Findings on Happiness and PRISON

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PRISON
Subject Code: P11

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P11PRISON0
P11aaPrison career0
P11aa01Earlier imprisoned0
P11aa02Change in imprisonment0
P11aa02aRecently in prison0
P11aa02bRecently left prison0
P11aa03Later imprisonment0
P11abCurrent imprisonment3
P11acAttitudes to imprisonment0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PRISON
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P11
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current imprisonment
Subject code: P11ab

StudyPappot & Phaff (2004): study NL 2004
TitleGeluk onder Gedetineerden. (Happiness in Jail).
SourceResearch Paper University Amsterdam, Department of Psychology, 2004, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/pappot_t_2004.pdf
PublicPrisoners and controls, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response40%
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelin prison
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationCurrent imprisonment, code P11ab
Operationalization
1: controls 
2: prisoners
Observed distributionprisoners: N=16, controls: N=9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-dDM=- p < .148
controls:  M=2.36
prisoners: M=1.59
A-ARE-m-sqr-n-11-aDM=- p < .000
controls:  M=1.73
prisoners: M=0.25

Personality was assessed but could not be 
controlled, due to limited cases. Differences 
between prisoners and controls were small, also 
with respect to age and etnical background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current imprisonment
Subject code: P11ab

StudyChason (1975): study US 1974
TitleA Comparison of Social Interest among Service-Oriented Professionals, Prisoners and Psychiatric Patients.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Florida State University, 1975, USA
PublicPrisoners and comparison groups, 1974, USA
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response33.3%
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelPrisoners vs. Comparison Groups
Page in Source 87
Our classificationCurrent imprisonment, code P11ab
Operationalization
a: Prisoners 
b: Psychiatric patients 
c: Service oriented professionals
d: General population
Observed distributiona: N=65; b: N=54; c: N=53 ; d: N=73

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adDM=- p < .05
a: M = 1.32 CL95 [1.20-1.45]      
b: M = 1.76 CL95 [1.55-1.97]
c: M = 2.23 CL95 [2.04-2.41]
d: M = 2.25 CL95 [2.10-2.39]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBMCT= p < .05
a
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=- p < .05
a: M = 1.23 CL95 [1.11-1.35]
b: M = 1.86 CL95 [1.67-2.04]
c: M = 2.19 CL95 [2.03-2.35]
d: M = 2.22 CL95 [2.09-2.35]
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aBMCT= p < .05
a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current imprisonment
Subject code: P11ab

StudyPishkin & Thorne (1973): study US 1968
TitleA Factorial Study of Existential State Reactions.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 29, 392 - 402
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(197310)29:4<392::AID-JCLP2270290403>3.0.CO;2-J
PublicDeviants and normals, USA, 196?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-ResponseNA
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelClinical groups
Page in Source 399
Our classificationCurrent imprisonment, code P11ab
Operationalization
a: incarcerated felons, 
b: alcoholics, 
c: students of philosophy, 
d: unmarried mothers, 
e: psychology students, 
f: psychiatric patients.
Observed distributionN= a: 193, b: 89, c: 155, d:336, e: 159, f: 388

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eD%=
% happy
a. 81
b: 78
c: 31  (assumption by WDH team)
d: 85
e: 32
f: 30
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eBMCT=
f,c,e < a,b,d
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aD%=
% satisfied
a. 47
b: 57
c: 68
d: 71
e: 67
f: 33
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aBMCT=
f,a < b,c,d,e


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-ARE-m-sqr-n-11-aSelfreport on single question, repeated 3 times a day during 10 days

How happy do you feel AT THIS MOMENT? Select the number which best describes your happiness. -5 is very unhappy, 0 is neutral, and 5 is very happy
- 5 very unhappy
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5 very happy

Computation: recoded 0 to 10, where -5 is 0 and +5 is 10
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you feel IN GENERAL? Select the number which best describes your happiness. Very unhappy is -5 and very happy is 5
- 5 very unhappy
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5 very happy

Computation: recoded 0 to 10, where -5 is 0 and +5 is 10
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eSelfreport on single question

I am a very happy person
2 true
1 false
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, I am satisfied with my life
2 true
1 false


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
P11PRISONI02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING
P11PRISONL06LIFE EVENTS
P11PRISONT02ab09bActual effects (follow-up)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings