Findings on Happiness and PROBLEMS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PROBLEMS
Subject Code: P12

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P12PROBLEMS0
P12aaProblem career0
P12aa01Earlier problems0
P12aa01aRemembered earlier problems2
P12aa01bActual earlier problems (observed by follow-up)1
P12aa02Change in problems0
P12aa03Later problems0
P12aa03aExpected later problems0
P12aa03bActual later problems (observed by follow-up)0
P12abCurrent problems6
P12ab01Amount of problems perceived6
P12ab02Kind of problems perceived5
P12ab02aProblems with addiction2
P12ab02bProblems with family\marriage4
P12ab02cProblems with health3
P12ab02dProblems at work1
P12ab02baInfertility0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PROBLEMS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P12
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Remembered earlier problems
Subject code: P12aa01a

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelProblems in marriage(in the past)
Page in Source 196
Our classificationRemembered earlier problems, code P12aa01a
Operationalization
Open-ended question on problem getting along with each 
other: never had problems vs mentions problems.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= - p < . 01
Females : _b = -.24 (01)
Males   : _b = -.14 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Remembered earlier problems
Subject code: P12aa01a

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelProblems with job (in the past)
Page in Source 196
Our classificationRemembered earlier problems, code P12aa01a
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question: never had problems vs 
mentions problems.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb=-.03 ns
Computed for males only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual earlier problems (observed by follow-up)
Subject code: P12aa01b

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social burdens
Page in Source 350,220,31
Our classificationActual earlier problems (observed by follow-up), code P12aa01b
Operationalization
Major prolonged burdening problems as assessed in a 
structured interview.
1. Strictly personal problems like
   strong feelings of loneliness, fear,
   depression or inferiority.
2. Interpersonal problems like
   unsatisfactory sexual relation with
   partner or permanent quarrels with
   neighbours.
3. Health problems like chronic heart-
   disease or prolonged revalidation.
4. Housing problems like too little
   space or bad condition of the house.
5. Problems in the jobsituation like 
   too much overtime, working in shifts
   or doing work for which got no
   training.
6. Financial problems like high
   mortgage rates or having to pay
   off debts.
7. Abnormal behaviour like alcoholism.
   or problems with the law. 
Problems were scored for burdeningness on a 7-point 
scale by an expert-panel on the basis of 
interview-protocols. Social and economic background of 
the Ss were taken into account.

Problems were separated into two categories, according 
to the origin of the burden.
a SELF INDUCED BURDENS
- The event or the problem is caused
  by a voluntary action of the
  subject, like marriage or buying a
  house.
- The event is caused by evident
  inadequate psychic functioning like
  a road accident caused by careless
  driving.  
b EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS
  The event or the problem is not
  caused by voluntary action of the
  subject like death of a family-
  member.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.43 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.45 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.22
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping 
and externally-induced burdens. 
Self-induced burdens are related to:
- Adequacy of coping (L=-.40), which on its turn
  is related to internal control (L=+.15), self-
  esteem(L=+.16) and neuroticism (L=-.18).
- Intimacy with partner (L=-.24),which on its
  turn is related to internal control (L=+.13)
  and neuroticism (L=-.23).
- Neuroticism (L=+.33) 
- Internal control (L=-.22)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.39
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
Simplified LISREL model (omitting intimacy and 
adequacy of coping)
                                              
EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.21 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.23 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.15
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping 
and self-induced burdens. 
Externally induced burdens are related to internal 
control (L=-.28)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.21
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
Simplified model(ommitting intimacy and adequacy 
of coping)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current problems
Subject code: P12ab

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulties with housing costs
Page in Source 258, 262, 264
Our classificationCurrent problems, code P12ab
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=-.16
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Personal worrries
 - % of income spent on housing costs
 - Living area
 - Ideal age preference
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=-.22
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Personal worrries
 - Living area
 - Retail store access
 - Ideal age preference
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=-.18
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Personal worrries
 - Living area
 - Retail store access
 - Social age identity
 - Government planning
 - Worries/getting around


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current problems
Subject code: P12ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelproblems as challenge
Page in Source 260
Our classificationCurrent problems, code P12ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you see problems as challenges?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: 1:168, 2:453, 3:806

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.18 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.09
 2: Mt=7.50
 3: Mt=8.05
All Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.24 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.46
 2: Mt=7.11
 3: Mt=7.85
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.26
 2: Mt=6.66
 3: Mt=7.28
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current problems
Subject code: P12ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelproblems as challenges
Page in Source 270
Our classificationCurrent problems, code P12ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you see problems as challenges?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4551; 1:600; 2:1418; 3:2533

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.27 p < .00
1: Mt=6.69
2: Mt=7.33
3: Mt=8.23
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.27 p < .00
1: Mt=6.36
2: Mt=6.95
3: Mt=7.94
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.23 p < .00
1: Mt=6.14
2: Mt=6.70
3: Mt=7.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current problems
Subject code: P12ab

StudyBreuer (1987): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleProblem Groups.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1987, Vol. 19, 137 - 143
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00429996
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1984
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelcumulation of problems
Page in Source 143
Our classificationCurrent problems, code P12ab
Operationalization
Number of the following problems:
- Objective problem situations         
  - relatively poor
  - less than 1 room
  - no occupational degree
  - living alone and no close friends
  - chronic health impairment          
- Subjective problem situations
  - often lonely                      
  - recurring frightening thougts    
  - usually unhappy or depressed
Observed distribution0: 42%, 1: 29%, 2: 13%, 3: 9%, 4: 4%, 5 or more: 2%. M = 1,1 problem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
average population:         M = 7,7
maximal problem cumulation: M = 4,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current problems
Subject code: P12ab

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelSuffering from any highly problematic circumstance
Our classificationCurrent problems, code P12ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: Are you currently 
suffering from any highly problematic circumstance?
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distribution0: 87,8% 1: 12,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bDM=- p < .05
0: M= 7,31  SD= 1,64
1: M= 6,08  SD= 2,71
Difference=    -1,23
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bd=.31
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta after accounting for:
-Age
-Sex
-Partner status
-Educational level
-Work status
-Having children/not having children
-Current illness
-Currently under therapy

when ONLY exercisers are considered
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cDM=- ns
0: M= 7,45  SD= 1,30
1: M= 7,16  SD= 1,97
Difference=    -0,29
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cd=.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current problems
Subject code: P12ab

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelConcentration problems
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCurrent problems, code P12ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you recently... been able to concentrate on 
whatever you're doing?
1: Better than usual
2: Same as usual (reference)
3: Less than usual
4: Much less than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.11 p < .05
FEMALES
 "Better than usual"    (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.09 p < .05
 "Less than usual"      (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.07 ns
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.04 ns
MALES
 "Better than usual"    (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.02 ns
 "Less than usual"      (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.16 p < .1
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - adequately nourished
  - no vandilism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - strain
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab01

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelAcculturative stress
Page in Source 16
Our classificationAmount of problems perceived, code P12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
Compared to other situations in your life, how 
stressful would you rate?
a) moving from Russia
b) moving to Finland
c) your own adjustment to Finland

Rated:
1 Not severe at all
:
7 The most severe event I have ever faced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bar=-.17 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab01

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social burdens
Page in Source 350,220,31
Our classificationAmount of problems perceived, code P12ab01
Operationalization
Major prolonged burdening problems as assessed in a 
structured interview.
1. Strictly personal problems like
   strong feelings of loneliness, fear,
   depression or inferiority.
2. Interpersonal problems like
   unsatisfactory sexual relation with
   partner or permanent quarrels with
   neighbours.
3. Health problems like chronic heart-
   disease or prolonged revalidation.
4. Housing problems like too little
   space or bad condition of the house.
5. Problems in the jobsituation like 
   too much overtime, working in shifts
   or doing work for which got no
   training.
6. Financial problems like high
   mortgage rates or having to pay
   off debts.
7. Abnormal behaviour like alcoholism.
   or problems with the law. 
Problems were scored for burdeningness on a 7-point 
scale by an expert-panel on the basis of 
interview-protocols. Social and economic background of 
the Ss were taken into account.

Problems were separated into two categories, according 
to the origin of the burden.
a SELF INDUCED BURDENS
- The event or the problem is caused
  by a voluntary action of the
  subject, like marriage or buying a
  house.
- The event is caused by evident
  inadequate psychic functioning like
  a road accident caused by careless
  driving.  
b EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS
  The event or the problem is not
  caused by voluntary action of the
  subject like death of a family-
  member.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.43 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.45 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.22
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping 
and externally-induced burdens. 
Self-induced burdens are related to:
- Adequacy of coping (L=-.40), which on its turn
  is related to internal control (L=+.15), self-
  esteem(L=+.16) and neuroticism (L=-.18).
- Intimacy with partner (L=-.24),which on its
  turn is related to internal control (L=+.13)
  and neuroticism (L=-.23).
- Neuroticism (L=+.33) 
- Internal control (L=-.22)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.39
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
Simplified LISREL model (omitting intimacy and 
adequacy of coping)
                                              
EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.21 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.23 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.15
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping 
and self-induced burdens. 
Externally induced burdens are related to internal 
control (L=-.28)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.21
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
Simplified model(ommitting intimacy and adequacy 
of coping)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of problems
Page in Source q5
Our classificationAmount of problems perceived, code P12ab01
Operationalization
Number of problems mentioned in response to question: 
What problems to you face in your life? 
a low income
b fear to loose job
c poor health, treatement difficulties
d housing problems
e daily chores
f educating children
g family relationship 
h alcoholism of family member
i feeling constantly tired
j lack of perspectives in life
k lack of free time
l other things
Observed distributionM = 2,28 SD = 0,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=-.23 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab01

StudyPerneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998
TitleHealth and Happines in Young Swiss Adults.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 171 - 178
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000015314.97546.60
PublicUniversity students, Switzerland, 1998.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1257

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 174
Our classificationAmount of problems perceived, code P12ab01
Operationalization
Five item 'Brief Encounter Psychological 
Instrument'(Frank & Zyzanski 1988)
A typical item is-
'In the past month, have you felt as if there are more 
demands on your life, emotionally and physically, than 
you can manage?'
Rated 1 (not at all) to 10 (extremely)
Observed distributionQuartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=- p < .001
% happy (all or most of the time)
Lowest quartile : 89,7
2nd quartile    : 74,6
3rd quartile    : 60,3
Highest quartile: 27,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of chronic problems
Page in Source 833
Our classificationAmount of problems perceived, code P12ab01
Operationalization
Self-report of:
-drug use
-alcohol use
-arguing/emotional withdrawing

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.18 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab01

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelAdult stress
Page in Source 43
Our classificationAmount of problems perceived, code P12ab01
Operationalization
A 5-item index containing:
1: poor interpersonal relations
2: self-evaluated comparative 
   financial status
3: physical health
4: parental worries
5: marital satisfaction
Combined into an 11-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-
Married subjects only(N=2534)
  proportion happy:
low stress  0       1.0%     AR= .69
            1       5.1%     AR= .70
            2       9.9%     AR= .65
            3      15.1%     AR= .61
            4      18.0%     AR= .52
            5      16.5%     AR= .46
            6      15.0%     AR= .44
            7       9.2%     AR= .37
            8       6.1%     AR= .30
            9       3.0%     AR= .25
high stress 10      1.1%     AR= .19

The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference
(N=6828)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab02

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelAdaptation difficulties
Page in Source 16
Our classificationKind of problems perceived, code P12ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on 29 items:
Please indicate how much difficulty you experience in 
Finland in each of these areas:
Examples items include:
- Dealing with people staring at you
- Finding food you enjoy
- Using the transport system
- Making yourself understood

Rated:
1 no difficulty
:
5 extreme difficulty
Remarks
Socio-Cultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS)

Assessed at T1: Approximately half a year after 
migration.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bar=-.15 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelKind of problems mentioned
Page in Source question 5
Our classificationKind of problems perceived, code P12ab02
Operationalization
What problems do you face in your life? 
a low income
b fear to loose job
c poor health, treatement difficulties
d housing problems
e daily chores
f educating children
g family relationship 
h alcoholism of family member
i feeling constantly tired
j lack of perspectives in life
k lack of free time
l other things
Observed distributionN = a: 61,6% b: 18,1% c: 23% d: 23,9% e: 19,9% f: 7,6% g: 8,5% h: 7,3% i: 19,6% j : 21,5% k: 14,3% l: 2,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
   mentioned   not mentioned    differences
a: M = 2,39    M = 2,63         - 0,24
b: M = 2,46    M = 2,53         - 0,07
c: M = 2,35    M = 2,57         - 0,22
d: M = 2,50    M = 2,53         - 0,03
e: M = 2,56    M = 2,51         + 0,05
f: M = 2,47    M = 2,53         - 0,06
g: M = 2,31    M = 2,54         - 0,23
h: M = 2,21    M = 2,55         - 0,34
i: M = 2,59    M = 2,50         + 0,09 
j: M = 2,18    M = 2,61         - 0,43
k: M = 2,87    M = 2,46         + 0,41
l: M = 2,61    M = 2,52         + 0,09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab02

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 833
Our classificationKind of problems perceived, code P12ab02
Operationalization
Self report of sources of stress
- clinical competence
- future in medicine
- realities in practice
- time pressures
- diffelcult patients

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.21 p < .01
Clinical competence and social release
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.45 p < .001
future in medicine
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .0001
dealing with the realities of practice
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.28 p < .0001
time pressures
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.14 p < .05
dealing with diffecult patients


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab02

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelConflict between work and home life
Page in Source 833
Our classificationKind of problems perceived, code P12ab02
Operationalization
Self-report of conflict between work and home

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.44 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Kind of problems perceived
Subject code: P12ab02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelProblems
Page in Source 292
Our classificationKind of problems perceived, code P12ab02
Operationalization
15-item inventory of closed questions
on ploblems with:

 a. Health

 b. Sex


 c. Safety

 d. Money

 e. Mental hygiene






 f. Study habits


 g. Recreation

 h. Personal and moral qualities


 i. Family relationships


 j. Manners


 k. Personal attractiveness


 l. Daily schedule



 m. Civic interest


 n. Getting along with others


 o. Philosophy of life

Remarks



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
a.

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= -
b. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant negative among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=-
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
significant negative among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
c.

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= - p < . s
d. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   stronger negative among happier students  
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=- s
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
stronger negative among happier students  
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR=
e. High school students: significant positive
   College students    : significant negative
   L-shaped curve stronger negative among happier  
  students
   Graduate students   : negative
   L-shaped curve significant negative among    
happier students only
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=
High school students: significant positive
College students    : significant negative
L-shaped curve stronger negative among happier 
students
Graduate students   : negative
L-shaped curve significant negative among happier
students only
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
f. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant positive among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
significant positive among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
g.

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
h. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant positive among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
significant positive among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= -
i. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant negative among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=-
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
significant negative among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
j. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant positive among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
significant positive among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
k. High school students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant positive among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve:
significant positive among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= - p < . s
l. High school students only
   U-shaped curve: students of average happiness
   having least ploblems with their daily    
schedule
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=- s
High school students only
U-shaped curve: students of average happiness
having least ploblems with their daily schedule
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
m. Graduate students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant positive among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
Graduate students only: L-shaped curve:
significant positive among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= -
n. College students only: L-shaped curve:
   significant negative among happier students    
only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=-
College students only: L-shaped curve:
significant negative among happier students only 
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
o.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with addiction
Subject code: P12ab02a

StudyWright & Moore (1982): study US 1980
TitleCorrelates of reported drug abuse among college undergraduates.
SourceJournal of Drug Education, 1982, Vol. 12, 65 - 73
DOIDOI: 10.1080/15389588.2013.803221
PublicUniversity students, undergraduates, psychology course, S.W.-Texas State University, USA, 1980
Sample
Non-Response1.1 %
Respondents N =619

Correlate
Author's labelSelf perceived drug abuse problem
Page in Source 68, 70
Our classificationProblems with addiction, code P12ab02a
Operationalization
Single closed question: "Do you or have you ever had a 
drug abuse problem?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-atb=-.19 p < .05
Females: r=-.16  p<.001
Males  : r=-.13  p<.05
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-atb=-.19 p < .05
Females: r=-.16  (001)
Males  : r=-.13  (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with addiction
Subject code: P12ab02a

StudyBrenner (1967): study US 1963
TitlePatterns of Alcohol Use, Happiness and the Satisfaction of Wants.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1967, Vol. 28, 667 - 675
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1963
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete
Respondents N =1499

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems due to drinking
Page in Source 671
Our classificationProblems with addiction, code P12ab02a
Operationalization
5-item index of closed questions on specific problems 
due to drinking: with health, employer, spouse or other 
family members, police.
0 No problems 
1 Problems.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=-.51 p < . 01
Drink medium or large amounts   : G' = -.64 (01)
Drink small amounts             : G' = -.38 (05)

Not too happy                   : G' = -.59 (01)
pretty happy                    : G' = -.39 (01)
very happy                      : G' = -.06 (ns)
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=-.08
Not doing too well in getting the things they want 
               : G' = -.13
Doing pretty well   : G' = +.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.31 p < . 01
Computed for alcohol users only.

Drinkers medium or large amounts: G' = -.53 (01)
Drinkers small amounts          : G' = -.09 (ns)

Not doing too well in getting the things they want 
                           : G = -.31 (05)
Doing pretty well               : G = -.14 (ns)
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aG=-.51 p < . 01
Drink medium or large amounts   : G' = -.64 (01)
Drink small amounts             : G' = -.38 (05)

Not too happy                   : G' = -.59 (01)
pretty happy                    : G' = -.39 (01)
very happy                      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.31 p < . 01
Computed for alcohol users only.

Drinks medium or large amounts  : G' = -.53 (01)
Drinks small amounts            : G' = -.09 (ns)

Not doing too well in getting the things they want 
                           : G' = -.31 (05)
Doing pretty well               : G' = -.14 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with family\marriage
Subject code: P12ab02b

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily problems
Our classificationProblems with family\marriage, code P12ab02b
Operationalization
Single direct question: 
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.55 p < . 000
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.55 p < . 000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with family\marriage
Subject code: P12ab02b

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse conflict
Page in Source 263
Our classificationProblems with family\marriage, code P12ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions assessing the extend to which 
respondents felt that their spouce acted cold, 
judgmental, unpleasant or showed dislike

Rated: not at all (1) to a great deal (5)
Error EstimatesCcronbach alpha at T3: .88
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 spouse conflict by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.31 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.02 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.38 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.50 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.29 p < .01
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.51 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.14 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.05 ns
Beta controled for:
- home stress
- personal contro
- network support
- coping style


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with family\marriage
Subject code: P12ab02b

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelMarital tension
Page in Source 37
Our classificationProblems with family\marriage, code P12ab02b
Operationalization
14-item index of closed questions on marital problems 
concerning time spent with friends, how the house 
looks, household expenses, being tired, being away from 
home too much, disciplining children, in-laws, not 
showing love, work, how to spend leisure time, work 
around the house, religion, irritating personal habits, 
other.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= -
Index of Positive Affects:  G' = +.04 (ns)
Index of Negative Affects:  G' = +.43 (01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.22 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with family\marriage
Subject code: P12ab02b

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems in raising children
Page in Source 196
Our classificationProblems with family\marriage, code P12ab02b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on main problem: never had problems 
vs mentions problems

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= -
Males   : _b = -.20 (01)
Females : _b = -.05 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with health
Subject code: P12ab02c

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeltype of health problems
Page in Source 212
Our classificationProblems with health, code P12ab02c
Operationalization
Suffer a lot from these health problems:
1:  no severe inconvenience
2:  one of the following disorders:
2b:  pain/discomfort shoulder/nape of neck
c:  pain/discomfort back/loin
d:  discomfort arms, legs, hip or joints
e:  headache
f:  palpitations
g:  nervousness, anxiety
h:  difficult sleeping or insomnia
i:  melancholy, depressed or unhappy
j:  tiredness
k:  stomach pain
l:  indigestion or diarrhoa/constipation
m:  eczhema, rash itching
n:  cold, head cold or cough
o:  breathing difficulties
p:  discomfort or problems in the internal female 
sexual organs
Observed distributionN All:6170; %:1:47,4; 2:3245; 2b:6,6; 2c:7,5; 2d:5,0; 2e: 4,0; 2f :0,8; 2g:3,0; 2h:2,9; 2i:2,8; 2j:6,1; 2k:1,7; 2l:2,2; 2m:3,1; 2n:3,5; 2o:1,3; 2p:1,6
Remarks
catagories are overlapping and so the total N exceeds 
the number of respondents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=8.20
2:  Mt=6.14
2b: Mt=6.69
2c: Mt=6.80
2d: Mt=6.94
2e: Mt=6.40
2f: Mt=4.49
2g: Mt=4.21
2h: Mt=5.25
2i: Mt=3.25
2j: Mt=5.90
2k: Mt=5.74
2l: Mt=6.31
2m: Mt=7.05
2n: Mt=6.90
2o: Mt=6.01
2p: Mt=6.58
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMa=-
1:  Mt=7.81
2:  Mt=6,03
2b: Mt=6.51
2c: Mt=6.65
2d: Mt=6.89
2e: Mt=6.29
2f: Mt=4.63
2g: Mt=4.14
2h: Mt=5.19
2i: Mt=3.28
2j: Mt=5.81
2k: Mt=5.71
2l: Mt=6.01
2m: Mt=6.76
2n: Mt=6.70
2o: Mt=6.08
2p: Mt=6.73
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMa=-
1:  Mt=7.31
2:  Mt=5,99
2b: Mt=6.33
2c: Mt=6.54
2d: Mt=6.80
2e: Mt=6.26
2f: Mt=5,00
2g: Mt=4.39
2h: Mt=5.45
2i: Mt=3.59
2j: Mt=5.90
2k: Mt=5.65
2l: Mt=5.80
2m: Mt=6.63
2n: Mt=6.56
2o: Mt=5.91
2p: Mt=6.39


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with health
Subject code: P12ab02c

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltype of health problems
Page in Source 202, 204
Our classificationProblems with health, code P12ab02c
Operationalization
Suffer a lot from these health problems:
a:  no severe inconvenience
b:  pain/discomfort shoulder/nape of neck
c:  pain/discomfort back/loin
d:  discomfort arms, legs, hip or joints
e:  headache
f:  palpitations
g:  nervousness, anxiety
h:  difficult sleeping or insomnia
i:  melancholy, depressed or unhappy
j:  tiredness
k:  stomach pain
l:  indigestion or diarrhoa/constipation
m:  eczhema, rash itching
n:  cold, head cold or cough
o:  breathing difficulties
p:  discomfort or problems in the internal female 
sexual organs
Observed distributionN: 1:1021, b:104 c:114, d:87, e:61, f:20, g:39, h:37, i:40 j:101, k:36, l:38, m:40, n:55, o:38, p:13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=8.20
 b: Mt=6.59
 c: Mt=6.63
 d: Mt=6.46
 e: Mt=6.51
 f: Mt=5.00
 g: Mt=4.30
 h: Mt=4.86
 i: Mt=3.44
 j: Mt=5.86
 k: Mt=5.21
 l: Mt=5.79
 m: Mt=6.89
 n: Mt=6.91
 o: Mt=5.26
 p: Mt=5.81
All Mt=7.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.76
 b: Mt=6.68
 c: Mt=6.59
 d: Mt=6.63
 e: Mt=6.60
 f: Mt=6.00
 g: Mt=4.30
 h: Mt=4.93
 i: Mt=3.06
 j: Mt=5.90
 k: Mt=5.55
 l: Mt=5.46
 m: Mt=7.11
 n: Mt=7.13
 o: Mt=6.46
 p: Mt=5.78
All Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.18
 b: Mt=6.56
 c: Mt=6.30
 d: Mt=6.59
 e: Mt=6.39
 f: Mt=5.75
 g: Mt=4.55
 h: Mt=4.86
 i: Mt=3.44
 j: Mt=6.05
 k: Mt=5.86
 l: Mt=5.74
 m: Mt=6.38
 n: Mt=6.64
 o: Mt=6.35
 p: Mt=6.15
All Mt=6.85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with health
Subject code: P12ab02c

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelNegative reaction to kidney donation
Page in Source 192
Our classificationProblems with health, code P12ab02c
Operationalization
Amount of negative feelings towards donation one year 
after.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.35 p < .02
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.27 p < .005
Happiness as assessed before transplant (T1).
Least happy donors at T1 report most negative 
feelings at T3.
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .02
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems at work
Subject code: P12ab02d

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withstudy habits
Page in Source 292
Our classificationProblems at work, code P12ab02d
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significantly positive among happier students 
only.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significantly positive among happier students 
only.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
C-W-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

When you think of the things you want from life, how would you say that you're doing in getting the things you want.....?"
2 pretty well
1 not too well
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
B On the whole, I think I am a quite happy person.
C In general, how would you say you feel most of the time -in
good or in low spirits?
D I get a lot of fun out of life.
E I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.
F How often do you feel downcast and rejected?

Response options: not reported

The items of this scale were randomly distributed in the questionnaire.

Name: Rosen 'Depressive Affect Scale'
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks.. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of peoples lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"........life-satisfaction........."
(Full text not reported)
1 -
2
3
4
5 +
(Response options: not reported)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B happiness (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 no rank correlation
tb = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
ZZZZZKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 no rank correlation
tb = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
P12ab01Amount of problems perceivedL04ac01dEasy (vs hard)
P12ab01Amount of problems perceivedL06ab01Burden of current life-events
P12ab01Amount of problems perceivedW07ab01Amount of worrying
P12ab02Kind of problems perceivedW07ab02Specific worries
P12ab02aProblems with addictionS13acAttitudes to own use of stimulants
P12ab02bProblems with family\marriageM03ab06Tensions in relationship
P12ab02bProblems with family\marriageF02acFamily climate
P12ab02bProblems with family\marriageF01adFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
P12ab02baInfertilityC02ab01Childlessness voluntary or not
P12ab02cProblems with healthP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
P12ab02dProblems at workW04ab07Problems at work
P12ab02dProblems at workW05adCurrent satisfaction with work

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings