Findings on Happiness and PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS
Subject Code: P13

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS0
P13aaPsycho-somatic career0
P13aa01Earlier psycho-somatic complaints4
P13aa02Change in psycho-somatic complaints0
P13aa03History of current complaints0
P13aa04Later psycho-somatic complaints3
P13abCurrent psycho-somatic complaints32
P13ab01Current physical complaints2
P13ab02Current mental complaints22
P13acAttitudes to psycho-somatic complaints0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P13
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa01

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 350,250,60
Our classificationEarlier psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa01
Operationalization
14-item additive index about occurrence of neurotic 
symptoms. 0:'not often', 1:'often' or no answer. 
Typical items are:
- Do you sometimes feel very unhappy    without knowing 
why?
- Are you dizzy sometimes?
- Do your troubles often prevent you 
  from falling asleep?
- Do you sometimes have the feeling  
  that your life is senseless?
Assessed at T1(1970)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.40 p < .01
T2 happiness by T1 neuroticism      
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.44 p < .01
T3 happiness by T1 neuroticism.
                                           
 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=-.24
T2 happiness by T1 neuroticism.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving selfesteem, internal control, intimacy 
with partner, adequacy of coping, self- and 
externally induced burdens . 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=-.36
T3 happiness bij T1 neuroticism.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also
involving selfesteem, internal control, intimacy 
with partner, quality of life and adequacy of 
coping.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=-.32 p < .01
T2 happiness by T1 neuroticism.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also
involving selfesteem, internal control, unhappy 
childhood and traumatic childhood experiences. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelSomatic symptoms
Our classificationEarlier psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa01
Operationalization
Mean based on an 18-item checklist of physical 
complaints, including such questions as: "Have you ever 
had spells of dizziness?", "Are you ever bothered by 
nightmares?"
Scale: 1.00 = never to 5.00 = always.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
                Somatic symptoms        
            T1      T2      T3      T4
Happiness
T1   tau = -.33    -.26    -.22    -.21
T2   tau = -.28    -.35    -.27    -.26
T3   tau = -.22    -.31    -.40    -.30     T4   
tau = -.24    -.28    -.30    -.36
All tau's significant (p < .001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa01

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1965
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 675
Our classificationEarlier psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa01
Operationalization
Cattell (1973) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Assessed at T1 (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-ar=-.30 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T2
NAS: r = +.39  (001)
PAS: r = -.08  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa01

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 81
Our classificationEarlier psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa01
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
labeled 'Emotional Health' in Guilford et al 1976.
High loadings on: emotional stability, objectivity, 
friendliness and personal
relationships.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar= s
T1 neuroticism by T1 happiness:
- young (18-49)  r= -.17  (001)
- old   (50-97)  r= -.15  (01)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01
T1 neroticism by T2 happiness (2-10 yrs later)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.11 ns
T1 neroticism by T3 happiness (10-17 yrs later)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa04

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationLater psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa04
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-warrying, nervous, emotional
-inadequate, insecure
-hypochondriacal
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and
T3(1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.27 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated neuroticism
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.33 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated neuroticism
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.37 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated neuroticism
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.32 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated neuroticism
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.37 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated neuroticism
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.44 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated neuroticism
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.38 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated neuroticism
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.33 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated neuroticism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa04

StudyBrenner (1979): study US Washington County, Maryland 1971
TitleDepressed Affect as a Cause of Associated Somatic Problems.
SourcePsychological Medicine, 1979, Vol. 9, 737 - 746
Public18+ aged, general public, Washington County, USA, followed 1 to 12 months, 1971-1974
Sample
Non-ResponseNon-response: 23% Not selected for follow up: 36% Dropout: ±23 %
Respondents N =1755

Correlate
Author's labelPsychosomatic symptoms
Page in Source 740-742
Our classificationLater psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa04
Operationalization
Three-item index:
1. 'I felt that everything I did was an effort.'
2. 'I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor.'
3. 'My sleep was restless.
Subjects were asked for each item to indicate how often 
they felt this way during the past week; 1: rarely or 
none of the time, 2: some or a little of the time, 3: 
occasionally or a moderate amount of time, 4: most or 
all of the time.
These categories were recoded in: rarely experiencing 
depressed affect (1), occasionally experiencing 
depressed affect (2+3), frequently experiencing 
depressed affect (4).
Items are drawn from the 20-item CES-D scale of 
depressive symptomatology (Comstock & Helsing, 1976; 
Radloff, 1977).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BBr-cw-mq-v-4-bG=-.32 p < .001
Synchronic correlation at T1.

A-BBr-cw-mq-v-4-bGs=-.06 ns
Synchronic correlation at T1 controlled for 
happiness (AFF 2.2a).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13aa04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSomatic symptoms
Our classificationLater psycho-somatic complaints, code P13aa04
Operationalization
Mean based on an 18-item checklist of physical 
complaints, including such questions as: "Have you ever 
had spells of dizziness?", "Are you ever bothered by 
nightmares?" 
Scale: 1.00 = never to 5.00 = always. Assessed at T1, 
T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
                  Somatic symptoms
Happiness         T1       T2       T3       T4
T1        tau = -.33     -.26     -.22     -.21
T2        tau = -.28     -.35     -.27     -.26
T3        tau = -.22     -.31     -.40     -.30
T4        tau = -.24     -.28     -.30     -.36
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelPsychosomatic healthproblems
Page in Source 52,54,143
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Five item index of direct questions on psychosomatie 
diseases (ulserpains, headaches, heart beatings, 
sleeplessness, sweating). Answer categories yes/no.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=-.34
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.16 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, community size, 
education, professional status, marital status, 
income, body weight, healthy eating habits, weight 
control, alcohol consumption, physical fittness 
activity, illness and satisfaction with health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmental disorders
Page in Source 224
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you at present suffer from any of the following 
illnesses or disorders ?"
a: no illnesses/disorders
b: nervous/mental disorders
c: anorexia/bulimia
d: mental depression
Observed distributionN: a:367, b:70, c:8, d:12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=8.18
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.33
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=5.31
d: mental depression        Mt=4.79
All                         Mt=7.60
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=7.78
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.08
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=5.00
d: mental depression        Mt=4.16
All                         Mt=7.21
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=7.19
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.18
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=6.56
d: mental depression        Mt=4.79
All                         Mt=6.80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltype of health problems
Page in Source 202, 204
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Suffer a lot from these health problems:
a:  no severe inconvenience
b:  pain/discomfort shoulder/nape of neck
c:  pain/discomfort back/loin
d:  discomfort arms, legs, hip or joints
e:  headache
f:  palpitations
g:  nervousness, anxiety
h:  difficult sleeping or insomnia
i:  melancholy, depressed or unhappy
j:  tiredness
k:  stomach pain
l:  indigestion or diarrhoa/constipation
m:  eczhema, rash itching
n:  cold, head cold or cough
o:  breathing difficulties
p:  discomfort or problems in the internal female 
sexual organs
Observed distributionN: 1:1021, b:104 c:114, d:87, e:61, f:20, g:39, h:37, i:40 j:101, k:36, l:38, m:40, n:55, o:38, p:13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=8.20
 b: Mt=6.59
 c: Mt=6.63
 d: Mt=6.46
 e: Mt=6.51
 f: Mt=5.00
 g: Mt=4.30
 h: Mt=4.86
 i: Mt=3.44
 j: Mt=5.86
 k: Mt=5.21
 l: Mt=5.79
 m: Mt=6.89
 n: Mt=6.91
 o: Mt=5.26
 p: Mt=5.81
All Mt=7.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.76
 b: Mt=6.68
 c: Mt=6.59
 d: Mt=6.63
 e: Mt=6.60
 f: Mt=6.00
 g: Mt=4.30
 h: Mt=4.93
 i: Mt=3.06
 j: Mt=5.90
 k: Mt=5.55
 l: Mt=5.46
 m: Mt=7.11
 n: Mt=7.13
 o: Mt=6.46
 p: Mt=5.78
All Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.18
 b: Mt=6.56
 c: Mt=6.30
 d: Mt=6.59
 e: Mt=6.39
 f: Mt=5.75
 g: Mt=4.55
 h: Mt=4.86
 i: Mt=3.44
 j: Mt=6.05
 k: Mt=5.86
 l: Mt=5.74
 m: Mt=6.38
 n: Mt=6.64
 o: Mt=6.35
 p: Mt=6.15
All Mt=6.85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
10 questions on psychosomatic diseases; answer 
categories:1=yes, 2=no, 3=can't say, no information

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.30
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and communities, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
10 questions on psychosomatic diseases; answer 
categories:1=yes, 2=no, 3=can't say, no information

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.35
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and communities, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 590
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Question on anxiousness about things, using a symptoms 
list, including nervousness, headache, insomnia, 
excessive appetite, nightmares, loneliness, chest 
pains, bad appetite, or trembling hands.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-br=-
unmarried employed males    : r = -.22 (ns)
unmarried employed females  : r = -.29 (05)
married employed males      : r = -.18 (05)
married employed females    : r = -.10 (ns)
married non-employed females: r = +.07 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, glass industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =106

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously registrated.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, commercial and textile-manufacturing occupations, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =110

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously registrated.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, metal industry, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =84

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously  registrated.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicSkilled labourers, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously registrated.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.34 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicAdministrative employees, General Sickfund, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously registrated.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, assembly industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously registrated.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.37 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /3
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicYoung female employees, cure-clinic, West Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Psychosomatic complaints, respectively the amount in 
which bodily symptoms are consciously registrated.      
       Part of 114 item Freiburger 
Persönlichkeits-Inventar (Freiburger Personality 
Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.23 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyHajak (2001): study DE 1997
TitleEpidemiology of Severe Insomnia and its Consequences in Germany.
SourceEuropean Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 2001, Vol. 251, 49 - 56
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1913

Correlate
Author's labelSevere Insomnia
Page in Source 51,53,54
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Self report
0: no sleep complaints
1: severe insomnia
Observed distributionN=206: severe sleep complaints; N=162: no sleep complaints (=control group) -55%: no sleep complaints during last month; 4% severe insomnia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bDM=- p < .00000
no complaints    M =  3,82  CI95[ 3,70; 3,94]
severe insomania M =  3,05  CI95[ 2,94; 3,16]
difference      DM = -0,77  CI95[-0.93; -0,61]
                            P2=4,9E-20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyShmotkin & Hadari (1996): study IL 1991
TitleAn Outlook on Subjective Well-Being in Older Israeli Adults: A Unified Formulation.
SourceThe International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1996, Vol. 42, 271 - 289
Public60+ aged, Israel, 1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =830

Correlate
Author's labelUnstrained affect
Page in Source 278-284
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions
a: I get easily upset
b: I take things hard
c: I get mad more than I used to do
d: I sometimes wory so much bthat I cannot sleep
e: I am afraid of al lot of things
f:  little things bother me more this year
g: I have a lot to be sad about
Remarks
tems that load high on a factor derived from responses 
to several  geriatric adjustment inventories

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.30 p < .0001
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aar=+.31 p < .0001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cr=+.29 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyMeleis (1982): study KW 1982
TitleEffect of Modernization on Kuwaiti Women.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 1982, Vol. 16, 965 - 970
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(82)90364-1
Public17-40 aged females, Kuwait, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =248

Correlate
Author's labelPsychosomatic complaints
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
H07aa01gr=-.50
H07aa01gr=-.50 p < .001
H07aa01gtb=-.11 p < .02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyTerBogt et al. (2003): study NL 2001
TitlePsychische Gezondheid, Risicogedrag en Welbevinden van Nederlandse Scholieren. ( Psychlogical Health, Risk Behavior and Well-Being of Dutch Adolescents).
SourceResearch Report Trimbos Institute, University of Utrecht, 2003, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/terbogt_t_2003.pdf
Public11-15 aged schoolchildren, the Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7556

Correlate
Author's labelPsychosomatic complaints
Page in Source 37,46
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
In the last 6 months how often have you had the 
following: Headache, Stomach-ache, Back-ache, Feeling 
low, Irritability or bad temper, Feeling nervous, 
Difficulties in getting to sleep, Feeling dizzy. 
Response options were: About every day, More than once 
a week, About every week, About every month, Rarely or 
never.

0) Percentage reporting no complaints more than once a 
week
1)Percentage reporting psychosomatic complaints more 
than once a week
Observed distribution0) 53,1 %, 1) 47,9 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=- p < .05
0) No complaints:                     M=8,5
1) Complaints more than once a week:  M=7,8
Difference                             -0,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-somatic complaints
Page in Source 28
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
88-item inventory containing symptoms indicative of 
both physical bad health, and psycho-somatic and social 
problems.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.41 p < .05
Unaffected by age and sex.
Lowest among medium S.E.S. and strongest among 
lower S.E.S.
Stronger among lower educated.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-somatic complaints
Page in Source 36
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
21-item index of psycho-somatic complaints 
1: no complaints
2: some complaints
3:a lot of complaints.
Remarks
VOEG scale (Dirken 1967)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.10 ns
U-shaped curve: Ss with some complaints being most 
happy.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cDM=- p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness.
Page in Source 37
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Direct question: Have you taken 'something against the 
nerves' during the last 14 days? 
0: Nothing
1: Swallowed something

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.41 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
10 questions on psychosomatic diseases; answer 
categories:1=yes, 2=no, 3=can't say, no information

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.27
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and communities, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological symptoms
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Self report on questions about
a: Headache 
b: Stomach-Ache 
c: Back Ache 
d: Feeling Low 
e: Irritability Or Bad Temper 
f: Feeling Nervous
g: Difficulties In Sleeping
h: Feeling Dizzy

Rated:
1:About Every Day
2:More Once/Week
3:About Every Week
4:About Every Month
5:Rarely Or Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.17 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
10 questions on psychosomatic diseases; answer 
categories:1=yes, 2=no, 3=can't say, no information

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.25
Controlled for: Income, housing density, 
education, social status, chronic illness, freq. 
of meetings with relatives, no. of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, interesting life, 
easyness of life, loneliness, gets sufficient 
attention, feeling of being liked, feeling of 
chance to succeed, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, satisfaction with income, 
age, gender, no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelConfidence
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently.. .been losing confidence in 
yourself?
1: Not at all
2: No more than usual (reference)
3: Rather more than usual
4: Much more than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.11 p < .01
FEMALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.04 ns
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.19 p < .05
 "Much more than usual"   (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.14 p < .05
MALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.02 ns
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.13 ns
 "Much more than usual"  (vs "No more than usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelConcentration problems
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently... been able to concentrate on 
whatever you're doing?
1: Better than usual
2: Same as usual (reference)
3: Less than usual
4: Much less than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.11 p < .05
FEMALES
 "Better than usual"    (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.09 p < .05
 "Less than usual"      (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.07 ns
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.04 ns
MALES
 "Better than usual"    (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.02 ns
 "Less than usual"      (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.16 p < .1
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - adequately nourished
  - no vandilism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - strain
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelSomatic anxiety
Page in Source 498
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Somatic anxiety subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:4.0; SD:2,4
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.56 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelHealth status.
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
13-item index of physical and psycholo-
gical symptoms; e.g. dizziness, headaches, upset 
stomach, nervousness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=-
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.02
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHypochondriasis
Page in Source 84
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Hypochodriasis subscale of Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory Pathology Scales (with K 
corrections);

Hypochondrias is neurotic concern over bodily 
functioning.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.06 p < .05
                   Mean hypochodriasis         
a 10% least happy          13.0  
b 27% close to average     13.7  
c 10% most happy           12.1
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b, c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyAbbey et al. (1992): study US 1987
TitleInfertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.
SourceJournal of Marriage and Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 408 - 417
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/353072?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
DOIDoi: 10.2307/353072
PublicInfertile couples, United States, 1987
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =370

Correlate
Author's labelFertility problem stress
Page in Source 412
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 9 question on the amount of stress and 
disruption the fertility problem had produced in 
various domains of life of respondents life during the 
last 12 month
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.46 p < .01
Wives happiness by wives stress
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.39 p < .01
Wives happiness by husbands stress
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.12 ns
Husbands happiness by wives stress
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.39 p < .01
Husbands happiness by husbands stress
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelSomatic symptoms
Page in Source 122
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
18-item checklist of physical complaints containing 
nervousness, headaches, loss of appetitie, upset 
stomach, trouble getting out of bed, work affected by 
ill health, shortness of breath, hard heart beating, 
dizziness, nightmares, losing weight, trembling hands, 
sweating hands, troubles to get going, bad health, 
having a cold, trouble falling asleep, absent from 
school because of illness (adapted from Gurin et al., 
1960).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.28 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 29
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on dizziness, general 
aches and pains, headaches, muscle twitches, nervous- 
ness, and rapid heart beat; during last week.
(items from Stouffer et al. 1949)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= -
Index of Positive Affects: G' = +.02 (ns)
Index of Negative Affects: G' = +.53 (01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.33 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current psycho-somatic complaints
Subject code: P13ab

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-somatic symptons
Page in Source 196
Our classificationCurrent psycho-somatic complaints, code P13ab
Operationalization
Summary score of 16 symptoms indicative of 
psychological and psychosomatic symptom complaints: (10 
ranks) 
(adapted from McMillan, 1957).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= - p < . 01
Males   : _b = -.24 (01)
Females : _b = -.18 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current physical complaints
Subject code: P13ab01

StudyBeiser (1974): study CA 1963
TitleComponents and Correlates of Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1974, Vol. 15, 320 - 327
Public18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968
Sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-physiological condition
Page in Source 325
Our classificationCurrent physical complaints, code P13ab01
Operationalization
Number of psycho-psychological dis- orders reported, 
e.g. psychophysiologic gastrointestinal reaction, 
asthma, hypertension, etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-ar= -
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.37 (01)
Unrelated to Index of Positive Affects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current physical complaints
Subject code: P13ab01

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical symptoms
Our classificationCurrent physical complaints, code P13ab01
Operationalization
55-item index of closed questions on general aches and 
pains, headaches, dizziness, rapid heart beat, and 
hands sweating and feeling damp and clammy; during the 
past few weeks 
(items from Stouffer et al., 1950).
Remarks
Data T1. Not computed for summed ABS.
         
              

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-
Index of Positive Affects: 
- Males  : G= +.00
- Females: G= -.02

Index of Negative Affects:
- Males  : G= +.47
- Females: G= +.45
- Stronger among those who are healthy than 
  among those who are sick.
- Unaffected by expecting a nervous breakdown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyGehmacher (1987a): study AT 1987
TitleGebaude Gemeinschaft. (Builded Community).
SourceSWS Rundschau, 1987, Vol. 27, 147 - 156
URLhttp://www.sws-rundschau.at/
PublicResidents housing estates, Vienna, Austria, 1987
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 151
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Self report of nervous complaints:
1. every day very tense
.
.
6. never
Remarks
ß controled for age, sex, postmaterialism, physical 
health, education, occupational status and 
satisfactions (with housing, leisure, social contacts 
and actitities).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.24
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.23
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.15 p < .05
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyMitchell (1972): study HK 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 1967
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =3966

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional illness
Page in Source 39
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
11 item index. Typical items are :
 - Your hands sweat so that you feel   
   damp and clammy.
 - You have nightmares.
 - You lose your appetite.

For each item, the respondent was asked
if he experienced the symptom 
many times/sometimes/hardly ever/never.
Many times or sometimes (score 1 ,hardly ever or never 
: score 0) were
considered as an indicator of emotional
strain (item analysis, fact validity of
the answer categories).Those with four
or more of these strains were labelled
emotionally ill ; those with three or
less are considered to be healthy.
Score range : 0 - 11.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aG=-.32 p < .01
Figures based on half of the sample.

linear

There is a stronger connection between illness and 
unhappiness when there is lower social 
involvement.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 42, 62
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Self report on shortened 6-item General Health 
Questionnaire (GHQ):
How did you feel in the past two weeks?
- Were you able  to concentrate on the things you were 
engaged in?
- Did you feel that you could not master your 
difficulties/troubles?
- Did you enjoy you daily activities?
- Did you feel unhappy and depressed?
- Did you lose faith in yourself?
- All things taken together, did you feel happy?

Rated:1 better than normal, 2 the same as normal, 3 
worse than normal, 4 much worse than normal. The 
answers were summed up and changed to a 10 point scale.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1987), T3 (1991), T4(1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between more and 
less healthy Ss over this 12 year period
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.23 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- neuroticism
- extraversion
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.22 p < .001
additional control for lifecourse transitions 
(happened or not):
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.22 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring of the above variables

Effect stronger among women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyErdman (1981): study NL 1978
TitleWelbevinden bij Hartpatienten. (Well-Being of Heartpatients).
SourceThesis, Swets & Zeitlinger, 1981, Lisse, Netherlands
PublicHeart patients, The Netherlands 1978-1979
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6,0%
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelDisphoria
Page in Source 103
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Factor derived from respouses of the following 
statements:
-I can sit still
-I dislike busily streets
-I am afraid for(a new)hartatacke
-I still been irritable
-I take care of the future
-I am very often whining
-I am afraid of my finance position
-I am often out of mood
-I am often depressed
-I am very moody

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=- p < .001
             disphoria score
-Happy(3)     M= 16.08 SD = 4.53
-Unhappy(1-2) M= 19.19 SD = 5.55
diference     M= -3.01 SD = 1,02
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=- p < .001
-Happy(4)      M = 16,17  SD=  4.55
-Unhappy(1-3)  M = 22.21  SD=  4.89
difference     M = -6.04  SD = 0.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelScore on VOEG
Page in Source 62
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Score for psychosomatic symptoms on a Dutch subjective 
health inventory (VOEG)
1 Below average
2 Above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=-.25 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=-.25 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyMakarczyk (1962): study PL 1960
TitleFactors affecting Life Satisfaction among People in Poland.
SourcePolish Sociological Bulletin, 1962, Vol. 1, 105 - 116
PublicAdults, general public, students and peasants excluded, Poland, 1960
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =2387

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness
Page in Source 115
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Single question on being a nervous person: definitely 
no / rather no / rather yes/ decidedly yes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aT=-.11 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyLai et al. (2005): study TW 2000
TitleHealth Related Quality of Life and Health Utility for the Institutional Elderly in Taiwan.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1169 - 1180
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-3061-3
PublicElderly living in long-term care settings, Taiwan 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =465

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological domain
Page in Source 1173-1178
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about psychological matters 
in the last four weeks:
a. How much do you enjoy life?
b. To what extent do you feel your life to be 
meaningful? 
c. How wll are you able to concentrate?
d. Are you able to accept your bodily appearance?
e. How satisfied are you with yourself?
f. How often do you have negative feelings such as blue 
mood, despair, anxiety, depression?
Observed distributionRange 4-20 : Mean=11,20; SD=2,50; Median=11,33; Mode=12.
Error EstimatesCronbach's alfa 0,78 > 0,70
Remarks
Psychological domain subscale of Taiwan's abbreviated 
version of the WHOQOL-BREF, questions 5, 6, 7, 11,,19, 
26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-cw-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelMaking decisions capapbilities
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently... felt capable of making decisions 
about things?
1: More so than usual
2: No more than usual (reference)
3: Less so than usual
4: Much less than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.09 p < .05
FEMALES
 "More so than usual"  (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.03 ns
 "Less so than usual"  (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.18 ns
 "Much less than usual"(vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.02 ns
MALES
 "Less so than usual"  (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.04 ns
 "More so than usual"  (vs"No more than usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.15 ns
 "Much less than usual"(vs"No more than usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelStrain
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently.... felt constantly under strain?
1: Not at all
2: No more than usual (reference)
3: Rather more than usual
4: Much more than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.16 p < .01
FEMALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.10 p < .01
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.32 p < .01
 "Much more than usual"   (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.14 p < .01
MALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.12 p < .01
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.28 p < .01
 "Much more than usual"   (vs "No more than 
usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently... been feeling unhappy or depressed?
1: Not at all
2: No more than usual (reference)
3: Rather more than usual
4: Much more than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.29 p < .01
FEMALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.13 p < .01
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.19 p < .01
 "Much more than usual"   (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.25 p < .01
MALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.16 p < .01
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.44 p < .01
 "Much more than usual"  (vs "No more than usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelAble to overcome difficulties
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently... felt you couldn't overcome your 
difficulties?
1: Not at all
2: No more than usual (reference)
3: Rather more than usual
4: Much more than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.06 p < .05
FEMALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.12 p < .01
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.25 p < .01
 "Much more than usual"   (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.06 p < .05
MALES
 "Not at all"             (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.03 ns
 "Rather more than usual" (vs "No more than 
usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.17 ns
 "Much more than usual"   (vs "No more than 
usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelAble to face up to problems
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently... been able to face up to problems?
1: More so than usual
2: Same as usual (reference)
3: Less so than usual
4: Much less than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.13 p < .01
FEMALES
 "More so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.06 ns
 "Less so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.08 ns
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.04 ns
MALES
 "More so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.02 ns
 "Less so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.34 p < .05
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - able to face up to problems
  - capable of making decisions
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyCovinsky et al. (1999): study US 1994
TitleHealth Status versus Quality of Life in Older Patients: Does the Distinction Matter?
SourceThe American Journal of Medicine, 1999, Vol. 106, 435 - 440
Public80+ aged patients 2 months after hospitalization, USA, 1994
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response564
Respondents N =493

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological distress
Page in Source 438
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 14 questions about depression and anxiety 
during the prior week(McNair et.al Moods Profile)
Psychological distress scores were calculated by 
summing the profiles of mood states, depression and 
anxiety scales:
1=lowest tertile (least distressed)
2=middle tertile
3=highest tertitle (most distressed)
Observed distributionN: 1=151, 2=157, 3=154

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-bDM=-
1. M=3.28 SD=.95
2. M=2.96 SD=.90
3. M=2.42 SD=.98
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-brs=-.38 p < .00
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-bC=-.70
dichotomized global quality-of-life ratings 
"good or better" versus
"fair or worse"
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-bOR=-05
Chance to be happy
1: 3.2
2: 2.2
3: 1 (reference)
Chance controled for
- physical capacity
- independence in daily activities
- pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Index of closed questions, rated on a 2-point scale, 
ranging from (0) True to (1) False. (order reversed)
a.  No more nervous than most other       people
b.  Keyed up most of the time
c.  Can't keep mind on one thing very     long
d.  Bothered by things not a bother to    others
e.  Worrying about something most of      the time
f.  Calm - don't get upset easily
g.  Anxious about someone/somthing        almost all of 
the time
h.  Happy most of the time
i.  Nervous some days - can't sit still     very long
j. Hard time keeping mind on work/task
k. Don't worry about what other people     think about 
me any more than most     people
l. Take things hard (get hurt easily)
m. Life a strain much of the time
n. At times think I'm just no good at    all
o. Lack faith in self
p. Feel useless at times
q. Things upset me easier than most      people
r. So many problems feel couldn't        handle
s. Feel about to go to pieces
t. Deny trouble/difficult problem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=
        T1: 1977      T2: 1979      T3: 1981

a.      +.03 (ns)     +.03 (ns)     +.32 (01)

b.      -.18 (01)     -.45 (01)     -.40 (01)
c.      -.02 (ns)     -.02 (ns)     -.06 (ns)

d.      -.05 (ns)     -.14 (05)     -.14 (05)

e.      -.26 (01)     -.24 (01)     -.34 (01)

f.      +.20 (01)     +.21 (01)     +.35 (01)
g.      -.10 (ns)     -.23 (01)     -.30 (01)

h.      +.43 (01)     +.35 (01)     +.44 (01)
i.      -.03 (ns)     +.01 (ns)     -.23 (01)

j.     -.10 (ns)     -.08 (ns)     -.19 (01)
k.     +.25 (01)     +.16 (05)     +.22 (01)


l.     -.23 (01)     -.18 (01)     -.24 (01)
m.     -.36 (01)     -.37 (01)     -.53 (01)
n.     -.34 (01)     -.16 (05)     -.34 (01)

o.     -.31 (01)     -.35 (01)     -.29 (01)
p.     -.34 (01)     -.17 (05)     -.33 (01)
q.     -.20 (01)     -.20 (01)     -.29 (01)

r.     -.17 (05)     -.23 (01)     -.42 (01)

s.     -.25 (01)     -.12 (ns)     -.24 (01)
t.     +.02 (ns)     -.09 (ns)     -.05 (ns)
All variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyBrenner (1975): study US Various places 1972
TitleEnjoyment as a Preventive of Depressive Affect.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1975, Vol. 3, 346 - 357
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1520-6629
Public18+ aged, general public, country and big city, USA, 1972
Sample
Non-Response19% in Washington, and 25% in Kansas City.
Respondents N =2168

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-psychologic problems
Page in Source 352
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on problems with 
energy, appetite, and/or sleep during past week rarely/ 
occasionally/ most days.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-5-bG=-.43 p < .001
When controlled for depressive affect: Gs = -.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyHarder (1969): study US 1969
TitleSelf-Actualization, Mood, and Personality Adjustment in Married Women.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1969, USA
URLhttp://pocketknowledge.tc.columbia.edu/home.php/viewfile/12851
PublicMarried females, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 50
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Index of statements about feelings of nervousness, 
strain, distraction, embarrassment and fear. (Taylor 
Manifest Anxiety Scale; see Taylor, 1953).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-.24 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelNegative affect states
Page in Source 122
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
40-item index of closed questions on irritability (7 
items), general anxiety (7 items), anxiety and tension 
(5 items), depression (6 items), anomy (8 items) and 
resentment (7 items).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.51 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological anxiety
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on nervousness or 
tenseness during the last weeks, having trouble getting 
to sleep at night, and having enough energy to do the 
things one would like to do.
Remarks
Data T1. Not computed for summed ABS.

                                    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-
Index of Positive Affects: 
- Males  : G= +.04
- Females: G= +.02

Index of Negative Affects:
- Males  : G= +.47
- Females: G= +.45
- Stronger among those who are healthy than 
  among those who are sick.
- Unaffected by expecting a nervous breakdown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety symptoms
Page in Source 71/272
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
10-item index of closed questions on sleeping problems, 
trembling hands, nervousness, heart beating hard, 
pressures or pains in head, biting fingernails, 
shortness of breath, sweating hands, sick headaches, 
nightmares (see Rosenberg, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.24
Females     : G = -.32
Males       : G = -.23
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.28
After control for:
- usual mood                        : Gs = -.21
- having fun in life                : Gs = -.20
- frequency of low mood             : Gs = -.18
- tending to be a discouraged person: Gs = -.20
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = -.19

Females: G = -.35
Males  : G = -.28
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .11 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical Anxiety
Page in Source 196
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Factor containing direct questions on having ever been 
bothered by shortness of breath, and by one's heart 
beating hard: never / hardly never / sometimes
/ many times (6 ranks). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= - p < . 01
Males   : _b = -.12 (01)
Females : _b = -.15 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological anxiety
Page in Source 196
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Factor of closed questions on having trouble falling 
asleep or staying asleep and being bothered by nervous- 
ness, feeling fidgety and tense.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= - p < . 01
Males   : _b = -.16 (01)
Females : _b = -.19 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mental complaints
Subject code: P13ab02

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelImmobilization
Page in Source 196
Our classificationCurrent mental complaints, code P13ab02
Operationalization
Factor containing direct questions on 
difficulties with getting up in the morning, and 
sweating hands (6 ranks).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= -
Males   : _b = -.12 (01)
Females : _b = -.02 (ns)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on10 questions asked 4 times a year at 3 month intervals.

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" (yes/no)
A Particularly exited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone critized you?

Scoring: yes = 1, no is = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible: range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'
A-BBr-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

"Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?"

A I enjoyed life
B I was happy

Answer options:
1 rarely or none of the time
2 some or a little of the time
3 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
4 most of the time

Summation: average score on A an B
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about what you have accomplished in life...?
3 well satisfied
2 reasonable satisfied
1 dissatisfied:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
H07aa01gSelfreport on single question:

Open question on happiness.
Text not reported.
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

When you're not only thinking of your job, but of your total present situation (house, prices, health, love, politics, neighbors, etc.), how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole? Please mark the appropriate face below.

Rated on pictorial scale, consisting of seven smilies, expressing variations from very dissatisfied (a) to very satisfied (g) ( Kunin's 'Faces scale') Pictures not reproduced here).
1 unhappy face
.
.
4 neutral face
.
.
7 happy face

Item in the "Arbeitsbeschreibungsbogen" (job-description questionaire).
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Moments that I feel happy I have......
4 often
3 not too often
2 seldom
1 never
M-TH-g-sq-v-5-bSelf report on single question:

"How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life? Would you say.....?"
5 very often
4 fairly often
3 occasionally
2 rarely
1 never
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things into account, how happy would you say you
are these days.....?
1 not too happy
2 moderately happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tSelf report on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your present life?
4 I feel very happy
3 I feel happy
2 I feel not very happy
1 I feel unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

'How would you rate the quality of your life at present? Would you say it is ..
5 excellent
4 very good
3 good
2 fair
1 poor
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you lead these days.......?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with overall life....."
(Full questions not reported)
3 very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not satisfied
- NA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you the quality of your life these days?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither nor
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original rating scale
O-SQL-cw-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

We ask you to think about your life in the last two weeks…..

How would you rate your quality of life?
1 very poor
2 poor
3 neither poor nor good
4 good
5 very good

Item 1 in WHOQOL-Bref
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B … happiness… (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate how much each of the following statements applies for you in the last 18 months.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 applies completely
6 apllies
5 apllies slightly
4 neither applies nor does not apply
3 slightly not applicable
2 not applicable
1 applies not at all

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), last years version
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
CPearson's CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [0; SQRT(1-1/s)], where s = the lesser of c and r, the number of columns and rows respectively.

Meaning:
C = 0 « no association.
C = SQRT( 1-1/s) « strongest possible association
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
GsPARTIAL GAMMA. See: GAMMA
Range: [-1, +1].
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
MCTMultiple Comparison Test, variant not specified
Possible variants: Scheffe, Tukey, Student/Newman/Keuls, Bonferoni (BMCT)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level Correlate nominal, Happiness: metric
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
VCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association
ZZZZZCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTSM07MENTAL HEALTH
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTSP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
P13aaPsycho-somatic careerL04ag01Life-stress inventories
P13abCurrent psycho-somatic complaintsM13ac10Feeling secure (vs threatened)
P13abCurrent psycho-somatic complaintsM13ac14Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
P13ab01Current physical complaintsP06ab03bPain
P13ab01Current physical complaintsP06ab03aFatigue
P13ab01Current physical complaintsP06ab02cNumber of health complaints
P13ab02Current mental complaintsM07ab02bScores on symptom inventories
P13ab02Current mental complaintsM07ab02cFeels close to mental breakdown

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings