         M=6.15
-difference        +3.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2002): study NL 1997
TitleSocial Indicators and Living Conditions in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 60, 89 - 113
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1021200828811
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelLiving conditions
Page in Source 96,100
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
A Housing
- type of ownership (1 tenant, 2 owner)
- type of building (1 detached single family dwelling, 
2 attached single family dwelling, 3 appartment)
- number of rooms
- area of living room
- scary spot in neighbourhood
- year of construction
B Health
- number of psychosomatic symptons
- number of 8 serious illnesses
- number of other illnesses
C Purchasing power/consumer durables
- number of household appliances
- number of hobby articles
D Leisure activities
- number of hobbies
- number of non-domestic entertainment activities
- organizational membership
E Mobility
- car ownership
- season ticket railway
F Social participation
- active contribution to activities of organization
- volunteer work
- social isolation (scale)
G Sport activity
- number of times sporting a week
- number of sports
H Vacation
- vacation in past year
- vacation to a foreign country
- number of vaction articles

Computation: weighted summation using component 
loadings in catagories.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelLife situation Index
Page in Source 132
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
A Housing
- type of ownership (1 tenant, 2 owner)
- type of building (1 detached single family dwelling, 
2 
attached single family dwelling, 3 appartment)
- number of rooms
- area of living room
- scary spot in neighbourhood
- year of construction
B Health
- number of psychosomatic symptons
- number of 8 serious illnesses
- number of other illnesses
C Purchasing power/consumer durables
- number of household appliances
- number of hobby articles
D Leisure activities
- number of hobbies
- number of non-domestic entertainment activities
- organizational membership
E Mobility
- car ownership
- season ticket railway
F Social participation
- active contribution to activities of organization
- volunteer work
- social isolation (scale)
G Sport activity
- number of times sporting a week
- number of sports
H Vacation
- vacation in past year
- vacation to a foreign country
- number of vaction articles

Computation: weighted summation using component 
loadings in 
catagories.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.19 p < .01
Gain on index over 29 years:
              1977      2006
-Very happy   98        109
-Unhappy      81        90
(100= mean of 1997)

The scores on the life situation index for the 
very unhappy persons increased from 81 in 1977 to 
90 in 2006 and for the very happy persons from 98 
in 1977 to 109 in 2006.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.17 p < .01
B controlled for background features:
-Gender
-Education
-Employment
-Age
-City
-Household composition
-Ethnicity
-Income
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.04 p < .01
B controlled for satisfaction with:
-Health
-Home
-Residential environment
-Friends and acquaintances
-Social position
-Education
-Financial resources
-Dutch society
-Government
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 p < .01
B controlled for both background features and 
domain satisfactions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelLiving Conditions
Page in Source 62
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Score on LCI (Living conditions Index) of the 
Netherlands Social and Cultural Planning Office. 
Questions on the LCI Index involve the following 
subjects: 
Housing; Health; Purchasing Power; Leisure Activities; 
Mobility; Social Participation; Sport Activity; 
Holiday; and Miscellaneous.

1 Below average
2 Above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelRestrictions
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
a: Depressed 
b: Mental health consultation
c: At least monthly family contact
d: Health oppertunities restricted
e: Financial oppertunities restricted
f: Living oppertunities restricted
g: Married cf not married
h: Positive cf negative disposition
i: Time
j: Safety opportunities restricted
k: Family oppertunities restricted
l: Income
m: Age
n: Home owner cf not a home owner

Rated 1: yes, 0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bR²=.35
a: Mental patients with severe disorder:Patients 
of mental hospital
 - aged 18-65
 - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years 
duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bR²=.36
b: Community residents with common mental 
disorder:18+ aged community residents
 - participants in postal survey
 - scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bR²=.26
c: Community residents in good mental health: 18+ 
aged community residents
 - participants in postal survey
 - scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation opportunities restricted
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Question not reported
Remarks
This question were not relevant to Mental patients wih 
severe disorder,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb= ns
Community residents with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.24 p < .001
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyRhoads & Raymond (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleQuality of Life and the Competent Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 293 - 301
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00896065
PublicAdults, Phoenix, Arizona, USA,1979
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal factor
Page in Source 297-299
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Factor loadings on factor 1 (personal life space):
a: Health and safety                 
b: Material comforts                   
c: Relationship with spouse
Remarks
Factor loading:
a:.64 
b:.58 
c:.57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.40 p < .01
rpc controlled for age.
- Lowest income group: rpc=+.40 (p<.01)
- Middle income group: rpc=+.38 (p<.01)
- Highest income group:rpc=+.34 (p<.01)

In a regression with demographic and personal 
variables no increase in R2 when interaction with 
income is added.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.14
Controlled for:
- age
- sex
- family income

Interaction with income ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyRhoads & Raymond (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleQuality of Life and the Competent Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 293 - 301
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00896065
PublicAdults, Phoenix, Arizona, USA,1979
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelSocial factor
Page in Source 297-299
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Factor loadings on factor 2 (Community orientation):
a: Passive recreation               
b: Socializing                               
c: Active recreation                   
d: Underrstanding self             
e: Relationship with spouse
Remarks
Factor loadings:
a: .66
b: .64
c: .59
d: .53
e: .57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.35 p < .01
rpc controlling for age.
Lowest income group:   rpc=+.35 (p<.01)
Middle income group:   rpc=+.22 (p<.01)
Highest income group:  rpc=+.18 (p<.01)

In a regression with demographic and personal 
variables no increase in R2 when interaction with 
income is added.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.01 ns
R2 controlled for:
- Age
- Sex
- Family income
- Personal factor
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyRhoads & Raymond (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleQuality of Life and the Competent Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 293 - 301
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00896065
PublicAdults, Phoenix, Arizona, USA,1979
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelCommunity
Page in Source 297-299
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Factor loadings on factor 3 (community):
a: Government participation      
b: Learning                                      
c: Helping others                          
d: Satisfying work
Remarks
Factor loadings:
a: .70
b: .57
c: .56
d: .54

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.37 p < .01
rpc controlled for age.
Lowest income group: rpc=+.37 (p<.01)
Middle income group: rpc=+.09 (p<.01)
Highest income group:rpc=+.10 (p<.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.00 p < .05
R2 controlled for:
- Age
- Sex
- Family income
- Personal
- Social
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.01 p < .05
Increase when interaction with income is added.
R2 controlled for:
- Age
- Sex
- Family income
- Personal
- Social


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyLowenthal & Boler (1965): study US 1962
TitleVoluntary vs. Involuntary Social Withdrawal.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1965, Vol. 20, 363 - 371
Public60+aged, San Francisco, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response55%, 22% refusals, 9% deaths, 22% unattainable
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation
Page in Source 367
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Deprivation measured by an index of:
- compulsary retirement in past 7 yrs
- widowhood in past 7 yrs
- interviewer rating of physical disability

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bG=-.55 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.64 (ns)
not withdrawn: G' = -.40 (ns)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cG=-.70 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.70 (01)
not withdrawn: G' = -.65 (01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcG=-.70 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.90 (01)
not withdrawn: G' = -.51 (05)

Social withdrawal measured by report of reduced 
participation in organisation, and less contacts 
with family and friends.

G' based on proportion unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal qualities
Subject code: R02ab01

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDaily living skills
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationPersonal qualities, code R02ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions related to:
- managing a household 
- getting around in the community
- personal appearance
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=2.13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal qualities
Subject code: R02ab01

StudyChiriboga & Lowenthal (1971): study US 1969
TitlePsychological Correlates of Perceived Well-being.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 603 - 604
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological resources (positive mental health)_A
Page in Source 603
Our classificationPersonal qualities, code R02ab01
Operationalization
14 indicators of psychological resources including 
measures of mutuality (familial and extra-familial), 
resolution of losses, contextual and temporal 
perspective, growth, competence, in- sight, perceived 
and judged encroach-
ment, hope, and satisfaction with 
intrapersonal and interpersonal compe-
tence in general.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=- p < .05
Six of the deficit indicators correlated 
significantly (05) with both affect balance and 
with negative affect.
No relationships with positive affect were found.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal qualities
Subject code: R02ab01

StudyChiriboga & Lowenthal (1971): study US 1969
TitlePsychological Correlates of Perceived Well-being.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 603 - 604
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological resources (positive mental health)_B
Page in Source 603
Our classificationPersonal qualities, code R02ab01
Operationalization
14 indicators of psychological resources including 
measures of mutuality (familial and extra-familial), 
resolution of losses, contextual and temporal 
perspective, growth, competence, in- sight, perceived 
and judged encroach-
ment, hope, and satisfaction with 
intrapersonal and interpersonal compe-
tence in general.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= +
In total, significant correlations were found 
between two indicators of resources and 
psychological well-being.

There were four significant or near significant 
correlations with positive affect, four with 
negative affect (including two inverse relation- 
ships), and eight with affect balance.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= +
In total significant correlations were found 
between two indicators of resources and 
psychological well-being.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in savings (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)
  - accomodation (nr. Of rooms, etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.054 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.052 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.002 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.004 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in facilities (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 p < .05
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.012 (05)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- relative lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute deprivation
  - facilities
  - durables
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.01 (ns)

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in durables (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - facilities
  - accomodation
  - health

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.015 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.000 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.021 (ns)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in health (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.15 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - savings
  - income
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.133 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.17 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.137 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health


Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.032 (ns)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in accomodation (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .05
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - facilities
  - durables
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.009 (ns)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- relative lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.016 (05)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.009 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in social relations (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.045 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.032 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in income (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)
  - accomodation (nr. Of rooms, etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.030 (.01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.050 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.038 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.039 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation tertile
Page in Source 2
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
a: least deprived (reference)
b: middle tertile
c: most deprived

Details not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=- p < .01
Middle tertile (vs. least):OR= 1.0 
CI99[0.964-0.990] 
Most deprived (vs. least): OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.875-0.898] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of personal strengths, skills and resourcs
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "personal strengths, skills and resources"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,38 SD: 1,65, Non-exercisers: M: 6,35 SD: 2,26
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.36 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of self-concept and self-esteem
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "self-concept and self-esteem"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,77 SD: 1,46, Non-exercisers: M: 7,22 SD: 2,06
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happines

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.24 p < .05
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of self-concept and self-esteem
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "self-concept and self-esteem"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 6,88 SD: 1,91
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happines

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.09 p < .22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of personal strengths, skills and resourcs
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "personal strengths, skills and resources"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 6,92 SD: 1,73
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.27 p < .01
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.27 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.24 p < .01
Beta after accounting for perceived contribution 
to general happiness of:
- friends and social relationships
- faith, religion, ethics and moral values


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelResource Preferences
Page in Source 58,81
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Factors derived from topics mentioned in response to 
open questions on responsibilities, concerns and 
resources
a Escape from troubles
b Family resources
c Social environment difficulties
d Responsiveness (number of daily activities)

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Remarks
Factor 10.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.02 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question :

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
1 low
2 both
3 good
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question

Do you usually feel unhappy or depressed?
1 yes
2 no

part of 8 item inventory of stress symptoms
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 could not be better
6
5
4
3
2
1 could not be worse

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version).
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much happiness do you find in life today....?
1 almost none
2 some but not very much
3 a good deal
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfrport on single question:

On the whole are you with the life you lead?
4 satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 as yet unsatisfied
1 unbearably dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceSelfreport on single question:

At present, how satisfied are you, all in all, with your life in general?
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
aFACTOR LOADING
Type: descriptive statistic
A factor loading is the correlation coefficient between an observed variable and a factor in the underlying Factor Analysis Model.
Range: [-1, +1]

Meaning:
A high factor loading means that the factor is very similar to that observed variable.
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MAoVMULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS of VARIANCE (MANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure.
Multivariate Analysis of Variance is very similar to the ordinary Analysis of Variance (AoV). The ’multivariate’ difference is that more than one response variable, i.c. SWB measure, is involved. This technique is meaningful only if the response variables are correlated, which in happiness studies generally will be the case. Mathematically, the input SWB data is not a column vector but a matrix. An equivalent of the F-test for significant differences between the correlate levels is e.g. Hotelling’s T²-test.

Ref: Morrison, D.F., Multivariate Statistical Methods, McGrawHill, New York (1976²).
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
R02RESOURCESA07APPEARANCE (good looks)
R02RESOURCESW07ab01Amount of worrying
R02RESOURCESS10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED
R02RESOURCESS09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
R02RESOURCESP09POPULARITY
R02RESOURCESP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
R02RESOURCESM07MENTAL HEALTH
R02RESOURCESI03INTELLIGENCE
R02RESOURCESI01INCOME
R02RESOURCESF06FRIENDSHIP
R02RESOURCESE02EMPLOYMENT
R02RESOURCESE01EDUCATION
R02abCurrent resourcesA03ab02Intensity of affects
R02abCurrent resourcesS15SUMMED DETERMINANTS
R02ab01Personal qualitiesW02WISDOM
R02ab01Personal qualitiesP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
R02ab01Personal qualitiesM07MENTAL HEALTH
R02ab01Personal qualitiesI03INTELLIGENCE
R02ab03Relative resourcesC09ab01bRelative level to others
R02ab03Relative resourcesI01aeRelative income
R02ab03Relative resourcesL04ae01dLife compared with situation of others

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings