Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER
Subject Code: P05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P05PERSONALITY: LATER4
P05aaLater personality organization0
P05abLater personality traits1
P05ab01Later cleverness1
P05ab02Later fail-anxiousness1
P05ab03Later locus of control1
P05ab04Later kindness1
P05ab05Later openness 2
P05ab06Later need for self-actualisation4
P05ab07Later self-confidence1
P05ab08Later self-disclosure0
P05ab09Later tenseness1
P05ab10Later tolerance1
P05ab11Later trusting1
P05acLater personality development2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER
Subject code: P05

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelLater characteristics (at 27-96 months of age)
Page in Source 98/103
Our classificationPERSONALITY: LATER, code P05
Operationalization
Repeated expert ratings on the basis of observation of 
expressive behaviour in test-situations on bi-polar 
7-point scales.
Rated 14 times between 27-96 months of age. Ratings 
combined: 27 + 30 /  33 + 36 / 42 + 48 / 54 + 60 /  60 
+ 72 / 78 + 84 / 90 + 96.

a. Friendliness
   3-item index:
   - initial response to situation (negative-friendly)
   - secondary response to situation(negative - 
friendly)
   - attitude towards task (unwilling - eager)

b. Cooperativeness
   2-item index:
   - variability in cooperation (variable - consistent)
   - attention to instructions (inattentive - alert)
    
c. Attentiveness
   3-item index:
   - external distraction (distractible - 
single-minded)
   - association (flightly - controlled)
   - maintenance of effort (easily discouraged - 
persisten)

d. Facility
   3-item index:
   - comprehension of task (slow -   swift)
   - verbal responses (vague -definite)
   - method of performance (random - systematic)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- 
tween 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
monhts 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.


          Months   Months   Months   Months
          10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.20
a:Friendliness
 -Boys  
  27-30: +.48(05) +.35(ns) +.27(ns) +.48(05)
  33-36: +.33(ns) +.26(ns) +.40(ns) +.40(ns)
  42-48: +.06(ns) +.21(ns) -.02(ns) +.23(ns)
  54-60: +.23(ns) +.32(ns) +.08(ns) +.23(ns)
  66-72: +.26(ns) +.23(ns) +.34(ns) +.26(ns)
  78-84: +.02(ns) +.07(ns) +.14(ns) +.15(ns)
  90-96: -.12(ns) -.07(ns) +.05(ns) -.15(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.07
 -Girls 
  27-30: +.16(ns) +.52(05) +.75(05) +.72(05)
  33-36: +.05(ns) +.33(ns) +.53(05) +.66(05)
  42-48: -.10(ns) +.15(ns) +.19(ns) +.18(ns)
  54-60: -.17(ns) +.04(ns) +.22(ns) +.29(ns)
  66-72: -.50(05) -.16(ns) +.15(ns) +.08(ns)
  78-84: -.47(05) -.27(ns) -.10(ns) -.20(ns)
  90-96: -.39(ns) -.19(ns) -.22(ns) -.13(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.11
b:Cooperativeness
 -Boys  
  27-30: +.20(ns) +.00(ns) +.13(ns) +.23(ns)
  33-36: +.22(ns) +.04(ns) +.27(ns) +.25(ns)
  42-48: +.06(ns) +.05(ns) -.02(ns) -.04(ns)
  54-60: +.08(ns) +.18(ns) +.08(ns) +.22(ns)
  66-72: -.01(ns) +.18(ns) +.20(ns) +.17(ns)
  78-84: +.15(ns) +.19(ns) +.18(ns) +.23(ns)
  90-96: -.11(ns) +.09(ns) +.00(ns) -.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.02
 -Girls 
  27-30: -.02(ns) +.21(ns) +.35(ns) +.16(ns)
  33-36: -.22(ns) +.09(ns) +.34(ns) +.28(ns)
  42-48: -.14(ns) +.12(ns) +.22(ns) +.08(ns)
  54-60: -.25(ns) -.11(ns) +.08(ns) +.01(ns)
  66-72: -.32(ns) -.18(ns) +.12(ns) +.06(ns)
  78-84: -.52(05) -.29(ns) -.08(ns) -.16(ns)
  90-96: -.20(ns) -.15(ns) -.18(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.16
c:Attentiveness
 -Boys  
  27-30: +.10(ns) -.12(ns) +.20(ns) +.26(ns)
  33-36: +.28(ns) -.05(ns) +.29(ns) +.16(ns)
  42-48: +.14(ns) -.01(ns) +.14(ns) +.12(ns)
  54-60: +.18(ns) +.18(ns) +.25(ns) +.34(ns)
  66-72: +.05(ns) +.20(ns) +.32(ns) +.36(ns)
  78-84: +.01(ns) +.10(ns) +.20(ns) +.29(ns)
  90-96: -.02(ns) +.13(ns) +.15(ns) +.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.04
 -Girls 
  27-30: -.56(05) -.34(ns) -.10(ns) -.15(ns)
  33-36: -.23(ns) -.03(ns) +.19(ns) +.28(ns)
  42-48: -.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.21(ns) +.15(ns)
  54-60: -.01(ns) +.00(ns) +.10(ns) +.04(ns)
  66-72: -.27(ns) -.16(ns) +.07(ns) +.10(ns)
  78-84: -.34(ns) -.14(ns) +.02(ns) -.10(ns)
  90-96: -.24(ns) -.14(ns) -.14(ns) -.01(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.29
d:Facility
 -Boys  
  27-30: +.10(ns) +.12(ns) +.24(ns) +.45(05)
  33-36: +.12(ns) +.15(ns) +.36(ns) +.53(05)
  42-48: -.07(ns) -.04(ns) +.18(ns) +.46(05)
  54-60: +.23(ns) +.23(ns) +.50(05) +.62(05)
  66-72: +.19(ns) +.27(ns) +.50(05) +.62(05)
  78-84: +.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.35(ns) +.55(05)
  90-96: +.08(ns) +.19(ns) +.39(ns) +.57(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.04
 -Girls
  27-30: -.22(ns) +.04(ns) +.19(ns) +.18(ns)
  33-36: -.18(ns) +.03(ns) +.22(ns) +.25(ns)
  42-48: -.11(ns) +.20(ns) +.33(ns) +.45(05)
  54-60: -.12(ns) +.02(ns) +.14(ns) +.24(ns)
  66-72: -.18(ns) -.05(ns) +.12(ns) +.30(ns)
  78-84: -.22(ns) -.14(ns) -.05(ns) -.01(ns)
  90-96: -.12(ns) -.07(ns) -.16(ns) -.01(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER
Subject code: P05

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelLater characteristics (at 9-12 years of age)
Page in Source 99-104
Our classificationPERSONALITY: LATER, code P05
Operationalization
Repeated expert rating on the basis of observation of 
expressive behaviour in test situations on bi-polar 
7-point scales.
Assessed ± 9 years after rating of baby-happiness. Each 
child rated 6 times between age 9-12.
Ratings combined: 9 + 9½ + 10 / 10½ + 11 + 12.

 a. Not shy
    Shy - at ease

 b. Friendly attitude towards examiner
    Unfriendly - friendly

 c. Cooperation
    Unwilling -  willing

 d. Attitude towards task (interested)
    Bored - interested

 e. Exerts efforts
    Poor - excellent

 f. Attention to instructions
    Inattentive - attentive

 g. Not distractable
    Distractable - intent on task

 h. Systematic method of performance
    Random - systematic

 i. Rapid execution of tasks
    Slow - rapid

 j. Swift comprehension of tasks
    Slow - swift

 k. Estimated validity of test
    Low - high

 l. Activity control    
    Overactive - underactive.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- 
tween 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.



