Findings on Happiness and RELIGION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and RELIGION
Subject Code: R01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
R01RELIGION1
R01aaReligious career0
R01aa01Earlier religion4
R01aa02Change in religion11
R01aa03Later religion0
R01abCurrent religious beliefs23
R01ab02Characteristics of belief-system0
R01ab02aChristian orthodoxy7
R01ab02bReligious individualism1
R01ab03Specific beliefs5
R01ab03bBelief in god10
R01ab03cBelief in apocalypse1
R01acCurrent religious denomination52
R01adCurrent religious practices19
R01ad01Church-member or not53
R01ad02Participation in church74
R01ad03Praying9
R01ad04Living in a convent1
R01aeCurrent religious experiences4
R01afAttitudes to religion15
R01af01Concern about religion13
R01af02Self-definition as religious75
R01af03Satisfaction with religion32
R01ag01Religious climate in family1
R01ag02Religious climate in congregation0
R01ag03Religious climate in society4
R01ag03aSocial acceptance of one's religion2
R01agClimate of religion0
R01ae01Has spiritual experiences0
R01ab03aBelief in higher power0
R01ab01Religious (vs not)8
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and RELIGION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=R01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and RELIGION
Subject code: R01

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 259
Our classificationRELIGION, code R01
Operationalization
a: Protestant
b: Muslim
c: Orthodox
d: Hindu
e: Buddhdist
f: Jewish
g: Catholic 
h: Other confessional groups (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.02 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual religion (vs 
other)

Protestant
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.44 p < .05
Muslim
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.06 ns
Orthodox
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.53 p < .05
Hindu
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 ns
Buddhist
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.26 ns
Jewish
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.08 ns
Catholic

B's controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others


Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier religion
Subject code: R01aa01

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelReligious participation
Page in Source 443
Our classificationEarlier religion, code R01aa01
Operationalization
Index od selfreported religious activities over the 
past year: 
- religious service attendance
- read religious books
- watch or listen to religious programs

Rated: 1 never to 6 more than once a week
Observed distributionRange: 0-15, M = 7,8, SD = 4,3
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 p < .05
T1 religious participation by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.11 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.02 ns
B (+.021) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.02 p < .05
B (+.021) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.01 ns
B (+0,006) additionally controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier religion
Subject code: R01aa01

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier religious attendance
Page in Source 703
Our classificationEarlier religion, code R01aa01
Operationalization
How often do you usually attend religious service?
1: never
2: less than once a year
3: a few times a year
4: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
5: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
6: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.12 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.13 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religious attendence
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.03 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier religion
Subject code: R01aa01

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier church membership
Page in Source 704
Our classificationEarlier religion, code R01aa01
Operationalization
Are you an official member of a church or other place 
of worship?
0: no
1: yes
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=.09 p < .05
T1 church membership by T1-T2 CHANGE in life 
satisfaction.
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.04 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 ns
T1 church membership by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.02 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier religion
Subject code: R01aa01

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier religious participation
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEarlier religion, code R01aa01
Operationalization
Closed question asked 11 years ago, at T1(1969), 
concerning frequency of attendance at a place of 
worship.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=+
T1 participation by T5 happiness (11 year 
interval)
Males:   r = +.28 (05)
Females: r = +.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyHunsberger (1985): study CA 1982
TitleReligion, Age, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Sources of Religiousness: A Study of Older Persons.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1985, Vol. 40, 615 - 620
Public65+ aged, general public, Ontario Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelAgree with beliefs taught
Page in Source 619
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
Question: "To what extent would you say you still hold 
the religious beliefs taught you when you were growing 
up?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aer=+.45 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelChange in religious activity
Page in Source 18,20,22
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
Respondents were asked about the frequency with which 
they attend church or engage in other religious 
activities:
1 never
to
4 at least once a week.
T1 average minus T2 average.
Remarks
Assessed in 11 waves between 1990 and 2005.
T1: 1990-94; T2: 2000-05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T1-T2 CHANGE in religious activity by T1-T2 CHANGE 
in happiness.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .001
All.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.18 p < .001
Mature age adults: 30 to 69 years old.

b's controled for:
- gender
- age, age squared
- foreign born
- personality
  - neuroticism
  - extroversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.17 p < .001
All.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .001
Mature age adults: 30 to 69 years old.

b's additonally controled for:
- partnered
- education
- income
- health disability
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.05 p < .001
b-fix controled for
- partnered
- education
- income
- health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelChurch activity
Page in Source 704
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
How often do you usually attend religious service?
1: never
2: less than once a year
3: a few times a year
4: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
5: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
6: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.11 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.05 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelReading religious books
Page in Source 704
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
How often do you read religious books or other 
religious materials?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly everyday - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.12 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.08 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religioun
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.04 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelListening to religious TV/Radio
Page in Source 704
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
How often do you watch or listen to religious programs 
on TV or radio?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.09 p < .05
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.00 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.07 ns
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.01 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelPrayer
Page in Source 704
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
How often do you pray?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .05
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.12 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.06 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelAsking for prayer
Page in Source 704
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
How often do you ask someone to pray for you?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .05
T1 religion by T1 - T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controled for T2 
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.06 ns
T1 religion by T1 - T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controled for T2 
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.02 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective religiosity
Page in Source 704
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
How religious would you say you are?
1: not religious at all
2: not to religious
3: fairly religious
4: very religious
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.12 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aab=+.02 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.14 p < .00
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.00 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelChange in importanceof religion
Page in Source 228
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
Direct question whether death of spouce had changed 
religious belief.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+? s
Widows only
-belief increased  57% happy
-belief decreased  43% happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ s
 Widows only
-belief increased  57% happy
-belief decreased  43% happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelAttending religious services more often
Page in Source 703
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
Direct question: never / sometimes / weekly. Difference 
between T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.15 ns
Happiness assessed at T2.

Age 66-75: tb = -.04 (ns)
Age 82-92: tb = -.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in religion
Subject code: R01aa02

StudyCaplovitz & Sherrow (1977): study US 1961
TitleThe Religious Drop-outs.
SourceSage, 1977, Beverly Hills, USA
PublicCollege seniors, USA, 1961
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =29677

Correlate
Author's labelReligious identification
Page in Source 56
Our classificationChange in religion, code R01aa02
Operationalization
Two questions:
A In which religion were you being raised?
B What is your religion now?
- Protestant
- Catholic
- Jewish
- other
- none
On the basis of these answers Ss were categorized as 
either:
1. Identifiers (individuals who still adhered the 
religion of their parents).                            
2.Apostates (individuals being raised in a certain 
religion but at the time   of the interview adhered to 
none).

.
Observed distributionIdentifyers: 87%, apostates: 13%
Remarks
Ss who had changed to another religion were excluded

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-aD%=
% happy     Identifiers  Apostates  D%
Jews           39          26       13
Protestants    53          33       20
Catholics      46          28       18
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.37
Jews       : G'=-.29                       
Protestants: G'=-.39                        
Catholics  : G'=-.37


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Page in Source 216,222
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A Are you religious?
  1: yes
  0: no
B How often do you pray or meditate?
  5: daily
  4: weekly
  3: monthly
  2:on special occasions
  1: never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.05 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.95 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.16 p < .05
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
0 No religion
1 Belonging to a particular religion or denomination

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.20 p < .001
	b(0.202) controlled for 
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.19 p < .001
b(0.193) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelReligion important in life
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Please say, for each of 
the following, how important it is in your life: 
Religion
0 not important
1 important
Observed distribution0: 28% 1: 71%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=0.04 p < .05
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 514
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self report on single question: How important is God in 
your life? On 0-10 scale from "not at all important" to 
"very important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.03 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Employment status
  -Health
-Country (dummies)

No difference if controlled for country variables 
instead of dummies.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 207,211
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
A Catholic
B Protestant
C Orthodox
D Other
E Non believer
F No answer
Observed distributionA: M=0,47, SD=0,50; B= M=0,04, SD=0,20; CM=0,25, SD=0,44; D: M=0,03, SD=0,18; E: M=0,18; SD:0,38; F:M=0,02; SD=0,13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
A Catholic          r=+0.10
B Protestant        r=+0,02
C Orthodox          r=-0,15
D Other             r=-0,04
E Non believer      r=+0,05
F No answer         r=+0,01
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.04 ns
Protestant (vs Catholic)           SE =.14
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.02 ns
Orthodox (vs catholic)             SE =.14
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.10 ns
Other (vs Catholic)                SE =.18
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.08 ns
Non believer (vs Catholic)         SE =.16
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-b
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.15 ns
No answer (vs Catholic)            SE =.25

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- income
- community size
- type of employment
- church attendance

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of religion
Page in Source 94
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on a single question that asks whether 
religion is important in life. Responses are on a scale 
of 1 (not at all important) to 4 (very important).
Remarks
Scale of responses are assumed to be recoded such that 
higher values means that religion is more important to 
the respondent.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.30 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL importance of 
religion

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
Separately in 74 nations.
Significantly positive in 36 nations.
Significantly negative in 3 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study NZ 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged immigrants from Tonga, followed 3 years after migrattion, New-Zealand, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Religion:
a) Catholic
b) Mormon
c) Otherwise
Observed distributiona) 14%; b) 14%
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (11 months after migration) and T2 (33 
months after migration)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.20 ns
CATHOLIC (vs otherwise)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.52 p < .10
MORMON   (vs otherwise)

T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
religion

B's controlled for:
- age
- employment status
- personal income
- relative income
- years of education
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.05 ns
CATHOLIC (vs otherwise)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.26 p < .01
MORMON   (vs otherwise)

CURRENT happiness by CURRENT religion

B's additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudySuhail & Chaudhry (2004): study PK 2000
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim Culture.
SourceJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 23, 359 - 376.
DOIDOI:10.1521/jscp.23.3.359.35451
Public16-80 aged, general public, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =973

Correlate
Author's labelReligious beliefs
Page in Source 368
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
The items measuring strong Muslim beliefs are belief in 
one God, life hereafter, hell and heaven, the Prophet 
Mohammed, etc.

Rated on 4 step Likert scale.
Remarks
Subscale of 18 item Religiosity Scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.12 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.11 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelReligious beliefs
Page in Source question 133
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Are you a believer? 
1 yes
2 no 
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 37,5% 2: 38,6% DK/NA: 23,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,51
2: M = 2,56


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of religion
Page in Source question 134
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
How big is the role of religion in your life? 
1 religion plays no role in my life
2 rather unimportant role
3 rather important role
4 religion plays the main role in my life
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 33,3% 2: 24,5% 3: 20,9% 4: 2,9% DK/NA: 18,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
1: M = 2,58 
2: M = 2,51
3: M = 2,49
4: M = 2,59
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=-.03 p < .197


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 362
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
1: Christian
2: Muslim
3: Hindu
4: Buddisht
5: None
Observed distribution1:16,7%,2:21,4%,3:9,0%,4:30,1%,5:12,8%,Total:89,8% N=1:173,2:222,3:93,4:312,5:133,Total:933

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM= p < .00
1: Christian  M=2,01
2: Muslim     M=1,79
3: Hindu      M=2,01
4: Buddisht   M=2,07
5: None       M=2,16
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .04
1: Christian  M=1,69
2: Muslim     M=1,72
3: Hindu      M=1,75
4: Buddisht   M=1,85
5: None       M=1,85
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cDM= p < .01
1: Christian  M=1,94
2: Muslim     M=2,16
3: Hindu      M=2,09
4: Buddisht   M=2,14
5: None       M=2,14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelSpirituality
Page in Source 347,348,370,371
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
The Spirituality Index was computed by counting the 
responses to 3 questions:
a. do you belong to any particular religion (yes/no)
b. how often do you pray or meditate? (never or daily 
and weekly)
c. do you believe in unseen spiritual powers (yes = 
definitely and somewhat)
The index ranges from 0 to 3.
Observed distributionall: 0:8,0%,1:21,4%,2:31,6%,3:39,0% married subjects only: 0:7,6%,1:18,9%,2:31,5%,3:42,0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=.00 ns
all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=-.05 ns
married subjects only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.03 ns
all
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.10 p < .05
married subjects only
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=+.01 ns
all
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.03 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
all
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.08 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
Betas controlled for
Demographic variables:
- gender
- age
- education
- income
Lifestyle
- digital
- global
Value priorities:
- having
- relating
- being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study TO 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, aspirant migrants who stayed, Tonga, followed 3 years, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelCatholic/Mormon
Page in Source 5, 9
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Religion:
a) Catholic
b) Mormon
c) Otherwise
Observed distributiona) 13%, b) 13%
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (11 months after migration) and T2 (33 
months after migration)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.04 ns
CATHOLIC (vs otherwise)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
MORMON   (vs otherwise)

B controlled for:
- gender
- age
- years of education
- region of birth
- marital status
- visited New Zealand before 2000
- employment status 
- personal income 
- relative income
- survey wave
- time period of the year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyNoble (2009): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being: A Ukrainian Case Study.
SourceThesis, 2009, University College London, UK
Public18-85 aged, general public, 2 districts in city Kyiv, Ukraine, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =136

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a religion
Page in Source 123, 135, 136, 139, 265
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Do you belong to a religion or religious denomination?
A) No, I do not
b) Roman Catholic
c) Protestant
d) Orthodox
e) Jew
f) Muslim
g) Other"

converted to a dichotomy
1: has a religion
0: no religion
Observed distributionM=0.66; Borshegovka M=0.70 sd=0.45; Pechersk M=0.58 sd=0.49; p-value of difference= 0.12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 ns
city district Borshegovka r=+.23 (05)  N=86
city district Pechersk    r=-.05 (ns)  N=50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyLewis et al. (2000a): study GB 1998
TitleReligion and Happiness: Still no Association.
SourceJournal of Beliefs and Values, 2000, Vol. 21, 233 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1080/713675504
PublicAnglican priest and church members, North England, 1998
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labelAttitude toward Christianity
Page in Source 235
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions about
- bible
- prayer
- church
- God
- Jesus
Rated 1 disagree to 5 strongly agree
Observed distributionM = Priests 33,5 Members 27,6 SD = Priests 1,5; Members 4,0
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: Priests .91, Members .90
Remarks
Francis (1993) Scale of Attitudes towards Christianity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.14 p < .05
priests
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .05
church members


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyLewis et al. (1997): study GB 1995
TitleReligiosity and Happiness: No Evidence for an Association among Undergraduates.
SourcePersonality and Individual Diffrences, 1997, Vol. 22. 119 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(97)88910-6
PublicUniversity students, Northern Ireland, 1995.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =154

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosty
Page in Source 120
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self report on 24-item Francis Scale of  Attitudes 
towards Christianity (FSAC: Francis & Stubbs, 1987)
Observed distributionRange: 30-199, M = 78,69 SD = 16,51
Error EstimatesCronbach aplha 0,94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
all
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
males
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyLewis et al. (1997): study GB 1995 /1
TitleReligiosity and Happiness: No Evidence for an Association among Undergraduates.
SourcePersonality and Individual Diffrences, 1997, Vol. 22. 119 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(97)88910-6
PublicUniversity students, Great Britan, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 120
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
24-item Francis scale of Attitudes towards Christianity 
(FSAC: Francis & Stubbs, 1987)
Observed distributionRange 26-120, M = 67,81, SD = 24,01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.09 ns
all
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
males
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.08 ns
females
The women with the highest religiosity score (FARC 
= 120) had the lowest happiness score (16)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyHarding (1985): study GB 1981
TitleValues and the Nature of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.,Eds.: "Values and Social Change in Britain", McMillan, 1985, London, UK, 227 - 252
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelReligiousness
Page in Source 233
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
1 Atheist
2 Not religious
3 Religious person

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
religious person       M = 1.6   Mt' = 6.6
not religious              1.3         6.3
convinced atheist          1.0         6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aG=+.10 p < .05
religious person     39%   very happy    
not religious        38%
convinced atheist    33%
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
religious person       M = 7.8   Mt' = 7.6
not religious              7.5         7.2
convinced atheist          7.1         6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyZullig et al. (2006): study US 2003
TitleThe Association between Perceived Spirituality, Religiosity, and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Self-Rated Health.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol.79, 255 - 274
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-4127-5
Public18+aged, university students, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response48%
Respondents N =459

Correlate
Author's labelSpirituality
Page in Source Figure 1
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self reports on three questions:
A."Spirituality is very important to me"
B."I am very spiritual"
C."I rely on a higher power for guidance"

Response options:strongly agree (5), agree (4), neutral 
(3), 
disagree (2), strongly disagree(1).
Observed distributionA. Mean: 3,8; SD: 1,1 B. Mean: 3,4; SD: 1,3 C. Mean: 3,3; SD: 1,3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-er=+.14 p < .01
A: Spirituality is very important to me.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-er=+.14 p < .01
B: I am very spiritual.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-er=+.14 p < .001
C: I rely on a higher power for guidance.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-er=+.17 p < .001
A+B+C: Common factor spirituality.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-erpc=+09 ns
rpc controled for self perceived health.

All correlations unaffected by gender.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyFabricatore et al. (2000): study US 1995
TitlePersonal Spirituality as a Moderator of the Relationship between Stressors and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Psychology and Theology, 2000, Vol. 28, 221 - 228
PublicStudents, religious affiliated college, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal spirituality
Page in Source 223,225
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Spiritual Life Integration (SLI) 11 item scale
Typical items are:
- I feel close to God
- I go to God for help 
Rated not at all (0) to definitely (4)
Observed distributionM=23,7; SD=11,8
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .96
Remarks
Subscale of Spiritual Involvement Scale (Frenzel, 1996)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 832
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Self reported religion

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Page in Source 458
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Religiosity is a measure of the influence of religion 
on the respondent's life, ranging from 1= not at all to 
5=very much.
Observed distributionM=3.74, SD=1.23, Range
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1980)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.15 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T1 Religiosity
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.16 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T1 religiosity (12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.04 p < .01
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Remarried
- Cohabited

T4 is 1992


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious beliefs
Subject code: R01ab

StudyBray & Howard (1983): study US 1956
TitleThe AT & T Longitudinal Studies of Managers.
SourceSchaie, K.W.; Ed.: "Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development", Guilford Press, 1983, New York, USA, 266 - 312
Public40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-ResponsePanel loss at T5 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelReligious
Page in Source 303
Our classificationCurrent religious beliefs, code R01ab
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center.

Rater instruction "To what extent does this person 
practice or abide by a system of religious or 
humanistic beliefs or ethical values?". (Philosophical 
attitude). 


Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=
T5 religious by T5 happiness.

Analysis showed a significantly positive 
correlation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelReligious denomination
Page in Source 38,54,55,57
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
a: Anglican (ref.)
b: Catholic
c: No religion
d: Non-christian
e: Other protestant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-0.9 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-2.3 p < .01
No religion(vs. Anglican)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-3.1 p < .01
Non christian(vs. Anglican)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-0.1 p < .01
Other protestant(vs. Anglican)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
Beta's and B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
   - Marital status:
   - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
   - Widowed
   - Divorced
   - Family size
- Age
- Charity work

When additionally controlled for education, family 
income, labor force participation and spouse in 
labor force:
b: B and Beta ns 
c: B= -2.52;Beta= -.05 
d: ns
e: ns 

Plus additionally controlled for hours worked, 
occupational status, job security and 
unemployment:
b: ns
c: B= -2.16 and beta= -.05
d: ns
e: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of religion
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=0.10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.07 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log of personal income
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.06 ns
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyLau & Kramer (2005): study DE 2002
TitleDie Relativitńtstheorie des GlŘcks. ▄ber das Leben von Lottomillionńren. The Realtivity Theorie of Hapiness; On the Life of Lotto Millionaires.
SourceBook, 2005, 1 - 155
URLhttp://www.springer.com/de/book/9783862260072
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response2 %
Respondents N =1715

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
0: not religious
1: religious

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-5-cD%=+
% happy
not religious: 32%
religious:     40%
-difference   + 8%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelReligious involvement
Page in Source 183
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
1: Religious
0: Non-religious

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aDM=+
1992

Religious      M= 6.01
Non-religious  M= 5.68
-Difference      +0.33
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aDM=+
1998

Religious      M= 5.82
Non-religious  M= 5.44
-Difference      +0.38
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.38 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.33 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.05 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.38 p < .01
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=-.05 ns)

b and Beta control for:
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Similar results are obtained when personal income 
is used instead of household income adjusted for 
household size.

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelChristian/Islam/Traditional/Others
Page in Source 893
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
1 Religion
   a: Christian
   b: Islam
   c: Traditional religion
   d: Other
0 No religion
Observed distributionN: 1.a = 8519, 1.b = 1513, 1.c = 158, 1.d = 63 0 = 606

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=
Christian    M=2,45       
Islam        M=2,37
Traditional  M=2,06
Other        M=1,95
No religion  M=2,28
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,12 p < .05
Islam (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,2 p < .01
Traditional religion (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,31
Other religion (vs not)

Bs controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area

B unaffected by
- additional control for personal assets
- alternative controls for relative wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal religious identity
Page in Source 298
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
Measured by an item that asks, "Independently of 
whether you go to church or not, would you say you are:
1: a religious person
0a: not a religious person
0b: a convinced atheist"
Observed distributionM=0,74 SD=0,44

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .001
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .001
b additionally controls for nation 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.18 p < .001
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Page in Source 1036
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
self report on own religiosity. Full text not reported.
0 = non-religious
1 = religious
Observed distribution1 = 88 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=- p < ..01
Probability of being more/less happy when 
religious:
- very satisfied           - 8% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied       - 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied         - 3% (.05)
- somewhat dissatisfied    + 3% (.01)
- very dissatisfied        + 3% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy               - 5% (ns)
- quite happy              + 1% (ns)
- not very happy           + 2% (ns)
- not at all happy         + 2% (.10)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment
- gender
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious (vs not)
Subject code: R01ab01

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Page in Source 1036
Our classificationReligious (vs not), code R01ab01
Operationalization
Self report on own religiosity. Full text not reported.
0 = non-religious
1 = religious
Observed distribution1 = 79 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy if religious 
- very satisfied          +2% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      +2% (ns)
- medium satisfied         0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   -1% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       -4% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy              +2% (ns)
- quite happy             +1% (ns)
- not very happy          -2% (ns)
- not at all happy        -2% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment status
- gender
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyJones (2002): study CA 2000
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelfaith community
Page in Source 6, 14
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
a French catholic
b Non-French catholic
c United church
d Anglican
e Presbyterian
f Lutheran
g Baptist
h Pentecostal
i Smaller christian faiths
j Non-christian
k No religion now
l No religion ever
Remarks
Liberal Protestant= United church, Anglican, 
Presbyterian, Lutheran; Conservative christian= 
Baptist, Pentecostal, smaller christian faiths

-= sample less than 30 respondents or no figures 
available

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
                   very happy somewhat happy
Marrieds
a French catholic    38%          59%
b Non-French cath    49%          45%
c United church      58%          37%
d Anglican           56%          40%
e Presbyterian       56%          37%
f Lutheran           56%          37%
g Baptist            59%          32%
h Pentecostal        53%          39%
i Sm chr faiths      60%          36%
j Non-christian      36%          56%
k No religion now    55%          38%
l No religion ever   45%          49%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
Singles
a French catholic    33%          59%
b Non-French cath    42%          49%
c United church      52%          43%
d Anglican           36%          58%
e Presbyterian       55%          27%
f Lutheran           49%          46%
g Baptist            46%          49% 
h Pentecostal        49%          42%
i Sm chr faiths      41%          47%
j Non-christian      35%          51%
k No religion now    41%          45%
l No religion ever   40%          49%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
widowed
a French catholic    29%          62%
b Non-French cath    43%          52%
c Other catholic     33%          59%
d Anglican           42%          47%
e Presbyterian       53%          40%
f Lutheran           52%          34%
g Baptist            53%          42%
i Sm chr faiths      46%          43%
j Non-christian       -            -
k No religion now    44%          40%
l No religion ever   29%          58%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
separated/divorced
a French catholic    20%          61%
b Non-French cath    31%          50%
c United church      32%          55%
d Anglican           34%          54%
e Presbyterian       35%          49%
f Lutheran           45%          45%
g Baptist            21%          62%
h Pentecostal        -             -       
i Sm chr faiths      39%          48%
j Non-christian      29%           -
k No religion now    36%          45%
l No religion ever   23%          54%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.05 p < .003
French catholic: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.03 p < .245
French catholic: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.07 p < .000
non-French catholic: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.08 p < .000
Non-French catholic: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.12 p < .000
Liberal protestant: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.16 p < .000
Liberal Protestant: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.11 p < .000
Conservative christian: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.17 p < .000
Conservative christian: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.04 p < .268
Non-christian: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=-.20 p < .000
Non-christian: men

B controled for
- age
- region
- marital status
Reference group: no religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyHunsberger (1985): study CA 1982
TitleReligion, Age, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Sources of Religiousness: A Study of Older Persons.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1985, Vol. 40, 615 - 620
Public65+ aged, general public, Ontario Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelChristian orthodoxy
Page in Source 619
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
24-item Christian Orthodoxy Scale
(Fullerton and Hunsberger, 1982);
answers were rated on a scale from  
-3 to +3 (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Keying 
of all negatively-worded items is reversed.
Typical items are:
1.  God exists as: Father, Son and Holy
    Spirit.
4.  The Bible is the word of God given
    to guide man to grace and 
    salvation.
8.  The Bible may be an important book
    of moral teaching, but it was no 
    more inspired by God than were many
    other such books in the history of
    Man.
9.  The concept of God is an old 
    superstition that is no longer 
    needed to explain things in the
    modern era.
16. Despite what many people believe,
    there is no such thing as a God who
    is aware of Man's actions.
21. There is a God who is concerned
    with everyone's actions. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-lg-21-aDM=+
Present happiness (as rated on the life chart) is
rated higher by high orthodox than by low 
orthodox. 
Earlier happiness (as rated on the same chart) is 
also rated higher by high orthodox than by low 
orthodox.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aer=+.18 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelOrthodox Christian
Page in Source 298
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
1: Orthodox Christian
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,10 SD=0,30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.23 p < .05
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.23 p < .05
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.24 p < .05
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelChristian Orthodox
Page in Source 132,137, 153
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
0: not Christian orthodox
1:     Christian orthodox

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.63 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by being 
Christian orthodox.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.23 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyRule (2007): study ZA 2004
TitleReligiosity and Quality of Life in South Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007. Vol. 81, 417 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9005-2
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2799

Correlate
Author's labelReligious orthodoxy
Page in Source 427-428
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
Level of religious orthodoxy
1 low
2 medium
3 high
Observed distributionN = 1: 33,8%, 2: 26,8%, 3: 25,1%, missing 21,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gDM=+
1 low     M = 1,71
2 medium  M = 1,95
3 high    M = 2,09
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gr=+.13 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyCohen et al. (1982): study US 1979
TitleCommunity Stressors, Mediating Conditions and Well-Being in Urban Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1982, Vol. 10, 377 - 391.
DOIdoi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198210)10:4<377::AID-JCOP2290100408>3.0.CO;2-T
Public18-55 aged, general public, New York City, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =602

Correlate
Author's labelReligiousness
Page in Source 384
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
10-item index measuring the belief in efficacy of 
prayer, importance of belief in god, existence of 
miracles, life after death, including traditioanal 
(judeo-christian) belief.
Responses rated on a four-point scale
ranging from "strongly agree" (0) to
"strongly disagree (1).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-ar=ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R01ab02a

StudyBalswick & Balkwell (1978): study US 1976
TitleReligious Orthodoxy and Emotionality.
SourceReview of Religious Research, 1978, Vol. 19, 308 - 319
PublicHigh school students, Georgia, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1092

Correlate
Author's labelOrthodoxy
Page in Source 315
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R01ab02a
Operationalization
5-item index of closed questions rated on a 4-point 
scale. The respondents were asked to what extent they 
agreed with the folowing statements: 1. Jesus is the 
Divine son of God, 2. The Bible is the inspired word of 
God, 3. Miracles such as Jesus turning water into wine 
or walking on water, actually happened, 4. Jesus 
actually arose from the dead, 5. The Devil actually 
exists.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-?-mq-v-4-aDM=+ p < .06
Difference controled for sex and race.
Religious orthodoxy is more strongly related to 
the 'expression' of happiness than to the 
'feeling' of it.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious individualism
Subject code: R01ab02b

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelReligious affilia- tion
Page in Source 190
Our classificationReligious individualism, code R01ab02b
Operationalization
'Collectivistic' type of church 
(e.g. Roman-Catholic) vs 'individualis-
tic' type of church and non-religious.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aDM= ns
Unaffected by sex and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific beliefs
Subject code: R01ab03

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelTranscendental Spirituality
Page in Source 136,139
Our classificationSpecific beliefs, code R01ab03
Operationalization
Self report on single question about Faith in and 
relationship with someone or something beyond the human
level.
Remarks
Item from the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-ar=+.21 p < .05
Child's rating of own happiness
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.09 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-ar=+.12 p < .05
Parents rating of child's happiness
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=+.10 ns

Beta's controlled for child's:
- gender
- school
- temperament
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - spiritual practice/belief

Additional variance explained by transcendental 
spirituality after gender, school and 
temperatement:
- 0,4% of child's rating of own happiness (ns)
- 0,1% of parents rating of childs happiness (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific beliefs
Subject code: R01ab03

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in religious ideas
Page in Source 1039
Our classificationSpecific beliefs, code R01ab03
Operationalization
Which, if any, of the following do you believe in?
a.  God
b.  Life after death
c.  Hell
d.  Heaven
e.  Sin
f.  Telepathy

Rated:
0 = no
1 = yes
Observed distributionM = 0.98, SD = 0.12
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy when 
believing
- very satisfied          + 0% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      + 0% (ns)
- medium satisfied        - 0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 0% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       - 0% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy              + 3% (ns)
- quite happy             - 0% (ns)
- not very happy          - 2% (ns)
- not at all happy        - 1% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific beliefs
Subject code: R01ab03

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in religious ideas
Page in Source 1039
Our classificationSpecific beliefs, code R01ab03
Operationalization
Which, if any, of the following do you believe in?
a.  God
b.  Life after death
c.  Hell
d.  Heaven
e.  Sin
f.   Telepathy
Rated:
0 = no
1 = yes
Observed distributionM = 0.8, SD = 0.17
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy when 
believing
- very satisfied          - 1% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      - 1% (ns)
- medium satisfied        - 0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   + 1% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       + 1% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy              - 2% (ns)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          + 2% (ns)
- not at all happy        + 2% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific beliefs
Subject code: R01ab03

StudyFerriss (2002): study US 1972
TitleReligion and the Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 199 - 215
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1020684404438
Public18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0,7%
Respondents N =34706

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in the Hereafter
Page in Source 208
Our classificationSpecific beliefs, code R01ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
0:no
1:yes
Observed distributionN=1216 ; 0=22,2%; 1=77,8% ; M=2,25; SD=0,63 (1996 GSS) N= 847

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ ns
               M         SD
0:no          2,18      0,59  
1:yes         2,20      0,62
-difference   +.02
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific beliefs
Subject code: R01ab03

StudyFerriss (2002): study US 1972
TitleReligion and the Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 199 - 215
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1020684404438
Public18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0,7%
Respondents N =34706

Correlate
Author's labelWorld is good (vs evil)
Page in Source 209
Our classificationSpecific beliefs, code R01ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
World is ...
1: evil
2
3
4
5
6
7: good
Observed distributionN=11221; M=2,19; SD=0,61 1=6,45%; 2=3,6%; 3=8,2%; 4=28,4%; 5=23,9%; 6=14,1%; 7=15,4% (1996 GSS) N=unknown

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
               M        SD
1:Evil        2,11     0,70
2:            2,10     0,61
3:            2,09     0,59
4:            2,16     0,61
5:            2,21     0,57
6:            2,27     0,59
7:Good        2,29     0,65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBMCT=
3<4<5<6,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyBond et al. (0): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleReligion and the Life Satisfaction of Young Persons around the World: Personal Values and Societal Context
SourceTrommsdorff, G., Xinyin, C.: "Values. Religion, and Culture in Adolescent Development", Cambridge, 2011, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 5
Public15-24 aged, 43 nations, 2005-2008
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =9618

Correlate
Author's labelSecularism
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
Index of: 
a: 'It is important for a child to learn independence 
and determination than obedience and religious faith'
b: 'God is not important in respondent's life'
c: 'Respondent favors less respect for authority'
d: 'Respondent has weak sense of national pride' 
e: 'Respondent gives no priority to self-expression and 
quality-of-life over economic and psychical security'.
Remarks
A person high in secularism endorsed the importance of 
God, national pride and respect of authority less, but 
endorsed the post-materialistic values of 
self-expression and independence, as well as autonomy, 
more. The opposite would be true for a person high in 
traditionalism.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.26 ns
Macrolevel: AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE 
secularism in 43 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-
Microlevel:INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL 
secularism
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How important is God in 
your life
1 (not at all)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 (very important)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.1
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=-.00
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.04
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelBelieve in: God
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Which, if any, of the 
following do you believe in? (Read outand code one 
answer for each) God
0 no
1 yes
Observed distribution0: 13% 1: 87%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-0.2 p < .001
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of God
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Importance of God? 
Please use this scale to indicate-10 means very 
important and 1 means not at allimportant.
1 not at all 
.
.
10 very important
Observed distribution1: 9% 2: 3% 3: 4% 4: 3% 5: 7% 6: 5% 7: 6% 8: 8% 9: 8% 10: 49%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=0.05 p < .01
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of God
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
The average of citizen's responses to the question, 
"How important is God in your life?" Responses are on a 
scale of 1 (not at all important) to 10 (very 
important).
Observed distributionM=7,33 SD=1,93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.19 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE importance of God
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.17 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 ns
b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .10
b controls for: 
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .10
b controls for: 
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of 
economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 ns
b controls for: 
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.08 p < .10
b controls for: 
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 ns
b controls for: 
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 ns
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 ns
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, sound money,and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom. When 
legal system and property rights and freedom to 
trade are controlled for instead of economic 
freedom, importance of God is significant (p<.10).

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 p < .01
When economic freedom is instrumented by: 
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks 
English as a mother tongue

b controls for:
- social trust
- average memberships
- log GDP per capita
- unemployment rate
- divorce rate
- spirits consumption

Similar results are obtained for poor and rich 
nations, and when some of the controls are 
removed.

In sum: When significant, importance of God is 
positively associated with average life 
satisfaction in nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelGod
Page in Source 159
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about whether the 
subjects believe in God 
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M= 0.48, SD= 0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .0000
B controlled for:
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- education
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- trust in people
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyGehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleWho Benefits from Economic Freedom? Unraveling the Effect of Economic Freedom on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceWorld Development, 2013, Vol. 50, 74 - 90
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X13001150
DOIDOI:10/1016/j.worlddev.2013.05.003
Public18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in God
Page in Source 79
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distributionM=7,178 SD=2,008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10
AVERAGE happiness by belief in God in 79 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.11
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.11 p < .05
b controls for:
- social trust
- investment price level
- log GDP per capita
- government share (% of GDP)
- regional dummies
- period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .05
b additionally controls for:
- economic freedom

b is for pooled OLS with robust SE.

Similar coefficients with different levels of 
statistical significance are obtained for a fixed 
effects model, random effects model, and an 
autoregressive (1) random effects model.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.10
% VERY HAPPY (top 3 life satisfaction) by belief 
in God in 79 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyHarding (1985): study GB 1981
TitleValues and the Nature of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.,Eds.: "Values and Social Change in Britain", McMillan, 1985, London, UK, 227 - 252
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in God
Page in Source 233
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
no                   M = 1.3   Mt' = 6.3
yes                      1.5         6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aG=+.06 ns
yes                  39%   very happy   
no                   37%   
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
yes                    M = 7.8   Mt' = 7.6
no                         7.2         6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyHay & Morisy (1978): study GB 1976
TitleReports of Esctatic, Paranormal, or Religious Experience in Great Britain and the United States: A Comparison of Trends.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1978, Vol. 17, 255 - 268
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1386320
PublicGeneral public, Great Britain, 1976
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1865

Correlate
Author's labelReligious experience
Page in Source 258-260
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
A: "Had you been aware of, or influenced by a presence 
or power, whether referred to as God or not, which is 
different from your everyday selves?"
 1 Never in my life
 2 Once or twice
 3 Several times
 4 Often'
 5 All of the times

B: "Have you ever felt as though you were very close to 
a powerful spiritual force that seemed to lift you
out of yourself?"
 1 Never in my life
 2 Once or twice
 3 Several times
 4 Often'
 5 All of the times
Observed distributionA: 1: 63,6%, 2: 18%, 3: 10%, 4: 6%, 5: 2% B was not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=+ p < .02
A: aware of or influenced by a presence or power

"Never in my life"
 - High( > +1 ): 47%
 - Low ( < +2 ): 53%
"Positive response"
 - High( > +1 ): 54%
 - Low ( < +2 ): 46%
Chi▓ = 6,48
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ata=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ata=+.05 p < .01
B: felt close to spiritual force


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in god
Subject code: R01ab03b

StudyBartram (2011): study US 1995
TitleEconomic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 103, 57 - 76
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9696-2
Public18-94 aged natives and immigrants, USA, 1995
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response203
Respondents N =1339

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 64-65-67-69-71
Our classificationBelief in god, code R01ab03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: "How important is God in 
your life?"
1= not at all; 10= very
Observed distributionTotal sample: M=8.2; Natives: M=8.2 Total immigrants:8.0; European and Canadian immigrants: M=7.7; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=8.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.11 p < .000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.09 p < .000
Beta and B controlled for: 
- Immigrant status,
- Ln(income) 
- Interaction ln(income)*immigrant status,
- Marital status, 
- Age, 
- Children, 
- Unemployed, 
- Health.

B=+.06 (p<001) when additionally controlled for 
'financial satisfaction

Similar results are found in an ordered logit 
model.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Belief in apocalypse
Subject code: R01ab03c

StudyBecker & Ester (1987): study NL 1986
TitleRampbewustzijn in Nederland. (Beliefs about Coming Disasters in the Netherlands).
SourceSociale Wetenschappen, 1987, Vol. 30, 179 - 206
Public18-70 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1986
Sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =2016

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in Apocalyps
Page in Source 197
Our classificationBelief in apocalypse, code R01ab03c
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'It won't be long before the 
world comes to an end because of God's will', rated on 
a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly disagree to 
strongly agree (order reversed).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.01
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-drpc=+.02
rpc controled for education
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-drpc=+.02
rpc controled for education and churchmembership


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =1999

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 57+114
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a :no religion
b :christian
c :jewish
d :muslim
e :buddhist
f :other religion
Observed distributionN = 1 : 708; 2 :1149; 3 : 16; 4 : 11; 5 : 25; 6 : 22;

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
no religion    Mt = 76.53  SD = 17.54
christian      Mt = 78.52  SD = 17.20
jewish         Mt = 77.45  SD =  8.31
muslim         Mt = 71.79  SD = 13.13
buddhist       Mt = 71.31  SD = 13.09
other religion Mt = 75.32  SD = 14.31
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .017
b>a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyJones (2002): study CA 2000
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelfaith community
Page in Source 6, 14
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a French catholic
b Non-French catholic
c United church
d Anglican
e Presbyterian
f Lutheran
g Baptist
h Pentecostal
i Smaller christian faiths
j Non-christian
k No religion now
l No religion ever
Remarks
Liberal Protestant= United church, Anglican, 
Presbyterian, Lutheran; Conservative christian= 
Baptist, Pentecostal, smaller christian faiths

-= sample less than 30 respondents or no figures 
available

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
                   very happy somewhat happy
Marrieds
a French catholic    38%          59%
b Non-French cath    49%          45%
c United church      58%          37%
d Anglican           56%          40%
e Presbyterian       56%          37%
f Lutheran           56%          37%
g Baptist            59%          32%
h Pentecostal        53%          39%
i Sm chr faiths      60%          36%
j Non-christian      36%          56%
k No religion now    55%          38%
l No religion ever   45%          49%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
Singles
a French catholic    33%          59%
b Non-French cath    42%          49%
c United church      52%          43%
d Anglican           36%          58%
e Presbyterian       55%          27%
f Lutheran           49%          46%
g Baptist            46%          49% 
h Pentecostal        49%          42%
i Sm chr faiths      41%          47%
j Non-christian      35%          51%
k No religion now    41%          45%
l No religion ever   40%          49%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
widowed
a French catholic    29%          62%
b Non-French cath    43%          52%
c Other catholic     33%          59%
d Anglican           42%          47%
e Presbyterian       53%          40%
f Lutheran           52%          34%
g Baptist            53%          42%
i Sm chr faiths      46%          43%
j Non-christian       -            -
k No religion now    44%          40%
l No religion ever   29%          58%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
separated/divorced
a French catholic    20%          61%
b Non-French cath    31%          50%
c United church      32%          55%
d Anglican           34%          54%
e Presbyterian       35%          49%
f Lutheran           45%          45%
g Baptist            21%          62%
h Pentecostal        -             -       
i Sm chr faiths      39%          48%
j Non-christian      29%           -
k No religion now    36%          45%
l No religion ever   23%          54%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.05 p < .003
French catholic: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.03 p < .245
French catholic: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.07 p < .000
non-French catholic: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.08 p < .000
Non-French catholic: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.12 p < .000
Liberal protestant: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.16 p < .000
Liberal Protestant: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.11 p < .000
Conservative christian: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.17 p < .000
Conservative christian: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.04 p < .268
Non-christian: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=-.20 p < .000
Non-christian: men

B controled for
- age
- region
- marital status
Reference group: no religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelFaith commuity affiliation
Page in Source 5,6,10,11
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Religious affiliation of the child
a: non-affiliated
b: Roman Catholic, Quebec
c: Roman Catholic, non-Quebec
d: liberal Protestant
e: conservative Christian
f: non-Christian

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=
% very happy:
a: non affiliated             26%
b: Roman Catholic, Quebec     33% 
c: Roman Catholic, non-Quebec 31%  
d: liberal Protestant         27%
e: conservative Christian     27%
f: non-Christian              ..
(..= respondents fewer than 30; estimate 
unreliable)
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.08 p < .160
girls N=1680, boys=N=1690 

girls, Roman Catholic
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.19 p < .000
boys, Roman Catholic
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.04 p < .472
girls, liberal Protestant
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.09 p < .071
boys, liberal Protestant
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.05 p < .449
girls, other Christian
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.09 p < .108
boys, other Christian
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.03 p < .761
Children with religious affiliation only (girls 
N=1192, boys N= 1178)

girls, Roman Catholic
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.05 p < .635
girls, Liberal Protestant
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.00 p < .954
girls, other Christian
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.45 p < .000
boys Roman Catholic
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.31 p < .004
boys liberal Protestant
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.30 p < .006
boys other Christian

B controlled for:
- child's age
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-n


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyCantril (1965): study XZ Germany West 1957
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
PublicAdults, general public, West-Germany, 1957
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =480

Correlate
Author's labelCatholic religion
Page in Source 376
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0 Protestant                           1 Catholic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+0.1
Catholic    : Mt = 5.4
Protestant  : Mt = 5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. protestant
b. catholic
c other christian
d. non-christian
Rated:
1 yes
0 no

e. non-religious
Observed distributionM = a: 33,33%, b: 29,97%,c: 2,30%. d: 3,97%, e: 30,42%.
Remarks
Results are for latest year available in 1990 - 2005 
(usually 2005).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.05 p < .001
Protestant     (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.06 p < .001
Catholic       (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.00 ns
Other Christian (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.03 p < .001
Non-christian  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.10 p < .001
Non-religious  (vs not)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-004-8021-3
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelReligious faith
Page in Source 312
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Questions on ones religious faith
a: Protestant
b: Catholic
c: Buddhist
d: Daoism
e: no religion (reference)

Rated
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+3.4 p < .05
Protestant (vs. no religion)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.8 ns
Catholic (vs. no religion)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+1.2 ns
Buddhist (vs. no religion)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-2.3 ns
Daoist (vs. no religion)

B is controlled for: 
-residence
-living arrangement
-marital status
-income
-education
-age
-gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in Christianity
Page in Source 253
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Self report on belief in Christianity. Text is not 
reported.
1: to have a belief 
0: not to have a belief

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=1.5 p < .05
CI95 [1.1-2.1]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a: Hindu (reference)
b: Muslim
c: Christian

Full question was not reported, assumed.
Observed distributiona: 87.52%; b: 3.73%; c: 8.46%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=+.41 ns
Muslim    (vs Hindu)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.50 p < .05
Christian (vs Hindu)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -Caste
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -marital status
 -employment status
 -gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelReligion of Arabs
Page in Source 1016
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you:
a) Muslim (reference)
b) Christian
c) Druze

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.15 p < .05
CHRISTIAN (vs muslim)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.57 p < .05
DRUZE     (vs muslim)

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- years residing in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyAyyash-Abdo & Alamuddin (2007): study LB 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among College Youth in Lebanon.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 2007, Vol. 147, 265 - 284
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17703789
PublicStudents, Lebanon, 2007
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =689

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 274
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about religion:
a Muslim
b Christian
c Other
Observed distribution50.4% Muslim, 47.2% Christian, 2.4 % Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aF= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelChristian/Islam/Traditional/Others
Page in Source 893
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1 Religion
   a: Christian
   b: Islam
   c: Traditional religion
   d: Other
0 No religion
Observed distributionN: 1.a = 8519, 1.b = 1513, 1.c = 158, 1.d = 63 0 = 606

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=
Christian    M=2,45       
Islam        M=2,37
Traditional  M=2,06
Other        M=1,95
No religion  M=2,28
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,12 p < .05
Islam (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,2 p < .01
Traditional religion (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-,31
Other religion (vs not)

Bs controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area

B unaffected by
- additional control for personal assets
- alternative controls for relative wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyMutz (2015): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006
TitleChristmas and Subjective Well-Being: a Research Note.
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2015, Published Online, 1 - 26
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-015-9441-8
Public15+ aged, general public, 11 EU nations, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2057

Correlate
Author's labelChristian denomination
Page in Source 24,25
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Respondents with formal affiliation in the 
Roman-Catholic or Evangelic church.
1:  Christian affiliation
0:  other/no religious affiliation
Observed distributionyes = 47,7 % no = 52,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.23 p < .01
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hb=+.07 p < .01
b's controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- children at home
- employment
- subjective health
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Belong to religious 
denomination
0 not mentioned
1 belong to religious denomination

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.14
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.06
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.08
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelBuddhist
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Buddhist
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,01 SD=0,10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.13
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.13
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelBelong to the largest religious group
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distributionM=0,65 SD=0,48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.02
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.02
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-regulation index (reflects government regulation 
of civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.02
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-regulation index and religious attendance
-regulation index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelCatholic
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Catholic
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,28 SD=0,45

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.06
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelHindu
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Hindu
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,02 SD=0,14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.13
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.13
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelIndependent Christian
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Independent Christian
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,02 SD=0,14
Remarks
Independent Christian refers to all Chiristian groups 
that are not affiliated with any of the Catholic, 
Orthodox, or mainline Protestant groups.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.19
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.19
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.25
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelMuslim
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Muslim
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,24 SD=0,43

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.07
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.07
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.08
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelOrthodox Christian
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Orthodox Christian
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,10 SD=0,30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.23 p < .05
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.23 p < .05
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.24 p < .05
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelProtestant
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Protestant
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,11 SD=0.31

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.18
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.18
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelOther religion
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
1: Other religions
0: No religion
Observed distributionM=0,02 SD=0,13
Remarks
All religious affiliations that accounted for one 
percent or fewer of the samples were recoded into this 
residual category, "other religions".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelBelong to religious organisation
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Please look carefully 
at the following list of voluntary organisations and 
activities and sayůwhich, if any, do you belong to? 
Religious or church organisations
0 No
1 Yes
Observed distribution0: 19% 1: 81%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.1 p < .01
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelBelong to religious denomination
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Do you belong to a 
religious denomination?
0 no
1 yes
Observed distribution0:19% 1:81%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-0.1 p < .001
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelMuslim
Page in Source 132,137, 153
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0: no Muslim
1:    Muslim
Remarks
Source: CIA (2005) USDS (2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.49 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by being 
Muslim.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelJewish
Page in Source 132,137, 153
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0: not Jewish
1:     Jewish

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.51 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by being 
Jewish.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.17 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelHindu
Page in Source 132,137, 153
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0: no Hindu
1:    Hindu

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.49 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by being Hindu.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelChristian Orthodox
Page in Source 132,137, 153
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0: not Christian orthodox
1:     Christian orthodox

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.63 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by being 
Christian orthodox.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.23 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelReligious denomination
Page in Source 208
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you consider yourself to be a 
member of a religion? If so, which one?"
1 Catholic
2 Protestant
3 Else
4 None 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.04 ns
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.12 p < .01
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.10 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.12 p < .01
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .01
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 p < .05
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.19 p < .01
Northern Ireland

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=
EC (stratified sample)   
Catholic           Mt'=  6.71
Prostestant        Mt'=  7.58
Else               Mt'=  6.51
None               Mt'=  6.38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976c): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 1976
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Africa: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976i.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, sub Sahara African countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =914

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source nn
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a christian
b moslem
Observed distributionN= a:529, b:253

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
a M =  4,81 [CI95 5,64 - 5,98] SD = 2,04
b M =  4,49 [CI95 5,25 - 5,74] SD = 2,02
-diff  0,32 [CI95 0,01 - 0,62]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=-
a M =  1,78 [CI95 1,73 - 1,84] SD = 0,68
b M =  2,12 [CI95 2,04 - 2,20] SD = 0,67
-diff -0,34 [CI95 -0,23 -0,44]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=-
a M =  4,90 [CI95 4,71 - 5,10] SD = 2,04
b M =  5,03 [CI95 4,80 - 5,27] SD = 2,02
-diff -0,13 [CI95 -0,43 +0,17]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source nn
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a: hindu
b: buddhist
c: moslem
Observed distributionN= a:308, b:72, c:98

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 3,29 [CI95 3,04-3,54]
b: M = 5,12 [CI95 4,68-5,57]
c: M = 4,61 [CI95 4,29-4,94]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT=
a< b,c
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
a: M = 1,41 [CI95 1,34-1,47]
b: M = 1,80 [CI95 1,67-1,94]
c: M = 1,65 [CI95 1,52-1,79]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dBMCT=
a < c,b
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
a: M = 3,35 [CI95 3,12-3,57]
b: M = 5,60 [CI95 5,14-6,06]
c: M = 5,36 [CI95 5,10-5,63]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aBMCT=
a < c,b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelChurch membership
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. No church, 
b. Roman Catholic
c. Nederlands Hervormd (Protestant    majority)
d. Gereformeerd (Protestant minority)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aD%=
% happy
-No church member   85
-Roman Catholic     88
-Ned. Hervormd      84
-Gereformeerd       82


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelReligious affiliation.
Page in Source 23
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. Roman Catholic.
   0. other religion
   1. catholic 
b. 'Gereformeerd' (fundamentalistic
   protestant).
   0. other religion
   1. gereformeerd.
c. 'Hervormd' (moderate protestant).
   0. other religion
   1. hervormd.
Remarks
Non religious ss excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.38 p < .01
a. Roman catholic
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.23 p < .01
b.Gereformeerd
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.20 p < .01
c.Hervormd


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

Study~NIPO (1949): study NL 1948
TitleWat de Mensen Gelukkig Maakt. (The Things that Contribute to Happiness).
SourceDe Publieke Opinie, 1949, Vol. 3, 3 - 4
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~NIPO_1949.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelReligious denomination
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. Gereformeerd (Fundamentalistic      Protestant) 
b. Ned. Hervormd (Moderate Protestant) c. Roman 
Catholic 
d. Non-religious.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aD%=
Gereformeerd  : 55% happy, 41% pretty happy.
Ned. Hervormd : 45% happy, 45% pretty happy.
Roman-Catholic: 39% happy, 46% pretty happy.
Non-religious : 39% happy, 43% pretty happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyCantril (1965): study NG 1963
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1962-63
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 371
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. Muslem 
b. Christian 
c. Pagan

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Muslem      : Mt = 5.3
Christian   : Mt = 4.3
Pagan       : Mt = 3.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyGuillen-Royo (2008): study PE 2004
TitleConsumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 89, 535 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9248-1
PublicGeneral public, 7 poor communities, Peru, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =399

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 544-545
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on question about religion(full text not 
reported)
1: Catholic
0: Other
Observed distributionM = 0.779; SD = 0.415

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.09 ns
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -age
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -self-employed dummy
 -homemaker dummy
-Basic needs
 -intermediate needs
-Consumption
 -log total expenditure
-Location
 -Peri-urban dummy
 -rural dummy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.20 ns
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -homemaker dummy
 -self-employed
-Basic needs
 -intermediate needs
-Consumption
 -average expenditure
 -relative expenditure
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.19 ns
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -homemaker dummy
 -self-employed
-Basic needs
 -intermediate needs
-Consumption
 -average expenditure
 -relative expenditure
-Motives for consumption
 -providing household basics dummy
 -hedonism dummy
 -social interaction dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyIbrahim & Chung (2003): study SG 2000
TitleQuality of Life of Residents Living Near Industrial Estates in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 61, 203 - 225
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1021305620042
Public16+ aged, residents of flats, Jurong quarter, Singapore, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 220
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a: Buddhist
b: Taoist
c: Christian
d: Catholic
e: Muslim
f: Hindu
g: Free-thinker
h: Others
Observed distributionN= a: 119; b: 27; c: 71; d: 6; e: 41; f: 8; g: 26; h: 2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aDM=
a: Buddhist     M = 3,64
b: Taoist       M = 3,54
c: Christian    M = 3,85
d: Catholic     M = 3,58
e: Muslim       M = 3,73
f: Hindu        M = 3,75
g: Free-thinker M = 3,54
h: Others       M = 4,00
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aF=1.43 p < .191


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyRule (2007): study ZA 2004
TitleReligiosity and Quality of Life in South Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007. Vol. 81, 417 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9005-2
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2799

Correlate
Author's labelReligious denomination
Page in Source 429
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a African Independent Churches
b Pentecostal/ Charismatic
c Mainline Protestant
d Roman Catholic
e Other Christian
f Other Religions (Hinduism Islam)
g None/DK/Refused

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gDM=
a: M = 1,66
b: M = 2,16
c: M = 2,07
d: M = 2,11
e: M = 1,80
f: M = 2,06
g: M = 1,52
All M = 1,88


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelChristian religion
Page in Source 631
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0: traditional African
1: Christian

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.09 ns
All
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.04 ns
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.11 p < .01
All
▀ controlled for: 
- Satisfied with health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Has a confidant
- Keeps goats
- Higher monthly income
- More active person
- Worked for many years in jobs
- Retired for many years
- No desire to return to work
- Agrees: Modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.16 p < .01
65+ years old
▀ controlled for:
- Seldom restricted by poor health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- More active person
- Keeps chicken
- Has a confident
- Higher standard house
- Keeps goats  
- Larger size field 
- Higher monthly income
- No desire to return to work
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.16 p < .01
-65 years old
▀ controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Higher monthly income
- Grows cash crop
- Feels land is secure    
- Retired for many years
- Worked for many years in jobs
- No desire to return to work
- Achieved/confident of becoming wealthy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelTraditionalist religion
Page in Source 631
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0: Churchmember Christian       (56%)
   or Black independant church  (39%)
1: Traditional African religion ( 4%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.22 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 127,131
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a muslim
b other religion
c no religion

1 yes
0 no
Observed distributiona: 3%, b: 10%, c:43%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.01 ns
Muslim (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.08 p < .10
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .01
Other religion (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.02 p < .67
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.08 p < .00
No religion (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
Beta's controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelMuslim
Page in Source 173, 175
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Self report on question 'What is your religion, if 
any?'
1: Muslim
0: Christian

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelType of religion
Page in Source 278
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your religious preference?
a) Catholic
b) Fundamentalist Protestants
c) Otherwise (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.02 ns
CATHOLIC                  (vs otherwise)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.03 ns
FUNDAMENTALIST PROTESTANT (vs otherwise)

OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- church attendance
- race
- working full-time
- marital status
- region in US
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelreligion
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Religion of the individual:
a) Catholic (reference group)
b) No religion
c) Jewish
d) Baptist
e) Episcopalian
f) Lutheran
g) Methodist
h) Mormon
i) Presbyterian
j) Congretional
k) Protestant, no denomination
l) Other Christian
m) Other religions/missing
Observed distributiona:24%, b:8%, c:2%, d:24%, e:2%, f:5%, g:10%, h:2%, i:3%, j:2%, k:4%, l: 11%, m:2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.17 p < .05
No religion (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.29 p < .05
Jewish (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11
Baptist (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.09 ns
Episcopalian (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.01 ns
Lutheran (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.04 ns
Methodist (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.04 ns
Mormon (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.02 ns
Presbyterian (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.02 ns
Congregational (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.05 ns
Protestant, no denomination (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Other Christian (vs. catholic)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.05 ns
Other religions/missing (vs. catholic)
 
Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Household income
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Household size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 444
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. Baptist                           
b. Methodist                           c. Lutheran      
    
d. Presbyterian      
e. Fundamentalist   
f. Other protestant groups
g. Catholic
h. Jewish
i. No preference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% not too happy:            1957       1976

- Baptist                    16         12
- Methodist                   7          8
- Lutheran                    6          9
- Presbyterian               14          8
- Fundamentalist              9         10
- Other Prot. Groups          8         11
- Catholic                   12         10
- Jewish                     16         19
- No Preference              14         13

Effect persists after control for age, sex and 
education. Interaction effects exist.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyFerriss (2002): study US 1972
TitleReligion and the Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 199 - 215
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1020684404438
Public18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0,7%
Respondents N =34706

Correlate
Author's labelDenominal preference
Page in Source 206
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
a: Protestant
b: Catholic
c: Jewish
d: Other
e: None
Observed distributionN: 34942; M=2,2; SD=0,63 a=63,2%; b=24,8%; c=2,1%; d=2,2%; e=7,7%;

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=
                   M        SD
a: Protestant     2,22     0,64
b: Catholic       2,20     0,63 
c: Jewish         2,18     0,66
d: Other          2,14     0,65
e: None           2,09     0,63
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBMCT=
e,d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudySudman (1967): study US 1964
TitleReducing the Cost of Surveys.
SourceAldine, 1967, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1964
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2084

Correlate
Author's labelCatholic and Protestant Interviews and Self-administered Q's
Page in Source 55
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a: Catholic
b: Protestant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% happy
- Catholics   36%
- Protestants 40%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyPhillips (1967a): study US NewHampshire 1962
TitleSocial Participation and Happiness.
SourceAmerican Journal of Sociology, 1967, Vol. 72, 479 - 488
Public21+ aged, general public, New Hampshire, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelCatholic religion
Page in Source 486
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0 Protestant
1 Catholic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG= -
Index of Positive Affects: G' = -.15
Index of Negative Affects: G' = +.16
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=-.05
Gammas are based on proportions 'very happy'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyCaplovitz & Sherrow (1977): study US 1961
TitleThe Religious Drop-outs.
SourceSage, 1977, Beverly Hills, USA
PublicCollege seniors, USA, 1961
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =29677

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 56
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Single question: "What is your religion now?"
a Protestant
b Catholic
c Jewish
Observed distributiona: 61%, b: 27%, c: 12%
Remarks
Only Ss who adhere to the belief nthey were raised in 
(identifyers)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-aD%=
% happy
Jews       : 37% 
Protestants: 51% 
Catholics  : 45%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyCantril (1965): study US 1959
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1549

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 375
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
a. Protestant 
b. Catholic 
c. Jewish

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Protestant: Mt = 6.5
Catholic  : Mt = 6.7
Jewish    : Mt = 7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelCatholic religion
Page in Source 241
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
0 Protestant 
1 Catholic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious denomination
Subject code: R01ac

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelReligious affiliation
Page in Source 208
Our classificationCurrent religious denomination, code R01ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1 Protestant, Catholic, Jewish 
0 None, agnostics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.27 p < . 01
No significant differences among those reporting 
Protestant, Catholic or Jewish religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelSpiritual practice/ belief
Page in Source 136, 139
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Practice and Belief Scale(PBS): 
- Religious pracice:
  - How often do you go to a place of worship such as a 
church?
  - How often do you pray or meditate privately outside 
of church or other place of worship?
  - I read religious or spiritual books or magazines
- Belief in a higher power: 
  - I feel a higher powerĺs presence 
  - I believe in a higher power who watches over me
  - I feel a higher powerĺs love for me
  - I desire to be closer to a higher power
- Spiritualityĺs role in coping and everyday life: 
  - How often do you find strength and comfort in your 
religion or spirituality?
  - When you are worried or have a problem, how often 
do you depend on your religion or spirituality to help 
you? 
  - I try hard to use my religious or  spiritual 
beliefs in all parts of my life
- Overall self-perception of religiousness or 
spirituality: Do you think of yourself as a religious 
or spiritual person?

Rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale from 1 (never) to 
7 (very often).
Remarks
Eleven items were selected from the Brief 
Multidimensional Measurement of 
Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) which assesses 
spirituality and religiousness and was adapted for 
children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-ar=+.17 ns
Child's rating of own happiness
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=+.10 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-ar=+.05 ns
Parents rating of child's happiness
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=-.08 ns

Beta's controlled for child's:
- gender
- school
- temperament
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental

Additional variance explained by spiritual 
practice/beliefs after gender, school and 
temperatement:
- 0,5% of child's rating of own happiness (ns)
- 0,0% of parents rating of childs happiness (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of attending religious services
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=0.11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.03 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log of personal income
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Importance of religion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.06 ns
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelAttends religious events
Page in Source 39-40
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
0: Never attends religious events
1: Attends
Observed distribution0: M = 0,477 SD = 0,499
Remarks
In original: Never attends. Reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .01
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.035 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.017 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency religious activities
Page in Source 10, 14, 16, 24
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Respondents were asked about the frequency with which 
they attend church or engage in other religious 
activities:
1 never
to
4 at least once a week.
Observed distributionM = 1.75, SD = 0.94
Remarks
Pooled results of 11 waves between 1990-2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .001
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .001
Men
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .001
Women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta's controled for:
- gender
- age
- foreign born
- extroversion
- neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .001
Men
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.16 p < .001
Women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta's additonally controled for:
- partnered
- education
- income
- health disability

Result for the latetst year available in 1990 - 
2005 (usually 2005).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyTreas et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleThe Happy Homemaker? Married Women's Well-Being in Cross-National Perpective.
SourceSocial Forces, 2011, Vol. 90, 111 - 132
PublicWomen with partner, aged 18-65, 28 countries, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7014

Correlate
Author's labelReligious services attendance
Page in Source 115-123
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Church attendance: How often do you attend religious 
services?
Rated from 0) Never to 4) at least once a week.
Observed distributionM =1,83, SD = 1,42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Work status
- Age
- Age squared
- Number of children
- Education
- Liberal Gender Ideology

Not affected by mediating variables:
- Family Income
- Family income flag
- Housework fairness
- Task sharing
- Family stress
- Housework conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Spend time with people 
at your church
4 weekly
3 once or twice a month
2 only a few times a year
1 not at all

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.19 p < .05
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.03 ns
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.01 ns
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
selfreport on single question: Moments of prayer, 
meditation
0 no I don't have moments of prayer/meditation
1 yes, I do have moments of preyer/meditation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.08
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.11
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.09
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in religious activities
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 32% (N=1518) Italy: 46% (N=600)
Remarks
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.59 p < .001
Germany: CI95 [1.2-2.1]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.31 p < .162
Italy: CI95 [0.9-1.9]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelReligious attendance
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Frequency of attendance at religious services, from 1 
(never) to 7 (more than once per week).
Observed distributionM=3,95 SD=2,12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .05
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .05
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05 p < .001
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

The positive effect of religious on happiness 
falls as the regulation index increases, based on 
the coefficient of the interaction term.
Beta=-.05 (p<.001)


Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelAttend religious services
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Apart from weddings, 
funerals and christenings, about how often do you 
attend religious services these days?
1 never/practically never
.
.
8 more than once a week
Observed distribution1: 23% 2: 9% 3: 7% 4: 2% 5: 16% 6: 12% 7: 18% 8: 13%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .01
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyGokdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1 believer but not involved/ rarely involved in 
religious activities
2 ů 
3 ů
4 always pray, feast during Ramadan and involved in 
religious activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 ns
Turkish immigrants
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.71 p < .01
Moroccan immigrants

B's controlled for:
- Income(Absolute)
- Income(Relative)
- Marital satus
- Gender
- Generation
- Education
- Perceived Discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelReligious affiliation
Page in Source 27 + 147
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Visits at least once a month a church, mosque, 
synagogue, or temple.
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionNative Dutch: 0. 76,7; 1. 23,3% Surinames/Antillean: 0. 73,1%; 1: 26,9% Maroccean: 0. 59,2%; 1. 40,8%. Turks: 0. 59,1% 1. 40,9%.
Remarks
Author labels visits as 'affiliation'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
Beta controlled for
-gender
-ethnic groups
-education
-age
-smoking
-overweight
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudySuhail & Chaudhry (2004): study PK 2000
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim Culture.
SourceJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 23, 359 - 376.
DOIDOI:10.1521/jscp.23.3.359.35451
Public16-80 aged, general public, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =973

Correlate
Author's labelReligious practices
Page in Source 368
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Self report on questions about the strength of Islamic 
practice including -saying prayers, -religious 
fasting,-reciting the Holy Quran, -pilgrimage, 
-charity, -honesty,and following the rule of Islam in 
everyday life activities.

Rated on 4 step Likert scale.
Remarks
Subscale of 18 item Religiosity Scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.13 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.10 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelBible reading
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Self report on single question
1: rarely/never
2: monthly/less than monthly
3: daily/weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
1: rarely/never                 41%
2: monthly/less than monthly    42%
3: daily/weekly                 58%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelActive Coping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Using special calendars, making lists or using other 
devices to become better organized
- Attending religious services or activities
- Reading non work-related books and magazines other 
than daily newspapers
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Using calendars etc 3.75, Religious services 1.76, Reading etc 4.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelReligious attendance
Page in Source 701,703
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
How often do you usually attend religious service?
1: never
2: less than once a year
3: a few times a year
4: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
5: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
6: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 3,80, SD = 1,31 T2: M = 4,28, SD = 1,12
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.18 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.14 p < .00
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+17 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.12 p < .01
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.11 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.10 p < .05
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.20 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.17 p < .00
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.19 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14 p < .00
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.12 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.13 p < .01
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelReading religious books
Page in Source 701, 703, 704
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
How often do you read religious books or other 
religious materials?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly everyday - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 3,45, SD = 1,25 T2: M = 3,93, SD = 1,10
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.07 ns
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.12 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.02 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelListening to religious TV/Radio
Page in Source 701,703,704
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
How often do you watch or listen to religious programs 
on TV or radio?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 3,63, SD = 1,15 T2: M = 3,77, SD = 1,17
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.14 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.11 p < .01
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.15 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.08
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=_.06 p < .01
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.12 p < .01
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious practices
Subject code: R01ad

StudyHenley & Davis (1967): study US 1959
TitleSatisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Study of the Chronically-Ill Aged Patient.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, Vol. 8, 65 - 75
Public60+ aged chronically-ill, followed three years, USA, 1959-62
Sample
Non-Response24% not available because of death, mental deterioration, unknown address or r
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelPracticing one's religion
Page in Source 69
Our classificationCurrent religious practices, code R01ad
Operationalization
Direct question.
0 Non-practicing 
1 Practicing

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-aG=+
Catholics  : G' = +.46 (01)
Protestants: G' = -.05 (ns)
Jews       : G' = +.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
1       M=1.27      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.13      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.78      Mt=6.8
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.49      Mt=6.1
1       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
1       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .86      Mt=5.9
1       M= .48      Mt=5.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.57      Mt=5.1
1       M=5.44      Mt=4.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
1       M=2.36     Mt=4.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.09 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .95      Mt=6.0
1       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.85      Mt=6.5
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
1       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.06      Mt=4.5
1       M=4.99      Mt=4.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
1       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyJones (2002): study CA 2000
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelfaith community
Page in Source 6, 14
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
a French catholic
b Non-French catholic
c United church
d Anglican
e Presbyterian
f Lutheran
g Baptist
h Pentecostal
i Smaller christian faiths
j Non-christian
k No religion now
l No religion ever
Remarks
Liberal Protestant= United church, Anglican, 
Presbyterian, Lutheran; Conservative christian= 
Baptist, Pentecostal, smaller christian faiths

-= sample less than 30 respondents or no figures 
available

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
                   very happy somewhat happy
Marrieds
a French catholic    38%          59%
b Non-French cath    49%          45%
c United church      58%          37%
d Anglican           56%          40%
e Presbyterian       56%          37%
f Lutheran           56%          37%
g Baptist            59%          32%
h Pentecostal        53%          39%
i Sm chr faiths      60%          36%
j Non-christian      36%          56%
k No religion now    55%          38%
l No religion ever   45%          49%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
Singles
a French catholic    33%          59%
b Non-French cath    42%          49%
c United church      52%          43%
d Anglican           36%          58%
e Presbyterian       55%          27%
f Lutheran           49%          46%
g Baptist            46%          49% 
h Pentecostal        49%          42%
i Sm chr faiths      41%          47%
j Non-christian      35%          51%
k No religion now    41%          45%
l No religion ever   40%          49%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
widowed
a French catholic    29%          62%
b Non-French cath    43%          52%
c Other catholic     33%          59%
d Anglican           42%          47%
e Presbyterian       53%          40%
f Lutheran           52%          34%
g Baptist            53%          42%
i Sm chr faiths      46%          43%
j Non-christian       -            -
k No religion now    44%          40%
l No religion ever   29%          58%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
separated/divorced
a French catholic    20%          61%
b Non-French cath    31%          50%
c United church      32%          55%
d Anglican           34%          54%
e Presbyterian       35%          49%
f Lutheran           45%          45%
g Baptist            21%          62%
h Pentecostal        -             -       
i Sm chr faiths      39%          48%
j Non-christian      29%           -
k No religion now    36%          45%
l No religion ever   23%          54%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.05 p < .003
French catholic: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.03 p < .245
French catholic: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.07 p < .000
non-French catholic: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.08 p < .000
Non-French catholic: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.12 p < .000
Liberal protestant: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.16 p < .000
Liberal Protestant: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.11 p < .000
Conservative christian: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.17 p < .000
Conservative christian: men
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.04 p < .268
Non-christian: women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=-.20 p < .000
Non-christian: men

B controled for
- age
- region
- marital status
Reference group: no religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
1       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
1       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .83      Mt=5.8
1       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
1       M=2.81     Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
1       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
1       M=6.33      Mt=5.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .65      Mt=5.7
1       M= .84      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
1       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
1       M=8.17      Mt=8.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
1       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .78      Mt=5.8
1       M= .64      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.60     Mt=5.3
1       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.05      Mt=5.6
1       M=5.63      Mt=5.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
1       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
1       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
1       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
1       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
1       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudySing (2009a): study HK 2006
TitleThe Quallity of Life in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 295 - 335
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9349-x
Public20-69 aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelReligion
Page in Source 318
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Religion:
- none
- yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mD%=+
% happy (very and quite)
none         50%
yes          51%
- difference +1%
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.06
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bD%=-
% feels happy (often and sometimes)
none         64%
yes          62%
- difference -2%
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.09
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cD%=0
% accomplished wants (a great deal and some)
none          56%
yes           56%
- difference = 0%
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.00
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aDM=0
none       M = 2,0
yes        M = 2,0
- difference = 0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .91      Mt=5.9
1       M= .82      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.03      Mt=5.6
1       M=6.03      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
1       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
1       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
1       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
1       M=2.53      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
1       M=2.30      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       Less than 10 Ss
1       M=6.22      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       Less than 10 Ss
1       M= .33      Mt=5.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       Less than 10 Ss
1       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
1       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
1       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or no
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
1       M=1.25      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.00      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.32      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study KR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1251

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.84      Mt=6.5
2       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.09 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .93      Mt=5.9
1       M= .92      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
1       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.66      Mt=5.2
1       M=5.77      Mt=5.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.56     Mt=5.3
1       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .62      Mt=5.6
1       M= .59      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.98      Mt=5.5
1       M=6.03      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Belong church 
organization
0 not mentioned
1 belong to a church organization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.20
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.13
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV=+.11
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelDenomination
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
0 non-churched
1 churched
Remarks
Churched category consists of catholics, mainline 
protestants, conservative protestants, and other 
denominations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
1       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
1       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
1       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.08 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelNon-religious.
Page in Source 23
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
0. All 
1. No member of church

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.07 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ctc=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelNon-religious
Page in Source 190
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
0 Church members 
1 Non-members 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aDM= ns
Unaffected by sex and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

Study~NIPO (1949): study NL 1948
TitleWat de Mensen Gelukkig Maakt. (The Things that Contribute to Happiness).
SourceDe Publieke Opinie, 1949, Vol. 3, 3 - 4
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~NIPO_1949.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelNon-religious
Page in Source 4
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
0 Church member   
1 Non-member

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aG=-.11
See also under 'Religious Denomination' (R 1.2)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.07      Mt=5.6
1       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NO 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1239

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.56      Mt=7.6
1       M=2.30      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1185

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.33      Mt=6.3
1       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
1       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.02      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.10      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RO 1993
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1103

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .57      Mt=5.6
1       M= .72      Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.88      Mt=5.4
1       M=5.88      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
1       M=2.64     Mt=5.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RU 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1961

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .43      Mt=5.4
1       M= .05      Mt=5.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.55     Mt=5.2
1       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
1       M=5.23      Mt=4.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SI 1992
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1035

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.06      Mt=4.5
1       M=4.99      Mt=4.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
1       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ES 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4147

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.84      Mt=6.5
1       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .64      Mt=5.6
1       M= .72      Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.84      Mt=6.5
1       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .64      Mt=5.6
1       M= .72      Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1047

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.79      Mt=7.8
1       M=2.93      Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.88      Mt=7.6
1       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CH 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1400

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
1       M=8.44      Mt=8.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study TR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.33      Mt=4.8
1       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .58      Mt=5.6
1       M= .60      Mt=5.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =304

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.55      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.70      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=8.17      Mt=8.0
1       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.08 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1484

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyMookherjee (1998): study US 1991
TitlePerception of Happiness among Elderly Persons in Metropolitan USA.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1998, Vol. 87, 787 - 793
Public60+aged, metropolitian areas, USA, 1982-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelReligious membership
Page in Source 789
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
1: Members of church
0: Non-members of church

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+
% Happy (very+pretty):
Members     87% 
Non-members 79%
-difference +8%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aAoV=
F= 150.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study US 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1839

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-member or not
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question: "Do you belong to a
religious denomination?"
0   No
1   Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
1       M=2.30      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
1       M=2.30      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelChurch
Page in Source 330
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Two questions about church.
A question about church membership allowing a 'yes' or 
'no' response: "Do you happen to be a member of a 
church or synagogue?".
A question abou church attendance allowing a 'yes' or 
'no' response: "Did you attend church or synagogue in 
the last seven days?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.19 p < .01
Church membership
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.19 p < .01
Church attendance
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
Church attendance
age 18-25 Beta=+.11 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=+.12 (ns)
age 36-45 Beta=+.16 (ns)
age 46-55 Beta=+.04 (ns)
age 56-65 Beta=+.13 (ns)
age 66-75 Beta=+.03 (ns)
age 76-96 Beta=+.01 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyMookherjee (1997): study US 1986
TitleAssessment of Happiness among the Elderly Population in the United States.
SourceChrakravarty, I.;Ed.: "Life in Twilight Years", Kwality Book, 1997, Calcutta, India, 327 - 343
Public60+ aged, general public, USA 1982-91
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =3049

Correlate
Author's labelReligious Membership
Page in Source 335
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Single question on religious membership:
1.non-Member
2.member
Observed distributionN: 1= 152 2=2897

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ p < .01
1. M=2.10 SD= .70
2. M=2.24 SD= .65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious attendance
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
- satisfaction with:
   - Neighbours
   - Non-working activities
   - Family
   - Friends
   - Health
   - Finance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelChurch membership
Page in Source 701,703
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Are you an official member of a church or other place 
of worship?
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionT1: M = 0,62, SD = 0,49 T2: M = 0,78, SD = 0,41
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.16 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.05 ns
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.16 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.10 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.17 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.09 p < .05
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.17 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.06 ns
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.10 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.06 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelChurch membership
Page in Source 228
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
0 non membership                       1 membership

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+ p < .?
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire) 
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ s
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+ p < .?
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)        
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=-? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire). Strongest among widows.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire). Strongest among widows.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+ p < .?
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire).Least strong among widows ,strongest 
among other miners wives.  
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelNon-religious
Page in Source 208
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question
1: Church member 
0: Non-member

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.27 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Church-member or not
Subject code: R01ad01

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelReligious affiliation
Page in Source 208
Our classificationChurch-member or not, code R01ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1 Protestant, Catholic, Jewish 
0 None, agnostics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.27 p < . 01
No significant differences among those reporting 
Protestant, Catholic or Jewish religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance (ln)
Page in Source 38,54,55,57
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Church attendance (ln): 
9: Several times a week
7: Every week
6: Each week, nearly
5: 2-3 per month
4: Once a month
3: Severl times a year
2: Once a year
1: < 1 a year
0: Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.92
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.09
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
    - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
    - Widowed
    - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Denomination
- Charity work

B and beta unaffected when additionally controlled 
for:
- education
- family income
- labor force participation
- spouse in labor force
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualitńt in Ísterreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut fŘr Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultńt der Universitńt Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of church attendance
Page in Source 48, T46
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1 Once a week
2 Once a month
3 Only on holidays
4 Hardly or never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.01
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyJones (2002): study CA 2000
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelchurch attendance
Page in Source 2,3
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1 attends once or twice a year or not at all
2 attends weekly or monthly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=+
                                  very happy
Marrieds
1 once,twice or not at all         44% - 46%
2 weekly or monthly                56%

separated and divorced women
1 once, twice or not at all        24% - 26% 
2 weekly or monthly                37% - 29%

separated and divorced women
1 once, twice or not at all        24% - 26% 
2 weekly or monthly                37% - 29%

separated and divorced men
1 once, twice or not at all        25% - 29% 
2 weekly or monthly                44% - 29%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=+
females
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=+
Males
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelWorship frequency of the child
Page in Source 5, 10,11
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Frequency of worship attendance of the child
a: non-worshipper
b: worships 1-2 times yearly
c: worships 3-4 times yearly
d: worships monthly
e: worships weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=
% very happy:
a: non-worshipper             25%
b: worships 1-2 times yearly  30%
c: worships 3-4 times yearly  33%
d: worships monthly           29%
e: worships weekly            29%
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .735
Boys N= 1690, girls N= 1680)

girls
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .256
boys
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.00 p < .416
Children with religious affiliation only: (boys 
N=1178, girls N=1192)

girls
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.00 p < .270
boys

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGee & Veevers (1990): study CA 1985
TitleReligious Involvement and Life Satisfaction in Canada.
SourceSociological Analysis, 1990, Vol. 51, 387 - 394
Public25-59 aged, Canada, 1995
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6621

Correlate
Author's labelReligious involvement
Page in Source 388
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1 Unaffiliated:persons who identify themselves as 
having no religion

2 Affiliated: persons who identify themselves as having 
a religion  but   attended religious  services less  
than once a week excluding ceremonial  occasion such as 
weddings, baptisms   and funerals

3 Actively affiliated: persons who identify themselves 
as having a religion and attended services at least 
once a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-cD%=+
% very satisfied with life.

          Unaffiliated  Affiliated   Actively
                                     affiliated
Whole Canada
- males        41,4        45,0         50,6
- females      44,1        46,5         52,5
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ctc=+ p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-cD%=+
Ontario
- males         47,2        55,4        62,4
- females       40,3        50,3        56,9
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ctc=+ p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-cD%=-
British Columbia
- males        48,7         36,3        38,3
- females      51,6         44,6        64,8
ns among females
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ctc=+ p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHunsberger (1985): study CA 1982
TitleReligion, Age, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Sources of Religiousness: A Study of Older Persons.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1985, Vol. 40, 615 - 620
Public65+ aged, general public, Ontario Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelChurch Attendance
Page in Source 619
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Question: "On average how often do you attend religious 
services (not including weddings, funerals etc.)?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aer=+.28 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelActive social life
Page in Source 20
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Attending at least once a week (yes or no) in:
a Cultural events
b Entertainment events
c Sport
d Visiting friend, relative
e Voluntary work
f Church services

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
                                male   female
Attending cultural events       +,370  +,614
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-
Attending entertainment events  -,101 -,068
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Sport                           +,427  +,502
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Visiting friend, relative       +,224  +,374
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Engaging in voluntary work      +,155  +,186
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+
Attending church services       +,212  +,350

B's controlled for
-sex
-nationality
-age
-marital status
-education
-East/West-germany

B denotes p[oints difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualitńt in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelChurch-attendance
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Question :'How frequent do you attent church?'
1   seldom or never 
2   more than once a year 
3   once a month   
4   once a week  
5   more than once a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ▀

1978      -.10       -.09       -.07       +.10
1980      -.08       -.05       -.06       +.12
1984      -.04       +.02       -.01       +.09
1988      -.08       -.01       -.04       +.13

▀'s controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ▀

1978      +.05       +.01       +.00       +.09
1980      +.05       +.03       +.01       +.08
1984      -.02       -.01       -.01       +.04
1988      +.08       -.01       +.01       +.10

▀'s controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1974): study XZ Germany West 1973
TitleLebensfreude: Kein Thema fŘr die Kirche? (Joy in Living: No Topic for the Church?)
SourceHerder Korrespondenz, 1974, Vol. 1, 41 - 47
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/noelle_neumann_e_1974.pdf
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1972
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance , Catholics only
Page in Source 44
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport of Catholics attending Church
1: every Sunday
2: rarely or never
Observed distributionNumber of Catholics not reported assumed N: 500

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aD%a=-
              Church attendance
              every Sunday    rarely or never
3:cheerful          28%             33%
2:rather cheerful   26%             35%
1:uncheerful        46%             32%

% adjusted by age, sex and living environment
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=-.19 ns
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=-.13 ns
Catholics attending Church every Sunday look less 
cheerful than those attending Church rarely or 
never


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelAttending church, religious events
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1: a respondent goes to church/religious events at 
least once a month
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 20.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.17 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in religious 
attendance

B controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- education
- having a car and telephone
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- marital status
- cultural participation
- relative income
- active in sports


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelAttends religious events
Page in Source 39-40
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
0: Never attends religious events
1: Attends
Observed distribution0: M = 0,477 SD = 0,499
Remarks
In original: Never attends. Reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .01
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.035 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.017 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly at church
Page in Source 20, 34,35
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1 attent at least once a month church or religious 
institutions
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=185066 M=0.39 sd=0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.08 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Betaĺs controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending other events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service
- Living in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelNo participation in religious group activities
Page in Source 253
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self report on participation in religious group 
activities. Text is not reported. 
1: no participation in religious group activities
0: participation in religious group activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=0.6 p < .05
CI95 [0.4-0.8]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelreligiosity
Page in Source 164
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1: frequent Church attendance (mothly at least)
0: less frequently

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-.29
Frequent; montly at least  M = 7,84
Less frequently            M = 7,55
- difference                  -0,29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in church
Page in Source 19.17,15,16
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Religion attendance: if respondent has taken part in 
activities of a religious organization (church, 
synagogue, mosque, etc. ) in the last month.
Observed distributionM = 0.11 SD = 0.31 N = 32517

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.16 p < .05
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBond et al. (0): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleReligion and the Life Satisfaction of Young Persons around the World: Personal Values and Societal Context
SourceTrommsdorff, G., Xinyin, C.: "Values. Religion, and Culture in Adolescent Development", Cambridge, 2011, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 5
Public15-24 aged, 43 nations, 2005-2008
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =9618

Correlate
Author's labelSocial-religious engagement (micro)
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: 'Apart from weddings, 
funerals and christenings, about how often do you 
attend religious services these days?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.41 p < .01
Macro: AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE 
social-religious engagement in 43 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+
Micro: INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL 
social-religious engagement
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 259
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Church attendance:
1
:
7 (higher frequency)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by church attendance

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyB÷hnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 24
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Church attendence (7-point-scale)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.07 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.07 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-class/occupation
-education
-rooms per person
-accomodation problems
-separated/divorced
-widowed
-single, never married
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.06 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyRose & Ozcan (2007): study ZZ EU 15 2003
TitleFirst European Quality of Life Survey: Quality of Life in Turkey.
SourceEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0719.htm
Public18+aged, general public, EU 15 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 50
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Apart from weddings, funerals and other important 
religious events (e.g. baptism, Christmas/Easter of 
other specific holy days), about how often do you 
attend religious services?
1.more than once a week
2.once a week
3.once of twice a month
4.a few times a year
5.once a year
6.less than once a year
7.never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.01 ns
Turkey
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.05 p < .000
EU15 (EU Member States before 2004)

Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic position
  - age
  - gender
  - income level (quartile)
  - sufficiency of income (out of money, debts)
  - education
  - health
  - occupational level (manual worker or not)
  - living environment (urban or not)
- Social participation
  - employed
- Attitudes
  - satisfaction with public services
  - trust in people
  - perceived tensions in society
  - perceived safety in neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
a time  spend with people at your church
b belong to a church organisation
c belong to religious denomination
d how often someone attends religious service
e the importance of God in someone's life
f moments of prayer/meditation
g pray to God outside of religous service

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-amr=+.13
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-amr=+.05
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-amr=+.05
Denmark

mr is average correlation between happiness and 
the 8 aspects of religiousness mentioned above


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How often do you attend 
religious service?
1 (practically) never
2 more often than '(practically) never'
3 once a year
4 other specific holy days
5 only on special holy days/Christmas/Easter
6 once a month
7 once a week
8 more than once a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.15
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.04
Netherland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.03
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelTime with people at church
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Iĺm going to ask how 
often you do certain things. For each activity,would 
you say you do them every week or nearly every week; 
once or twice a month; only a few times a year; or not 
at all? Spend time with people at your church, mosque 
or synagogue.
1 Not at all
2 Only a few times a year
3 Once or twice a month
4 Weekly
Observed distribution1: 43% 2: 17% 3: 14% 5: 26%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 p < .001
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Religion important in life
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelreligious service participation
Page in Source 138
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
6:   more than once a week
5:   once a month
4:   on common holy day
3:   on specific holy day
2:   once a year
1:   less than once a year
0:   no participation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Individual happiness (not average) by 
participation in (religious) service attendance.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 ns
>once a week (compared to no participation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.07 ns
once a week (compared to no participation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
once a month (compared to no participation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
on common holy day (compared to no participation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
on specific holy day (compared to no 
participation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
once a year (compared to no participation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 ns
less than once a year (compared to no 
participation).

Beta's controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- belief in superior being

Beta's are more positive if additionally 
controlled for aggregated variables at country 
level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 207,211
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
0 never
1 seldom
2 several times a year
3 monthly
4 weekly
Observed distribution0: M=0,16, SD=0,36; 1: M=0,25, SD=0,44; 2 :M=0,26, SD=0.43; 3: M=0,14, SD=0,35; 4: M=0,20; SD=0,40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
0 never                 r=+0,10
1 seldom                r=-0.03
2 several times a year  r=-0,05
3 monthly               r=-0,02
4 weekly                r=+0.01
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.17 ns
Seldom (vs never)                  SE =.15
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.24 ns
Several times a year (vs never)    SE =.17
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.34 ns
Monthly (vs never)                 SE =.17
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.56 p < .01
Weekly (vs never)                  SE =.18

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- income
- community size
- type of employment
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logt model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelVoluntary activities
Page in Source 7-16
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Kind of voluntary organizations actively involved in:
a: church, religious
b: sports, recreation
c: arts, music, educational
d: labor union
e: political party
f: environmental
g: professional
h: charity

0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionRange 0-1 a: M= 0,13, SD=0,33 b: M= 0.10, SD=0.30 c: M= 0.07, SD=0.25 d: M= 0.04, SD=0.19 e: M= 0.04, SD=0.19 f: M= 0.03, SD=0.17 g: M= 0.04, SD=0.20 h: M= 0.06, SD=0.23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,4 p < .05
Church                  B: 1,41, t: 6,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.95 p < .05
Sports                  B: 0,95, t: 4,21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,4 p < .05
Arts                    B: 1,43, t: 5,69
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 ns
Labor union             B: 1,41, t: 6,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 ns
Politics                B: 0,95, t: 4,21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.65 ns
Environment             B: 0,65, t: 1,61
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.35 ns
Professional            B: 0,35, t: 1,13
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,8 p < .05
Charity                 B: 1,78, t: 6,13

B's controlled for:
- member of any voluntary organization
- active in any voluntary organization
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B's estimated individually in separate equations 
(model a)
Not different when estimated jointly (models c and 
d)

B is points greater happiness on range 10-100 of 
people who participate in that kind of 
organization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =17000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 520-521+ 526
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Frequency of church attendance;
1:once a month or more
0:otherwise
Remarks
1990 World Values Survey (CPSR 6160) v147

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 p < .001
b (0,14095)controlled for
National characteristics:
-union density
-social democracy
-culture
-GDP per capita
-unemployment

Individual characteristics:
-union membership
-marital status
-gender
-education
-age
-age squared
-number of children
-home life quality
-income
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelCurch attendance
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self report:
1.not at all
2.less than monthly
3.bimonthly/monthly
4.weekly and more
Observed distribution1: 49.6%, 2: 16.0%, 3: 10.3%, 4: 24.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelChurch
Page in Source 159
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about how often people 
attend church
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M= 0.29, SD= 0.45

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.08 p < .000
B controlled for:
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- education
- age
- gender
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- trust in people
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelReligious participation
Page in Source 208
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Direct question: "Ceremonies as marriages, funerals and 
baptisms excluded, how often do you go to church?
1 Once or more a week  
.
.
8 Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 ns
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .05
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.17 p < .01
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .05
Northern Ireland

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=
EC (stratified sample)   
more than 1 a week Mt'=  7.05
once a week        Mt'=  7.07
once per month     Mt'=  6.74
holydays           Mt'=  7.02
ceremonies         Mt'=  6.82
once a year        Mt'=  7.17
less often         Mt'=  7.01
never              Mt'=  ?


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance.
Page in Source 24
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Closed question: never / sometimes / once a week.
Remarks
Non-religious Ss excluded

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.27 p < .01
Stronger among Protestants (025)
Not among Catholics (ns)

When the non-religious were compared with the 
religious it appeared that those attending church 
once a week are about  as happy as the 
non-religious. Those attending church sometimes, 
and especially religious Ss who never attend 
church are less happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelReligious partici- pation
Page in Source 203
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
3-item index containing amount of time spent on 
religious activities, playing an active role, and 
holding a function.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+ ns
Never married males  : r = +.05 (ns)
Married males        : r = +.02 (ns)
Never married females: r = +.15 (ns)
Married females      : r = +.14 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelGoing to church
Page in Source 232
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Closed question on frequency in the past week: not at 
all / once / more than once.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.16
Females : G = +.32
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.10
Females : G = +.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyRule (2007): study ZA 2004
TitleReligiosity and Quality of Life in South Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007. Vol. 81, 417 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9005-2
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2799

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 430 - 431
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
- NA or refuse to say
1 infrequently or never
2 few times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 weekly or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gDM=+
-: M = 1,45
1: M = 1,73
2: M = 1,72
3: M = 1,85
4: M = 2,06
All M = 1,91
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.14 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyNoble (2009): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being: A Ukrainian Case Study.
SourceThesis, 2009, University College London, UK
Public18-85 aged, general public, 2 districts in city Kyiv, Ukraine, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =136

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an active church member
Page in Source 123, 135, 136, 139, 264
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Could you say whether you are an active member or an 
inactive member, or not a  all of a church or religious 
organisation?"

converted to a dochotomy
1: active member
2: inactive or not a member
Observed distributionM=0.12; Borshegovka M=0.11 sd=0.32; Pechersk M=0.14 sd=0.35; p-value of difference= 0.68
Remarks
In the original question, many organisations were 
listed. Here only "church or religious organisation" 
has been picked out.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.15 ns
city district Borshegovka r=+.10 (ns)  N=86
city district Pechersk    r=+.20 (ns)  N=50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyLewis (2002): study GB 2000
TitleChurch Attendance and Happiness among Northern Irish Undergraduate Students: No Association.
SourcePastoral Psychology, 2002, Vol. 50, 191 - 195
PublicUniversity students of Ulster, Northern Ireland. 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =154

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendence
Page in Source 193
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single questions

How often do you attend your place of worship
1: never(except christenings, weddings  and funerals)
2: a few times a year
3: once every month  or two
4: two or three times a month
5: once a week or more
Observed distribution1:10%, 2:18%, 3:25%, 4:23%, 5:23%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.04 ns
rpc controlled for gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyLewis et al. (2000a): study GB 1998
TitleReligion and Happiness: Still no Association.
SourceJournal of Beliefs and Values, 2000, Vol. 21, 233 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1080/713675504
PublicAnglican priest and church members, North England, 1998
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labelposition in church
Page in Source 235
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
a  priests
b  members
Observed distributionN = priests 64, members 70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aDM= p < .001
Priests  M = 49,3  SD = 4,9
Members  M = 45,8  SD = 4,5
difference    4,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelReligiouness activity
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Religiosity (attendance at religious services):
a) highly (once a week or more)
b) mildly (at least once per year)
c) practivally never/ only for weddings/funerals 
(reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.1 p < .01
Religious participation high (vs. low/not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.02 ns
Religious participation middle (vs. low/not)

b controlled for:
- absolute income
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- unemployed
- number of children
- health
- region

Based upon fixed effects analysis; similar results 
for pooled OLS, Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHarding (1985): study GB 1981
TitleValues and the Nature of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.,Eds.: "Values and Social Change in Britain", McMillan, 1985, London, UK, 227 - 252
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 251
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
single direct question; go to church: 0 never 
1 sometimes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
never                  M = 1.2   Mt' = 6.2 
sometimes              M = 1.7   Mt' = 6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 4
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question.
Question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- health
- income
- age over 64
- married
- party identificaton
- age under 30
- education
- race
- ethnicity
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelChurch Attendence
Page in Source 6
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self report of attendence to religious services, full 
question not mentioned
3. weekly or more
2. monthly or less
1. seldom or never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%= p < .05
                % Very Happy 
3. weekly or more    43%
2. monthly or less   31%
1. seldom or never   26%

Same pattern applies within all major religious 
denominations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBrooks (2002): study US 2001
TitleRunning Down the Road to Happiness.
SourceGallup Newsletter 8 October 2002, The Gallup Organization, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/6943/running-down-road-happiness.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1005

Correlate
Author's labelchurch attendance
Page in Source 5
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
self report :
0 did not attend church in past 7 days
1 attended church in past 7 days

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dD%=
Happiness %           very    fairly   not too
- not attended p.7 d.  32        56      12
- attended past 7 d.   44        47       9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 2
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self report on single question
1: less often
2: weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
1: less often       42%
2: weekly           54%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 278
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How often do you attend religious services?
0 Never
:
8 Several times a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.05 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- type of religion
- race
- working full-time
- marital status
- region in US
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyNapier & Jost (2008): study US 2000
TitleWhy are Conservatives Happier than Liberals?
SourcePsychological Science, 2008, Vol. 19, 565 - 572
PublicVoters, before and after presidential election, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1142

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 567
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale from never to more 
than once a week
Remarks
Scores adjusted for non response, within-household 
selection, poststratification of age and education, and 
attrition from T1 to T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-a
T1 church attendance by T2 happiness
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.20 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Political conservatism
- Income
- Education
- Sex
- Age
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Need for cognition
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.19 p < .001
B additionally controlled for:
- Rationalization of inequality

B mean point happiness (1-10) more o0r less per 
point (1-6) church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelReligious participation
Page in Source 253
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question on frequency you 'usually 
attend religious or spiritual services'
5: more than once a weel
k
4: about once a week
3: one or three times a month
2: less than once a month
1: never
Observed distributionM = 1,67; SD = 1,18
Error Estimatess.e.=0.02
Remarks
Recoded: 3 (5+4), 2 (3), 1: ( 2), 0 (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.11 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.11
b and Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- parental status
- self rated physical health


B (+.05) and Beta  (+.04) lower when additionsl 
control for religious social identity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyMookherjee (1998): study US 1991
TitlePerception of Happiness among Elderly Persons in Metropolitan USA.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1998, Vol. 87, 787 - 793
Public60+aged, metropolitian areas, USA, 1982-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelReligious Attendance
Page in Source 789
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1: Attendants of religious services 
0: Not-attendants of religious services
Remarks
Originally measured on 9 point scale ranging from (0) 
never to always (8)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+
% Happy (very+pretty):  
Attendants of religious services     88%
Not-attendants of religious services 78%
-difference                         +10%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aAoV=23.8 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelChurch
Page in Source 330
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Two questions about church.
A question about church membership allowing a 'yes' or 
'no' response: "Do you happen to be a member of a 
church or synagogue?".
A question abou church attendance allowing a 'yes' or 
'no' response: "Did you attend church or synagogue in 
the last seven days?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.19 p < .01
Church membership
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.19 p < .01
Church attendance
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
Church attendance
age 18-25 Beta=+.11 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=+.12 (ns)
age 36-45 Beta=+.16 (ns)
age 46-55 Beta=+.04 (ns)
age 56-65 Beta=+.13 (ns)
age 66-75 Beta=+.03 (ns)
age 76-96 Beta=+.01 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyAngel & Angel (1992): study US 1988
TitleAge at Migration, Social Connections, and Well-Being among Elderly Hispanics.
SourceJournal of Aging and Health, 1992, Vol. 4, 480-499
DOIDOI: 10.1177/089826439200400402
Public65+aged, Hispanics, United States, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2019

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activities
Page in Source 491, 493, 497
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self report on involvement in three groups of social 
activities within the last 2 weeks: 
1: Going to group events
2: Going to church
3: Getting together socially with friends and neighbors
Observed distributionN1: 15.6%, N2: 53.7, N3: 43.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.34 p < .01
Going to church
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.33 p < .01
Getting together socially with friends and 
neighbors

Beta's controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- age at migration
- origin
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-17 ns
Going to group events

B controlled for 
- Adolescence
- Early adulthood
- Middle adulthood
- Late adulthood
- Cuban American
- Puerto Rican
- 71-79 years
- 80+ years
- Female
- $5,500 or less
- $5,501- $15,000
- Missing income
- Grade school
- High school
- Church 
- Friends


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyThoits & Hewitt (2001): study US 1986
TitleVolunteer Work and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2001, Vol. 42, 115 - 131
Public25+ aged, general public, USA, 1986-1989
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseT1: 33% T2: 21%
Respondents N =2867

Correlate
Author's labelChurch participation
Page in Source 123-126
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Self report on single question :How often you usually 
attended religious services.
0= never
1= less than once a month
2= about once a month
3= 2 or 3 times a month
4= once a week
5= more than once a week
Observed distributionT1: M= 2.5 SD= 1.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fr=+.14 p < .001
T1 church participation by T1 Life satisfation
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fb=+.43 p < .001
T2 church participation by T1 Life satisfaction
B controlled for: 
-T2 volunteer work hours 
-T2 frequency organization attend
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fb=+.29 p < .001
T2 church participation by T1 Life satisfaction
B controlled for: 
-T2 volunteer work hours 
-T2 frequency organization attend
-T1 volunteer work hours
O-SLu-g-sq-v-7-ab=+.03 p < .01
T2 church participation by T2 Life satisfaction
B controlled for: 
-T2 volunteer hours
-T2 organization attandance
-T1 life satisfaction(indicating CHANGE in Life 
satisfaction)
-sociodemographic variables
 -age
 -gender
 -ethnicity
 -education
 -income
 -employment
 -marital status
 -children at home
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.04 p < .001
T2 church participation by T2 happiness
B controlled for: 
-T2 volunteer hours
-T2 organization attandance
-T1 happiness measured by a different item 
 "My life could be happier than it is now"
-sociodemographic variables
 -age
 -gender
 -ethnicity
 -education
 -income
 -employment
 -marital status
 -children at home


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyMookherjee (1997): study US 1986
TitleAssessment of Happiness among the Elderly Population in the United States.
SourceChrakravarty, I.;Ed.: "Life in Twilight Years", Kwality Book, 1997, Calcutta, India, 327 - 343
Public60+ aged, general public, USA 1982-91
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =3049

Correlate
Author's labelReligious Attendance
Page in Source 335
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Single question on religious attendance:
1.not-attended
2.attended
Observed distributionN: 1= 396 2=2653

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ p < .00
1. M=2.09 SD=.70
2. M=2.25 SD=.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.13 p < .00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.12 p < .00
Beta controlled for socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04 p < .01
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
- satisfaction with:
   - Neighbours
   - Non-working activities
   - Family
   - Friends
   - Health
   - Finance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 902
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Frequency the respondent attends "a church or other 
place of worship"
Remarks
Scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+03 p < .003
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture

B similar when controlled either for:
- Transfer payments
- Government Ideology
- Democratic Party Control
Instead of:
- economic regulation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelChurch activity
Page in Source 701,703
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Besides regular service, how often do you take part in 
other activities at your place of worhship?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 2,10, SD = 1,24 T2: M = 2,64, SD = 1,21
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.21 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .05
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.20 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.10 p < .05
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health.
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.15 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.07 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.21 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.17 p < .00
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.20 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.15 p < .00
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14 p < .00
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelChurch activity
Page in Source 704
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
How often do you usually attend religious service?
1: never
2: less than once a year
3: a few times a year
4: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
5: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
6: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.11 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.05 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 462
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
More than once a week/
Weekly/
Few times a month; monthly/
Few times a year/
Never/

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.15 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.10 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.14 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.09 p < .01
                       1957          1976

In Metropolitan Cities G = +.10  ns  G = +.10 ns
In Suburbs             G = +.15 (05) G = +.24(01)
In Cities              G = +.11  ns  G = +.04 ns
In Towns               G = +.12 (01) G = +.13(01)
In Rural Areas         G = +.23 (001)G = +.13(01)

Effect persists after control for sex, age and 
education. Interaction effects with sex, age and 
education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyZautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975
TitleThe Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00884787
Public18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelReligious Fellowshipand Social Partici- pation.
Page in Source 88-92
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Factor loading on:
-Religious resources:
 respondent score depended on nether
 or not he mentioned "church" on the
 open-ended question"What are some of
 the things that keep you going, that
 get you through the bad days?"
-Church/community responsibilities:
 respondent score depended on weather
 or not he mentioned "church" or "com-
 munity" on the question "What are some
 of the responsibilities you have at 
 home, at work, and elsewhere?".
-Social Participation Scale:
 see PHILL 1967

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 221
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1: seldom
2: monthly
3: weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.13 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for 1+2+3+4+5 :                
1: education, occupation, income, level of living
2: live alone, married, children, contact with
   relatives, contact with friends, oganizational
   membership. 
3: health problems, recent move, separated/   
   divorced, unemployed.                       
4: retired,widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

▀ in different age groups:
under 30: +.13  05     30-49   : +.16  05
50-64   : +.10  ns     over 64 : -.09  ns

                 
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
▀ conrolled for 2 only:
interaction with age significant (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =534

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 229
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Single direct question: 
1: seldom
2: monthly
3: weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
▀ controlled for education, occupation, income, 
live alone, married status, contact with 
relatives, contact with friends, organization 
membership, separated / divorced, retired, 
widowed, place of residence, sexe, age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudySigelman (1981): study US 1974
TitleIs Ignorance Bliss? A Reconsideration of the Folk Wisdom.
SourceHuman Relations, 1981, Vol. 34, 965 - 974
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2650

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 971
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Frequency of church attendance on a 
9-point scale varying from "never"
to "several times"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for: age, gender, race, education, 
family income, marital status, political 
participation and health condition.
▀ hardly increases when intelligence (IQ) is also 
controled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyMartinson et al. (1984): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitlePredicting overall Life Satisfaction: The Role of Life Cycle and Social Psychological Antecedents.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00315724
Public18+aged, general public, N.W. Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 104
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Single direct question:
1  seldom
2: monthly
3: weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
age <30: ▀ = +.12  05
30 - 49: ▀ = +.13  05
50 - 64: ▀ = +.05  ns
   > 64: ▀ = -.10  05

▀ controlled for powerlessness, community 
solidarity, health, days too sick to work, recent 
move, separated/ divorced, unemployed, contact 
with relatives, contact with friends, attendance, 
organizational membership, education, family 
income.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyMartinson et al. (1985): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleLife Change, Health Status and Life Satisfaction: A Reconsideration.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 301 - 313
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00415128
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 309
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Single direct question:
1: seldom
2: monthly
3: weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=
▀ of different age groups:
under 30 : + 09  ns     30-49   : +.12  05
50-64    : +.07  ns     over 64 : -.10  ns

▀ controlled for: negative life change, degree of 
disability, days lost due to illness, 
powerlessness, community solidarity, recent 
migrant, contact with friends, contact with 
relatives, organizational affiliation, separated / 
divorced, sex, unemployed, family income, 
education. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBock & Radelet (1988): study US 1973
TitleThe Marital Integration of Religious Independents: A Reevaluation of Its Significance.
SourceReview of Religious Research,1988, Vol. 29, 228 - 241
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3511221
Public18+aged, white population, USA 1973-1974
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =5683

Correlate
Author's labelAffiliate vs independents
Page in Source 233-234
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
1: Church goers (Affiliates)
0: Non-church goers (Independents)
Observed distributionN=1:11971, 0:801

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ p < .05
MALES
Married 
- Affiliates    40,2% very happy
- Independents  29.5% very happy
difference     +10.7%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ p < .05
Unmarried
- Affiliates    20.8% very happy
- Independents  15.6% very happy
difference      +5.2%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ ns
FEMALES
Married 
- Affiliates    45.1% very happy
- Independents  33.1% very happy
difference      +12%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ ns
Unmarried 
- Affiliates    26.3% very happy
- Independents  23.7% very happy
difference      +2.6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGlenn & McLanahan (1981): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Offspring on the Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 409-421
Public50+ aged, with no children under age 18 at home, USA,1973-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2465

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 417
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Direct question:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+
Males   ▀= +.12  (01)
Females ▀= +.13  (01)
▀ controled for age, family income, years of 
school completed and employment status.
(White subjects only)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelParticipates in church social activities
Page in Source 228
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
0 No      1 Yes   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bD%=+29 p < .?
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
D%=29
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bD%=+
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
 Among Ss responding 'yes' 19% more 'very happy'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ s
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)        
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bD%=+
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
 Among Ss responding 'yes' 29% more 'very happy'
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bD%=+
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in 
 mine fire). Among Ss responding 'yes' 19% more  
 'very happy'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire). Strongest among widows.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)  
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 228
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Direct question.1=never to 5=weekly attendance.         
       

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ s
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=+ ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire). Strongest among widows.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? p < .?
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyFerriss (2002): study US 1972
TitleReligion and the Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 199 - 215
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1020684404438
Public18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0,7%
Respondents N =34706

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of attending religious services
Page in Source 205, 209
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
0: never
1: less than once a year
2: once a year
3: several times a year
4: once a month
5: 2-3 times a month
6: nearly every week
7: every week
8: more than once weekly
Observed distributionN=34706; M=2,2; SD=0,63 0=14%; 1=7,9%; 2=13,4%; 3=13,3%; 4=7,3%; 5=9,1%; 6=5,8%; 7=21,2%; 8=7,8% (1996 GSS): N=unknomn

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
                            M         SD
0: never                  2,09       0,66 
1: less than once a year  2,12       0,62
2: once a year            2,15       0,62
3: several times a year   2,16       0,62 
4: once a month           2,19       0,62
5: 2-3 times a month      2,18       0,63
6: nearly every week      2,25       0,62
7: every week             2,30       0,62
8: more than once weekly  2,38       0,64
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBMCT=
0,1<2,3,4<6,7<8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGlenn & Weaver (1979): study US 1972
TitleA Note on Family Situation and Global Happiness.
SourceSocial Forces, 1979, Vol. 57, 960 - 967
Public18-59 aged whites, non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-75
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of attendance of religious services
Page in Source 962
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+ p < .01
▀ controlled for: marital status, presence of 
children in home, age of children, own age, family 
income, occupational prestige (males only), 
employment outside home (females only) and years 
of school completed:

          1972   1973   1974   1975   All years
males     +.06   +.11   +.12   +.14   +.11
females   +.11   +.14   +.13   +.14   +.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudySpreitzer & Snyder (1974): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Life Satisfaction among the Aged.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 454 - 458
Public18+ aged, married or widowed, USA,1972-73
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1547

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 457
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
10-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-ar=+.08 p < . 01
Under the age of 65: r = +.10
Above the age of 65: r = -.01

The difference is not significant.

Unaffected by S.E.S.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyHadaway (1978): study US 1971
TitleLife Satisfaction and Religion: A Reanalysis.
SourceSocial Forces, 1978, Vol. 57, 636 - 643
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 640
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-br=+.16 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.16 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-br=+.16 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.16 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyMcNamara & St.George (1978): study US 1971
TitleBlessed are the Downtrodden? An Empirical Test.
SourceSociological Analysis, 1978, Vol. 39, 303 - 320
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 315
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Closed question on attendance at religious services. 
more than once a week  (3)
once a week            (2)
2 or 3 times a month       x)
less than once a month     x)
not at all             (1)

x) In the gamma-calculations the groups answering: "2 
or 3 times a month", and "less than once a month" were 
discarded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.19 p < .01
LIFE CYCLE    
never married,age under 30      G'=+.21      01
never married, age over 30         -.19      05
widowed                            +.02      ns
divorced / separated               -.22      01
married, youngest child under 6    +.27      01
married, youngest child over 6     +.20      01
married, no children under 18      +.25      01
married, age under 30, no children +.36      01
married, age over 30, no children  +.47      01

RACE
white                              +.20      01
black                              +.26      01

FAMILY INCOME
  0    -$ 4999                     +.26      01
$ 5000 -$ 9999                     +.19      01
$10000 -$16999                     +.20      01
over    $17000                     +.26      01

SCHOOLING
elementary only                    +.09      01
grades 9-11                        +.28      01
high school graduate               +.33      01
some college                       +.31      01
college graduate                   +.20      05
post graduate                      -.34      01

LIVING AREA
central cities of 12 largest                
Metropolitan Areas                 +.43      01
suburbs within 12 largest
  Meropolitan Areas                -.07      ns
cities over 100.000 not incl.12
  largest Metropolitan Areas       +.31      01
cities 10.000 to 100.000
  excluding suburbs above          +.10      05
places 2.500- 10.000               +.24      01
rural places less than 2.500 in
  Metropolitan Area                +.06      ns
rural places not in Metropolitan
  Area  but adjacent               -.04      ns
rural places not in Metropolitan
  Area, outlying                   +.21      01



Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelAttending religious services
Page in Source 703
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Direct question: never / sometimes / weekly or more.
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.33 p < .01
Happiness assessed at T2.

Age 66-75: tb = +.67 (01)
Age 82-92: tb = -.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in religious events
Page in Source 44
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on: "how often one attended church 
services or other church sponsored events during the 
last month."
none / 1-4 times / 5 or more times

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG=-.04 ns
Computed for those with current religious 
preferences only.

Index of Positive Affects only: G' = -.04 (ns)
- high S.E.S                  : G' = +.10 (ns)
- low S.E.S.                  : G' = -.35 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 240
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Direct question: never / a few times a year / a few 
times a month / once a week / more than once a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.14 p < . 01
Analysis on the basis of the answers of Catholics 
and Protestants only.

Catholics   : G' = +.20 (01)
U-shaped curve: Those who attend church once a 
week are most happy.
Protestants : G' = +.11 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelChurch attendance
Page in Source 207
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: "Do you attend church 
regularly?" 
0 No 
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.31 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R01ad02

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelParticipating in church activities
Page in Source 283
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R01ad02
Operationalization
0 No church activities 
1 Church activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= + ns
L-shaped curve: Positive among unhappier students 
only.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=+ ns
L-shaped curve: Positive among unhappier students 
only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift fŘr Bev÷lkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of praying
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Apart from when you are at religious services, how 
often, if at all, do you pray?
1 every day
2 more than once a week
3 once a week
4 at least once a month
5 only on special holy days
6 less often
7 never

Rescaled to:
1: regularly/frequently
0: never/rarely
Observed distribution1: 29.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.16 p < .01
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- gender
- friends
- partner
- children
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudySnoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000
TitleReligiousness and Happiness in Three Nations: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 207 - 211
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelreligiousness
Page in Source 209
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
selfreport on single question: Pray to God outside of 
religious service
7 every day
6 more than once a week
5 once a week
4 at least once a month
3 several times a year
2 less often
1 never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=-.07
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.01
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-atc=+.00
Denmark


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelPrayer
Page in Source 330
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
First observation of prayer is prayer experience. For 
this observation a scale comprising five items was 
used.

Prayer was divided in four prayer types (results were 
obtained using three scales and a single item):
Ritual prayer: reading or reciting from a prepared 
prayer script. 
Conversational (or colloquial) prayer: talking to God 
in one's own words.
Meditative prayer: intuitive rather than discursive and 
cognitive in taking a posture of "listening for God".
Petitionary prayer: asking God for material things or 
assistance.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.25 p < .01
Prayer experience
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.09 p < .05
Colloquial prayer
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.13 p < .01
Meditative prayer
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.09 p < .01
Ritual prayer
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=.00 ns
Petitionary prayer
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
Colloquial prayer
age 18-25 Beta=+.20 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=-.23 (01)
age 36-45 Beta=-.03 (ns)
age 46-55 Beta=+.16 (ns)
age 56-65 Beta=+.05 (ns)
age 66-75 Beta=-.03 (ns)
age 76-96 Beta=+.13 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex
- income
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
Meditative prayer
age 18-25 Beta=-.06 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=+.05 (ns)
age 36-45 Beta=-.25 (05)
age 46-55 Beta=-.09 (ns)
age 56-65 Beta=-.10 (ns)
age 66-75 Beta=+.05 (ns)
age 76-96 Beta=-.06 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelAsking for prayer
Page in Source 701,703,704
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
How often do you ask someone to pray for you?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 2,69, SD = 1,40 T2: M = 3,04, SD = 1,33
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.11 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.12 p < .01
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.11 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.11 p < .01
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 p < .01
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.09 p < .05
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 p < .00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.07 ns
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.10 p < .00
Controlling for health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelPrayer
Page in Source 701,703,704
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
How often do you pray?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 4,53, SD = 1,00 T2: M = 4,77, SD = 0,72
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .05
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.16 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .01
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.16 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.08 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.06 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelPrayer
Page in Source 704
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
How often do you pray?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .05
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.12 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.06 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelAsking for prayer
Page in Source 704
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
How often do you ask someone to pray for you?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .05
T1 religion by T1 - T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controled for T2 
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.06 ns
T1 religion by T1 - T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controled for T2 
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.02 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelPraying when unhappy
Page in Source 524
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
Praying when unhappy: 
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.06 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.03 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.11 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.04 ns
% very happy:         1957        1976

- Yes                  37          35
- No                   32          29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Praying
Subject code: R01ad03

StudyFerriss (2002): study US 1972
TitleReligion and the Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 199 - 215
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1020684404438
Public18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0,7%
Respondents N =34706

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of praying
Page in Source 209
Our classificationPraying, code R01ad03
Operationalization
How often do you pray?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.03 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Living in a convent
Subject code: R01ad04

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of years in cloister
Our classificationLiving in a convent, code R01ad04
Operationalization
Single closed question, rated on a 6-point scale, 
ranging from 
(1) < 3 years to (6) > 40 years.
(order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=-
T1: 1977     r= -.11    (ns)
T2: 1979     r= -.13    (ns)
T3: 1981     r= -.11    (ns)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious experiences
Subject code: R01ae

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal Spirituality
Page in Source 136,139
Our classificationCurrent religious experiences, code R01ae
Operationalization
Self report on single question about Meaning and value 
of spirituality in oneĺs own life.
Remarks
Item from the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
Child's rating of own happiness
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=+.30 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-ar=+.20 p < .05
Parents rating of child's happiness
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
Beta's controlled for child's:
- gender
- school
- temperament
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental 
  - spiritual practice/belief

Additional variance explained by personal 
spirituality after gender, school and temperament:
- 4,2% of child's rating of own happiness (05)
- 0,3% of parents rating of childs happiness (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious experiences
Subject code: R01ae

StudyHay (1979): study GB 1976
TitleThe Spiritual Experiences of the British.
SourceNew Society, 1979, Vol. 48, 72 - 74
PublicAdult, general public, Great Britain, 1976
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSpiritual experiences
Page in Source 72
Our classificationCurrent religious experiences, code R01ae
Operationalization
0 No spiritual experience
1 Reports to have had religious or   paranormal 
experience
Observed distribution1: about 30%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+ p < . s
Ss reporting religious experiences were 
significantly more likely to be balanced and 
personally happy than other people.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious experiences
Subject code: R01ae

StudyHay & Morisy (1978): study GB 1976
TitleReports of Esctatic, Paranormal, or Religious Experience in Great Britain and the United States: A Comparison of Trends.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1978, Vol. 17, 255 - 268
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1386320
PublicGeneral public, Great Britain, 1976
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1865

Correlate
Author's labelReligious experience
Page in Source 258-260
Our classificationCurrent religious experiences, code R01ae
Operationalization
A: "Had you been aware of, or influenced by a presence 
or power, whether referred to as God or not, which is 
different from your everyday selves?"
 1 Never in my life
 2 Once or twice
 3 Several times
 4 Often'
 5 All of the times

B: "Have you ever felt as though you were very close to 
a powerful spiritual force that seemed to lift you
out of yourself?"
 1 Never in my life
 2 Once or twice
 3 Several times
 4 Often'
 5 All of the times
Observed distributionA: 1: 63,6%, 2: 18%, 3: 10%, 4: 6%, 5: 2% B was not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=+ p < .02
A: aware of or influenced by a presence or power

"Never in my life"
 - High( > +1 ): 47%
 - Low ( < +2 ): 53%
"Positive response"
 - High( > +1 ): 54%
 - Low ( < +2 ): 46%
Chi▓ = 6,48
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ata=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ata=+.05 p < .01
B: felt close to spiritual force


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current religious experiences
Subject code: R01ae

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelCloseness to God
Page in Source 330
Our classificationCurrent religious experiences, code R01ae
Operationalization
Question about closeness to God: "Where on a scale of 1 
to 7, with 1 being very distant and 7 being very close, 
would you describe your relationship with God?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=+.31 p < .01
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
age 18-25 Beta=+.25 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=+.31 (001)
age 36-45 Beta=+.44 (001)
age 46-55 Beta=+.30 (01)
age 56-65 Beta=+.29 (01)
age 66-75 Beta=+.21 (05)
age 76-96 Beta=+.65 (001)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of religion
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Respondentĺs self-report of the importance of religion 
to them (scale 0 to 10)
Observed distributionMean=4.5699; SD=3.4754

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.04 p < .001
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyKennedy et al. (1978): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleSubjective Evaluation of Well-Being: Problems and Prospects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 457 - 474
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352943
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =335

Correlate
Author's labelreligiosity
Page in Source 467
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
sexe: male
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=-.25 p < .05
sexe:female
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
age 18-30
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=-.31 p < .05
age 31-50
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
age 51+


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in religious tolerance
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Self-report:
1: Belief in religious tolerance
0: No belief in religious tolerance
Observed distribution88.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.10 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Household income
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Unemployed
- Sociability
- Marital status
- Dependent relatives
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelSearch for meaning in religion
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions focusing on attempts to find 
meaning in the illness experience, esp. With reference 
to religious issues
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after 
T3: 6 months after
Remarks
T4: Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.02 ns
T1
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.05 ns
T2
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.01 ns
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with temple access
Page in Source 272
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with family god
Page in Source 272
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.14 p < .01
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across Nations.
SourceMental Health, Religion & Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 155 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1080/13674670903273801
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008,
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36460

Correlate
Author's labelReligion important in life
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
self-report on single question: Please say, for each of 
the following, how important it is in your life: 
Religion
0 not important
1 important
Observed distribution0: 28% 1: 71%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=0.04 p < .05
controlled for:
-person-level:
 - Religion
   -Time with people at church
   -Religious
   -Belong to religious organization
   -Believe in God
   -God important in life
   -Attend religious services
   -Belong to religious denomination
 -Socio-demographics
   -Age
   -Income
   -Education
   -Married
   -Divorced
   -Unemployed
-country-level:
 -institutional quality index (KKZ)
 -Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 -Inflation and Unemployment (Misery Index)
 -Life expectancy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyKonwicka (1976): study ZZ Europe 1967
TitleHomology of Predictions and Wishes.
SourceOrnauer, H.;et al.,Eds.: "Images of the World 2000:A Comparative Ten Nation Study", Humanities Press, 1976, USA, 403 - 419
Public15-40 aged, 6 european countries,
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3962

Correlate
Author's labelHomology
Page in Source 415
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Correspondence between expressed wishes for the future 
and expectations on the issues of:
- believe in religion
- sexual freedom
- attachment to families
- women in leading positions

Correspondence expressed in contingency coefficient C
Observed distributionRange: .16 to .70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=-
Believe in religion: 
The higher the convergence of whishes and 
expectations the lower happiness (monotonic 
sequence in all 6 countries).
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=0
Sexual freedom: 
No clear relation between wish/expectation fit and 
happiness, except Norway where highest 
correspondence is found among the least happy.
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=0
Attachment to families: 
No clear relation between wish/expectation fit and 
happiness, except Norway where highest 
correspondence is found among the least happy.
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=0
Women in leading positions: 
No clear relation between wish/expectation fit and 
happiness, except Norway where highest 
correspondence is found among the least happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of faith, religion, ethics or moral valu
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "faith, religion, ethics or moral values"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 6,24 SD: 2,72, Non-exercisers: M: 5,05 SD: 3,01
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.10 p < .35
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of faith, religion, ethics or moral values
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "faith, religion, ethics or moral values"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 4,92 SD: 2,99
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.10 p < .17
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.16 p < .01
Beta after accounting for perceived contribution 
to general happiness of:
- personal strenghts, skills and resources
- friends and social relationships


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in usefulness of mosque
Page in Source 1038
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Generally speaking, do you think that your mosque 
is/the mosques are giving, in your country, adequate 
answers to:
a. The moral problems and needs of the individual?
b. The problems of family life?
c.  People's spiritual needs?
d. The social problems facing our country today?

Rate:
0 = no
1 = yes
Observed distributionM = 0.72, SD = 0.37
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.87

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy when 
believing
- very satisfied          - 1% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      - 0% 
- medium satisfied        + 0% 
- somewhat dissatisfied   + 1% (ns) 
- very dissatisfied       + 1%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy              + 0% (ns)
- quite happy             - 0% (ns
- not very happy          - 0% (ns)
- not at all happy        - 0% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in usefulness of mosque
Page in Source 1038
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Generally speaking, do you think that your mosque 
is/the mosques are giving, in your country, adequate 
answers to:
a. The moral problems and needs of the individual?
b. The problems of family life?
c.  People's spiritual needs?
d. The social problems facing our country today?

Rate:
0 = no
1 = yes
Observed distributionM = 0.68, SD = 0.38
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy when 
believing
- very satisfied          + 1% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      + 1% (ns)
- medium satisfied        + 0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 1% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       - 2% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= p < .10
- very happy              + 5% (.10)
- quite happy             + 3% (.10)
- not very happy          - 4% (.10)
- not at all happy        - 4% (.10)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyHay & Morisy (1978): study GB 1976
TitleReports of Esctatic, Paranormal, or Religious Experience in Great Britain and the United States: A Comparison of Trends.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1978, Vol. 17, 255 - 268
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1386320
PublicGeneral public, Great Britain, 1976
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1865

Correlate
Author's labelReligious experience
Page in Source 258-260
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
A: "Had you been aware of, or influenced by a presence 
or power, whether referred to as God or not, which is 
different from your everyday selves?"
 1 Never in my life
 2 Once or twice
 3 Several times
 4 Often'
 5 All of the times

B: "Have you ever felt as though you were very close to 
a powerful spiritual force that seemed to lift you
out of yourself?"
 1 Never in my life
 2 Once or twice
 3 Several times
 4 Often'
 5 All of the times
Observed distributionA: 1: 63,6%, 2: 18%, 3: 10%, 4: 6%, 5: 2% B was not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=+ p < .02
A: aware of or influenced by a presence or power

"Never in my life"
 - High( > +1 ): 47%
 - Low ( < +2 ): 53%
"Positive response"
 - High( > +1 ): 54%
 - Low ( < +2 ): 46%
Chi▓ = 6,48
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ata=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ata=+.05 p < .01
B: felt close to spiritual force


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyFerriss (2002): study US 1972
TitleReligion and the Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 199 - 215
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1020684404438
Public18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0,7%
Respondents N =34706

Correlate
Author's labelReligious Doctrine
Page in Source 207
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question 
a: evangelical
b: fundamentalist
c: mainline
d: liberal
e: other
f: none
Observed distributionN=1523; M=2,19; SD=0,62 a:13,6%; b=10,6%; c=18,5%;d=17,2%; e=3,3%; f=36,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=
                        M        SD
a: evangelical         2,34     0,61
b: fundamentalist      2,23     0,66
c: mainline            2,23     0,58
d: liberal             2,15     0,63
e: other               2,37     0,62
f: none                2,12     0,63
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBMCT=
f,d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to religion
Subject code: R01af

StudyMcNamara & St.George (1978): study US 1971
TitleBlessed are the Downtrodden? An Empirical Test.
SourceSociological Analysis, 1978, Vol. 39, 303 - 320
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelReligiosity
Page in Source 315
Our classificationAttitudes to religion, code R01af
Operationalization
Religiosity index consisting of 3 closed questions:
1 In general, how religious-minded 
  would you say you are? (very, more
  than average, less than average)
2 How important to you is having a
  strong religious faith? (5-point
  scale, extremely important to not at
  all important)
3 State how much satisfaction you get
  from your religion? (5-point scale,
  great deal to little or none)
The points of the 3 scales were added. 
high     religiosity: 3-5
moderate religiosity: 6-8
low      religiosity: 9 and over 

Gammas were calculated by comparing
the high religiosity group (1) with the
low religiosity group(0)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.27 p < .01
LIFE CYCLE    
never married,age under 30      G'=+.30      01
never married, age over 30         +.44      01
widowed                            +.30      01
divorced / separated               +.09      ns
married, youngest child under 6    +.38      01
married, youngest child over 6     +.23      01
married, no children under 18      +.35      01
married, age under 30, no children +.35      01
married, age over 30, no children  +.43      01

RACE
white                              +.28      01
black                              +.20      01

FAMILY INCOME
  0    -$ 4999                     +.33      01
$ 5000 -$ 9999                     +.31      01
$10000 -$16999                     +.32      01
over    $17000                     +.34      01

SCHOOLING
elementary only                    +.03      ns
grades 9-11                        +.52      01
high school graduate               +.31      01
some college                       +.17      01
college graduate                   +.53      01
post graduate                      +.38      01

LIVING AREA
central cities of 12 largest              
Metropolitan Areas                 +.42      01
suburbs within 12 largest
  Meropolitan Areas                +.14      01
cities over 100.000 not incl.12
  largest Metropolitan Areas       -.08      ns
cities 10.000 to 100.000
  excluding suburbs above          +.34      01
places 2.500- 10.000               +.22      01
rural places less than 2.500 in
  Metropolitan Area                +.22      01
rural places not in Metropolitan
  Area  but adjacent               +.14      01
rural places not in Metropolitan
  Area, outlying                   +.57      01



Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about religion
Subject code: R01af01

StudyHunsberger (1985): study CA 1982
TitleReligion, Age, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Sources of Religiousness: A Study of Older Persons.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1985, Vol. 40, 615 - 620
Public65+ aged, general public, Ontario Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of beliefs
Page in Source 619
Our classificationConcern about religion, code R01af01
Operationalization
Question:"How important would you say that your present 
religious beliefs are to you?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aer=+.30 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about religion
Subject code: R01af01

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of religion
Page in Source 10, 14,16, 24
Our classificationConcern about religion, code R01af01
Operationalization
Respondents were asked about the importance of religion 
in their lives.
1 not at all important
to
4 very important.
Observed distributionM = 2.22, SD = 0.96
Remarks
Assessed in 1994, 1998, and 1999.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.19 p < .001
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .001
Men
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.20 p < .001
Women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta's controled for:
- gender
- age
- foreign born
- extroversion
- neuroticism

Unaffected by additional control for:
- partnered
- education
- income
- health disabililty

Results for latest year available in 1990 - 2005 
(usually 2005).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about religion
Subject code: R01af01

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelReligion important
Page in Source 8
Our classificationConcern about religion, code R01af01
Operationalization
1 Not very important 
2 Not important
3 Important
4 Very important
Observed distributionRange 1-4, M= 2.89 SD= 1.08

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.98 p < .05
B controlled for:
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra religion important goes with 
0.19 point greater happiness on scale 1-10 (0.90 
on scale 10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about religion
Subject code: R01af01

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Aut