          Months   Months   Months   Months
          10-12    13-15    18-24    27-39
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.01
a:Not shy
 -Boys: 
  9 -10: -.00(ns) -.06(ns) +.08(ns) +.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.03
 10½-12:  -.15(ns) -.02(ns) +.06(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.12
 -Girls:
   9-10:  -.04(ns) -.22(ns) -.18(ns) +.03(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.13
 10½-12:  +.03(ns) +.09(ns) +.26(ns) +.22(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.02
b.Friendly attitude towards examiner.
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.03(ns) -.02(ns) +.04(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.15
 10½-12:  +.06(ns) +.26(ns) +.22(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.26
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.22(ns) -.33(ns) -.34(ns) -.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.12
 10½-12:  +.11(ns) +.16(ns) +.14(ns) +.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.04
c.Cooperation
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.05(ns) +.04(ns) +.07(ns) +.00(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.17
 10½-12:  +.12(ns) +.29(ns) +.20(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.24(ns) -.12(ns) -.14(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.33
 10½-12:  +.43(ns) +.40(ns) +.13(ns) +.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.09
d.Attityde towards task (interested)
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.15(ns) +.09(ns) +.06(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.28
 10½-12:  +.13(ns) +.29(ns) +.43(05) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.26(ns) -.16(ns) -.09(ns) +.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.43
 10½-12:  +.39(ns) +.56(05) +.31(ns) +.46(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.07
e.Exerts effort
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.08(ns) +.09(ns) +.06(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.19
 10½-12:  +.05(ns) +.24(ns) +.29(ns) +.17(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.05
 -Girls:
  9-10:  -.32(ns) -.05(ns) +.04(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.20
 10½-12:  +.18(ns) +.33(ns) +.09(ns) +.20(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.07
f.Attention to instructions.
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.06(ns) +.11(ns) -.01(ns) +.13(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.15
 10½-12: -.01(ns) +.11(ns) +.16(ns) +.33(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.05
 -Girls:
  9 -10: -.09(ns) +.01(ns) -.10(ns) -.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.29
 10½-12:  +.24(ns) +.42(ns) +.16(ns) +.36(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.13
g.Not distractable.
 -Boys:
  9 -10: +.12(ns) +.12(ns) +.09(ns) +.20(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.20
 10½-12: +.12(ns) +.16(ns) +.22(ns) +.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.02
 -Girls:
  9 -10: -.15(ns) +.01(ns) -.02(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.26
 10½-12:  +.22(ns) +.39(ns) +.12(ns) +.32(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.16
h.Systematic method of performance.
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.04(ns) +.08(ns) +.22(ns) +.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.30
 10½-12:  +.15(ns) +.27(ns) +.37(ns) +.41(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.02
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.11(ns) -.01(ns) -.01(ns) +.19(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.22
 10½-12:  +.10(ns) +.33(ns) +.21(ns) +.24(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.01
i.Rapid execution of task.
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  -.12(ns) +.03(ns) +.00(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.19
 10½-12:  +.08(ns) +.12(ns) +.19(ns) +.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.32
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.12(ns) -.44(05) -.43(ns) -.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.07
 10½-12:  +.04(ns) +.10(ns) +.08(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.23
j.Swift comprehension of task.
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.12(ns) +.07(ns) +.26(ns) +.46(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.28
 10½-12:  +.14(ns) +.19(ns) +.38(ns) +.42(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.21
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.22(ns) -.31(ns) -.29(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.26
 10½-12:  +.21(ns) +.31(ns) +.25(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.17
k.Estimated validity of test.
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.27(ns) +.17(ns) +.13(ns) +.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.21
 10½-12:  +.10(ns) +.26(ns) +.33(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.22
 -Girls:
  9 -10:  +.11(ns) +.12(ns) +.19(ns) +.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.27
 10½-12:  +.36(ns) +.27(ns) +.14(ns) +.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.35
l.Activity control
 -Boys:
  9 -10:  +.36(ns) +.38(ns) +.41(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.27
 -Girls:
  9 -10:   -.10(ns) -.25(ns) -.46(05) -.27(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER
Subject code: P05

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelLater characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age)
Page in Source 100
Our classificationPERSONALITY: LATER, code P05
Operationalization
Ratings by two judges on the basis of notes from 
observations in test situations at different ages.
Ratings were made by means of 96 adjective scales 
(7-point), which were clustered
afterwards.

 a. Timid, compliant, inhibited, lacks confidence.

 b. Courteous, conscientious, dependable,
respectful, conservative.

 c. Tactful, calm, contented, appreciative, 
considerate, patient, refined in taste.

 d. Friendly, cheerful

 e. Social in situation, natural

 f. Independent, talkative, assertive, takes 
initiative, outgoing.

 g. Bold, boastful, excitable, impulsive, 
pleasure-loving, distractible, uninhibited, show-off.

 h. Irritable, domineering, pugnacious, noisy, 
demanding, not dependable.

 i. Rude, critical, opinionated, complains, defiant.

 j. Hostile, destructive

 k. Cold, suspicious, unfriendly

 l. Reserved, uncommunicative.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated on 12 times 
between months 10-36 of age.
Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 
15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.

Boys only (n = 21)

              Months   Months   Months   Month
              10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.21
a.timid      
              .15(ns) -.16(ns) -.30(ns) .24(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.01
b.courteous 
             .12(ns) -.11(ns) +.04(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.05
c.tactfull 
            +.14(ns) -.08(ns) +.12(ns) +.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.15
d.friendly
            +.16(ns) +.10(ns) +.27(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.17
e.social
            +.16(ns) +.11(ns) +.34(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.28
f.independent
            +.27(ns) +.26(ns) +.36(ns) +.22(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.10
g.bold
            +.00(ns) +.13(ns) +.17(ns) +.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.01
h.irritable
            -.11(ns) +.02(ns) +.05(ns) +.01(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.13
i.rude
            +.03(ns) +.08(ns) +.16(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.01
j.hostile
            -.12(ns) +.07(ns) -.07(ns) +.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.03
k.cold
            -.18(ns) +.05(ns) -.18(ns) +.17(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.07
l.reserved
            -.14(ns) +.02(ns) -.18(ns) +.02(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: LATER
Subject code: P05

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelLater characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age)
Page in Source 105
Our classificationPERSONALITY: LATER, code P05
Operationalization
Ratings by two judges on the basis of notes from 
observations in test situations at different ages.
Ratings were made on 96 adjective scales (7-point) 
which were clustered afterwards.

 a. Timid, self-conscious, sensitive, lacks confidence, 
shy, easily hurt, inhibited, serious, humorless, rigid, 
precise.

 b. Courteous, respectful, conservative, compliant, 
tactful, cooperative, patient, considerate.

 c. Conscientious, dependable, perservering.

 d. Friendly, talkative, not unfriendly.

 e. Social in situation, interested in people, natural, 
straight-forward.

 f. Independent, assertive, out-going, leader, 
resourceful, takes initiative, independent at home.

 g. Bold, boastful, impulsive, uninhibited, show-off, 
pleasure-loving, opinionated.

 h. Irritable, disrespectful, domineering, pugnacious, 
noisy, demanding, tactles not dependable, excitable, 
distractible.

 i. Defiant, rude, sarcastic, critical.

 j. Hostile, resentful.

 k. Sulky, bitter.

 l. Discontented, unhappy, dissatisfied, complains.

 m. Gloomy, not cheerful.

 n. Reserved, cold, aloof, uncommunicative.

 o. Popular, belongs to groups.

 p. Calm, not nervous.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- 
tween months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13  + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.

Girls only (n = 19)

              Months   Months   Months   Months
              10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.07
a.timid
            +.24(ns) +.29(ns) -.05(ns) -.18(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.03
b.courteous
            +.23(ns) +.12(ns) -.15(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.16
c.conscientious
            +.34(ns) +.22(ns) +.02(ns) +.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.04
d.friendly
            -.10(ns) -.07(ns) +.04(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.12
e.social
            -.24(ns) -.18(ns) -.04(ns) -.01(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.01
f.independent
            -.29(ns) -.17(ns) +.22(ns) +.20(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.15
g.bold
            -.34(ns) -.24(ns) +.03(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.04
h.irritable
            -.14(ns) -.10(ns) +.08(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.09
i.defiant
            -.02(ns) +.06(ns) +.24(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr= 0
j.hostile
            +.03(ns) -.02(ns) +.04(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.07
k.sulky
            -.01(ns) +.00(ns) +.18(ns) +.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.03
l.discontented
            +.09(ns) +.07(ns) +.02(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.11
m.gloomy
            +.14(ns) +.21(ns) +.19(ns) -.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.14
n.reserved
            +.15(ns) +.16(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.06
o.popular
            -.06(ns) -.11(ns) +.09(ns) +.32(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
p.calm
            -.10(ns) -.22(ns) -.24(ns) +.10(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later personality traits
Subject code: P05ab

StudyMoum (1988): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleYea-saying and Mood-of-the-Day Effects in Self-Reported Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 117 - 139
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00302458
Public20+ aged, general public, Noth Trondelag county, followed 2 years, Norway, 1984-1986
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =622

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 133
Our classificationLater personality traits, code P05ab
Operationalization
Joint effects of:
1 Optimism
2 Pesssimism
3 Resignation
4 Yea-saying
All variables were obtained by an index of closed 
questions at T3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa²=.08
T1 happiness by T3 1+2+3
females: young .01
         old   .14
males    young .08
         old   .08
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa²=.09
T3 happiness by T3 1+2+3
females: young .16
         old   .05
males    young .09
         old   .10
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa²=.09
T1 happiness by T3 1+2+3+4
females: young .02
         old   .20
males    young .07
         old   .12
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa²=.10
T3 happiness by T3 1+2+3+4
females: young .24
         old   .02
males    young .10
         old   .09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later cleverness
Subject code: P05ab01

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelOpen-minded; accuracy in thinking
Page in Source 342
Our classificationLater cleverness, code P05ab01
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 30) as 
well as in old age (T2: age 70). Correlation over this 
40-year-period is +.28  .

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2 load similarly on 
this factor.
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later fail-anxiousness
Subject code: P05ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelTest anxiety
Our classificationLater fail-anxiousness, code P05ab02
Operationalization
A mean of 14 trure/false items, adopted from the 
Mandler-Sarason Test Anxiety Questionnaire, measuring 
how anxious respondent gets about tests and exams.
Scale: 1.00 = low; 2.00 = high test anxiety. Assessed 
at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- s
               Test anxiety
Happiness          T1            T2       
T1         tau = -.17 (001)    -.11 (01)
T2         tau = -.13 (001)    -.18 (001)
T3         tau = -.12 (001)    -.17 (001)
T4         tau = -.15 (001)    -.19 (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later locus of control
Subject code: P05ab03

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationLater locus of control, code P05ab03
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-sociable, affectionale
-active, optimistic
-funloving
-person oriented
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and   T3(1986)


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.25 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.21 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 ns
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.15 p < .05
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later kindness
Subject code: P05ab04

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationLater kindness, code P05ab04
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-soft hearted
-good natured
-trusting, helpfull
-straitforward
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and   T3(1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 p < .05
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated agreeableness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.18 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated agreeableness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated agreeableness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated agreeableness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated agreeableness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.27 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated 
agreeableness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.27 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated agreeableness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.24 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated 
agreeableness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later openness
Subject code: P05ab05

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness to experience
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationLater openness , code P05ab05
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-curious, broad interest
-creative, original 
-imaginative
-unbraditional
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and   T3(1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated openness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated openness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated openness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated openness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later openness
Subject code: P05ab05

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelOpen-minded; accuracy in thinking
Page in Source 342
Our classificationLater openness , code P05ab05
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 30) as 
well as in old age (T2: age 70). Correlation over this 
40-year-period is +.28  .

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2 load similarly on 
this factor.
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later need for self-actualisation
Subject code: P05ab06

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelexpression of life's potentials
Page in Source 434
Our classificationLater need for self-actualisation, code P05ab06
Operationalization
expression of life's potentials
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: 4585; 1:0,7; 2:6,5; 3:33,5; 4:52,9; 5:6,4
Remarks
Expression of life-potentials is calculated as weighted 
mean of 23 questions about satisfaction with 5 domains: 
partner, children and parents, friends, external 
environment and self.
See Chapter 8 of "Measuring the Quality of Life", 
Ventegodt 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.42 p < .00
1: Ms=6.25
2: Ms=5.54
3: Ms=6.99
4: Ms=8.33
5: Ms=9.20
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.47 p < .00
1: Ms=5.59
2: Ms=4.91
3: Ms=6.51
4: Ms=8.13
5: Ms=9.03
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.47 p < .00
1: Ms=5.96
2: Ms=4.99
3: Ms=6.05
4: Ms=7.70
5: Ms=8.65


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later need for self-actualisation
Subject code: P05ab06

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelexpression of life's potentials
Page in Source 410
Our classificationLater need for self-actualisation, code P05ab06
Operationalization
Expression of life potentials
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all:1456, 1:44, 2:382, 3:936, 4:94, 5:-
Remarks
Expression of life-potentials is calculated as weighted 
mean of 23 questions about satisfaction with 5 domains: 
partner, children and parents, friends, external 
environment and self.
See Chapter 8 of "Measuring the Quality of Life", 
Ventegodt 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.14
 2: Mt=6.90
 3: Mt=8.06
 4: Mt=9.13
 5: Mt=-
All Mt=
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.37 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.68
 2: Mt=6.48
 3: Mt=7.76
 4: Mt=9.04
 5: Mt=-
All Mt=
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.39 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00
 2: Mt=5.99
 3: Mt=7.30
 4: Mt=8.43
 5: Mt=-
All Mt=


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later need for self-actualisation
Subject code: P05ab06

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for self-development
Our classificationLater need for self-actualisation, code P05ab06
Operationalization
15-item index containing closed questions designed to 
measure the need for self-development. Scale: 1.00 = 
low; 5.00 = high need for self-develop-
ment. Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
               Need for self-development
Happiness      T1      T2      T3      T4
T1       tau = +.34    +.19    +.20    +.15    
T2       tau = +.21    +.33    +.24    +.22
T3       tau = +.18    +.18    +.32    +.21
T4       tau = +.13    +.15    +.22    +.30
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later need for self-actualisation
Subject code: P05ab06

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for self-utilization
Our classificationLater need for self-actualisation, code P05ab06
Operationalization
8-item index containing closed 
questions concerning use of one's 
existing skills and abilities. 
Scale: 1.00 = low; 5.00 = high need for 
self-utilization. Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
            Need for self-utilization
Happiness   T1        T2        T3      T4
T1  tau = +.27      +.15      +.17    +.12 (01)
T2  tau = +.14      +.26      +.20    +.15
T3  tau = +.09 (05) +.12 (01) +.26    +.16
T4  tau = +.07 (ns) +.11 (01) +.19    +.25
All tau's significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later self-confidence
Subject code: P05ab07

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelGood use of languageworrisome;restless; high self-esteem
Page in Source 342
Our classificationLater self-confidence, code P05ab07
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in old age (T2: age 70).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later tenseness
Subject code: P05ab09

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelExcitable; energetic; talkative;restless
Page in Source 342
Our classificationLater tenseness, code P05ab09
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 30) as 
well as in old age (T2: age 70). Correlation over this 
40-year-period is +.24  .

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.17 ns
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.31 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2 load similarly on 
this factor.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later tolerance
Subject code: P05ab10

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelSocial distance
Our classificationLater tolerance, code P05ab10
Operationalization
A mean of three items asking the respondent how much he 
would mind having close contact with people of a 
different race. A high score indicates a large social 
distance. Assessed at T3, T4 and T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
               Social distance
Happiness         T3        T4        T5
T1         tau = -.05      -.01      -.02
T2         tau = -.04      -.01      -.03
T3         tau = -.07      -.02      -.04
T4         tau = -.08 (05) -.06      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later trusting
Subject code: P05ab11

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Our classificationLater trusting, code P05ab11
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on trust in people, 
assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4. Scale: 1.00 = low trust 
to 2.00 = high trust. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
          Trust in people          
        T1        T2        T3        T4
Happiness
T1     +.16      +.14      +.08 (05) +.08 (05) T2  
   +.13      +.23      +.21      +.17
T3     +.12 (01) +.15      +.19      +.15
T4     +.08 (05) +.10 (01) +.14      +.21
All tau's significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later personality development
Subject code: P05ac

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelActivity
Page in Source 29
Our classificationLater personality development, code P05ac
Operationalization
Expert rating on the basis of observation of expressive 
behavior on a bipolar 7-point 'inactive - vigorous' 
scale. 12 ratings between month 10-36 of age.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.08
Boys:
   10-12:  -.08(ns) -.18(ns) -.06(ns) -.27(ns)
   13-15:  -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.01(ns) -.17(ns)
   18-24:  +.19(ns) +.24(ns) +.65(05) +.29(ns)
   27-36:  +.25(ns) +.07(ns) +.21(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.11
Girls:
   10-12:  +.03(ns) +.11(ns) +.07(ns) -.07(ns)
   13-15:  +.01(ns) +.09(ns) +.29(ns) +.10(ns)
   18-24:  +.07(ns) +.12(ns) +.34(ns) +.01(ns)
   27-36:  +.06(ns) +.02(ns) +.20(ns) +.23(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later personality development
Subject code: P05ac

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelSpeed of movements
Page in Source 29
Our classificationLater personality development, code P05ac
Operationalization
Expert rating on the basis of observation of expressive 
behavior on a 7- point 'slow - rapid' scale. 
12 ratings between month 10-36.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.07
Boys:
  10-12:  -.18(ns) -.31(ns) -.26(ns) -.39(05)
  13-15:  -.05(ns) -.13(ns) -.07(ns) -.29(ns)
  18-24:  +.06(ns) -.06(ns) +.35(ns) -.02(ns)
  27-36:  +.10(ns) +.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.01
Girls:
  10-12:  -.02(ns) +.10(ns) +.11(ns) -.07(ns)
  13-15:  -.05(ns) +.10(ns) +.28(ns) -.01(ns)
  18-24:  +.01(ns) -.04(ns) +.06(ns) -.27(ns)
  27-36:  +.02(ns) -.03(ns) -.04(ns) -.27(ns)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4 usually good-humored air
3
2
1 dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-aTime sampling of happy behaviors

The children were rated during the first 3 years of their lives, after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 36 months of living for 'Emotional tone: unhappy - happy' on a 7-point scale.
Scoring rated on 7-step numerical scale.

Summation:
Later the ratings of 10 - 12, 13 - 15, 18 - 24, and 27 - 36 months were combined.

Rated on 7-step numerical scale.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bSelfreport in focused interview

Two independent interviews. Each interviewer rated `satisfaction with lot' on the same scale.
1 tremendously satisfied
2
3
4 average
5
6
7 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied are you with your life currently?"
0 Not at all
1
2
3
4 neutral
5
6
7
8 A great deal
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ra²ADJUSTED COEFFICIENT OF MULTIPLE CORRELATION
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0 ; 1]

Meaning:
Ra = 0 « not any association
Ra = 1 « strongest possible association
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
P05PERSONALITY: LATERM14aa03Later motivation
P05ab01Later clevernessP01ab06Earlier cleverness
P05ab01Later clevernessP04amClever
P05ab02Later fail-anxiousnessP01ab11Earlier fail-anxiety
P05ab02Later fail-anxiousnessP04baFail anxious
P05ab03Later locus of controlP04boInner locus of control
P05ab03Later locus of controlP01ab16Earlier inner-control
P05ab04Later kindnessP04buKind
P05ab05Later openness P01ab18Earlier openness
P05ab05Later openness P04cbOpen
P05ab06Later need for self-actualisationP04cpSelf-actualization (need for)
P05ab06Later need for self-actualisationP01ab23Earlier need for self-actualization
P05ab07Later self-confidenceP01ab24Earlier self-confidence
P05ab07Later self-confidenceP04csSelf-confidant
P05ab08Later self-disclosureP04ctSelf-disclosing
P05ab09Later tensenessP04dcTense
P05ab10Later toleranceP04deTolerant
P05ab10Later toleranceP01ab29Earlier tolerance
P05ab11Later trustingP01ab30Earlier trusting
P05ab11Later trustingP04dgTrusting
P05ab11Later trustingT04aaTrust career

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings