Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject Code: P04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS7
P04aaAggressive, angry17
P04abAmbitious3
P04acActive12
P04aeAgreeing, yea-saying6
P04afAnxious27
P04agAssertive4
P04ahApproval seeking22
P04ajBlaming5
P04akBold2
P04alCalm2
P04amClever3
P04anCritical1
P04aoConscientious21
P04apCoherence (sense of)4
P04aqConservating1
P04arConservative4
P04asDefensive10
P04atDominant8
P04at01Need for dominance2
P04at02Dominant behavior4
P04auEfficacious, productive8
P04avEgoistic5
P04awEmpathic3
P04axEmotional5
P04ayExtraverted39
P04baFail anxious3
P04bcFortuitous2
P04bdGenuine4
P04beGuilty2
P04bhHelpless2
P04biHonest4
P04bjHumorous2
P04bkImpulsive (vs self controlled)7
P04blIndependent11
P04bnInhibited11
P04boInner locus of control103
P04bqIntrinsically motivated2
P04bsIrritable12
P04btJealous2
P04buKind5
P04bvLiking0
P04bwModest (vs supercilious)3
P04bxMoral4
P04byNaive1
P04bzNervous4
P04caNeurotic21
P04cbOpen20
P04ccOptimistic13
P04cdOutgoing4
P04cePractical2
P04cfPersistent3
P04cgPositive reacting26
P04ciResigned1
P04clRigid4
P04cnSecure3
P04coSensation seeking10
P04cpSelf-actualization (need for)11
P04cqSelf-centered1
P04crSelf-conscious2
P04csSelf-confidant25
P04ctSelf-disclosing1
P04ct01Degree of self-disclosure1
P04ct02Style of self-disclosure3
P04cvSober1
P04cwSociable29
P04cw01Tendency to like people5
P04cxSolidary, cooperative4
P04cySpeedy, hurried3
P04czStable5
P04daSuggestible2
P04dcTense8
P04deTolerant0
P04dfTough1
P04dgTrusting29
P04dhTrust-worthy2
P04diVigorous5
P04dkZestful3
P04bpInterested8
P04bmIndividualistic0
P04chPsychotic7
P04bgHedonistic0
P04azExtreme0
P04adAgreeable13
P04cuShy1
P04bbForgiving12
P04bfHappy3
P04aiAvoidant1
P04ckRevengious1
P04ddThankfull2
P04brInvolved6
P04dbSystematic1
P04cmRisk minded6
P04cjResponsible1
P04djVulnerable3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudyMoum (1988): study NO Nord-Tr°ndelag 1984
TitleYea-saying and Mood-of-the-Day Effects in Self-Reported Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 117 - 139
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00302458
Public20+ aged, general public, Noth Trondelag county, followed 2 years, Norway, 1984-1986
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =622

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 133
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
Joint effects of:
1 Optimism
2 Pesssimism
3 Resignation
4 Yea-saying
All variables were obtained by an index of closed 
questions at T3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa▓=.08
T1 happiness by T3 1+2+3
females: young .01
         old   .14
males    young .08
         old   .08
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa▓=.09
T3 happiness by T3 1+2+3
females: young .16
         old   .05
males    young .09
         old   .10
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa▓=.09
T1 happiness by T3 1+2+3+4
females: young .02
         old   .20
males    young .07
         old   .12
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aRa▓=.10
T3 happiness by T3 1+2+3+4
females: young .24
         old   .02
males    young .10
         old   .09


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudyAhuvia & Wong (1995): study US 1994
TitleMaterialism: Origins and Implications for Personal Well-Being.
SourceProceedings 1995, European Conference for the Association of Consumer Research, Copenhagen, Denmark
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/ahuvia_a_1995.pdf
PublicUniversity students, Michigan, USA, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200

Correlate
Author's labelMaterialism as a personal trait
Page in Source 14
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
Materialism scale of Ger and Belk (1993), consists of 4 
subscales:

A Possessiveness:
possessiveness as the inclination and tendency to 
retain control or ownership of one's possessions.
Consists of 4 items, e.g. "I get very upset if 
something is stolen from me, even if it has little 
monetary value."

B Nongenerosity:
Nongenerosity as an unwillingness to give possessions 
to or share possessions with others.
Consists of 9 items, e.g. I don't like to lend things, 
evone to good friends."

C Envy:
Envy as a displeasure or ill will at the superiority of 
another perosn in happiness, success, reputation, or 
the possession of anything desirable.
Consists of 5 items, e.g. "there are certain people I 
would like to trade places with."

D Preservation:
Preservation as the conservation of events, 
experiences, and memories in material form.
Consists of 3 items, e.g. "when I travel I like to take 
a lot of photographs."
Remarks
Confirmatory factor analysis NFI = .95

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns
Possessiveness subscale
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.16 p < .05
Nongenerosity subscale
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.29 p < .001
Envy subscale
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.05 ns
Preservation subscale
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.18 p < .01
Total scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 845
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
Cattel (1970) personality variables.
A. Outgoing
B. Intelligence
C. Emotional stability
E. Dominance
F. Soberness
G. Concientiousness
H. Social Boldness
I. Tough mindedness
L. Sense of thrust
M. Practicality
N. Na´vety
O. Security
Q1 Conservation
Q2 Selfsufficientcy
Q3 Control
Q4 Tenseness
QI   Extraversion
QII  Anxiety
QIII Cortial arousal
QIV  Independance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aR▓=+.18
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aR▓=.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudyGurman (1972): study US 1970
TitleTherapists' Mood Patterns and Therapeutic Facilitativeness.
SourceJournal of Counseling Psychology, 1972, Vol. 19, 169 -170
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0032407
PublicStudent psychotherapists, Columbia University, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =12

Correlate
Author's labelTherapist's functioning
Page in Source 170
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
Rating of individual therapy sessions (recorded on 
audiotapes) by 3 advanced graduate students in 
counseling psychology. 
Two 4-minute segments from each of 24 tapes were rated 
independently by the raters for each variable. The 
average of these ratings per scale per therapist was 
used. Inter-rater reliabilities ranged from .69 to .97.
Scales from Truax & Carkhuff 1967.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.55 p < .05
1. Warmth
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.40 ns
2. Empathy
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.43 ns
3. Genuineness
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.44 ns
4. Self-disclosure
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-brs=+.59 p < .05
5. Facilitative interpersonal functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality traits
Page in Source 113-115
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
16 Personality Factor Test (16 PF test; see Cattell, 
1950).
Remarks
Total factor scores for the two forms (one taken in 
elation, the other in depression) were corre- lated 
with the mean daily average score on the 
Elation-Depression Scale).
Only significant associations with the 16 factors were 
reported.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.61 p < . 05
1. Parmia (Parasympathetic Immunity) vs Threctia
   (Threat Reactivity).

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.52 p < . 05
2. Dominance vs submissiveness

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.49 p < . 05
3. Guilt proneness vs confidence


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent characteristics (at 10-36 months of age)
Page in Source 29
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
Repeated expert rating on the basis of observation of 
expressive behavior in test situation on bi-polar 
7-point scales. 
Rated 12 times between 10-36 months of age. Rating 
combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 
+ 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.

a.Responsiveness to persons
  Slight - marked

b.Activity
  Inactivity - vigorous

c.Speed of movements
  Slow - rapid

d.Degree of strangeness
  Shy - unreserved

e.Amount of positive behaviour
  Negative - positive

f.Irritability (tendency to be sensitive to and react 
to stimulation)
 Calm - excitable

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times 
between months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15/ 18 + 21 + 24/ 
27 + 30 + 36.


          Months   Months   Months   Months
          10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.17
a:Responsiveness to persons
 -Boys  
  10-12: -.20(ns) -.32(ns) -.17(ns) -.21(ns)
  13-15: -.17(ns) -.12(ns) -.03(ns) -.12(ns)
  18-24: -.42(05) -.41(05) -.26(ns) -.21(ns)
  27-36: +.16(ns) -.02(ns) -.10(ns) -.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr= 0
 -Girls 
  10-12: +.19(ns) +.08(ns) +.04(ns) +.03(ns)
  13-15: -.15(ns) +.03(ns) +.04(ns) +.03(ns)
  18-24: -.14(ns) -.23(ns) -.20(ns) -.12(ns)
  27-36: +.10(ns) +.00(ns) -.03(ns) +.20(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.08
b:Activity
 -Boys
  10-12: -.08(ns) -.18(ns) -.06(ns) -.27(ns)
  13-15: -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.01(ns) -.17(ns)
  18-24: +.19(ns) +.24(ns) +.65(05) +.29(ns)
  27-36: +.25(ns) +.07(ns) +.21(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.11
 -Girls 
  10-12: +.03(ns) +.11(ns) +.07(ns) -.07(ns)
  13-15: +.01(ns) +.09(ns) +.29(ns) +.10(ns)
  18-24: +.07(ns) +.12(ns) +.34(ns) +.01(ns)
  27-36: +.06(ns) +.02(ns) +.20(ns) +.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.07
c:Speed of movements
 -Boys  
  10-12: -.18(ns) -.31(ns) -.26(ns) -.39(05)
  13-15: -.05(ns) -.13(ns) -.07(ns) -.29(ns)
  18-24: +.06(ns) -.06(ns) +.35(ns) -.02(ns)
  27-36: +.10(ns) +.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.01
 -Girls 
  10-12: -.02(ns) +.10(ns) +.11(ns) -.07(ns)
  13-15: -.05(ns) +.10(ns) +.28(ns) -.01(ns)
  18-24: +.01(ns) -.04(ns) +.06(ns) -.27(ns)
  27-36: +.02(ns) -.03(ns) -.04(ns) -.27(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.36
d:Degree of strangeness
 -Boys  
  10-12: +.49(05) +.43(05) +.35(ns) +.18(ns)
  13-15: +.36(ns) +.66(05) +.43(05) +.31(ns)
  18-24: +.23(ns) +.33(ns) +.61(05) +.22(ns)
  27-36: +.16(ns) +.38(05) +.21(ns) +.33(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.55
 -Girls 
  10-12: +.72(05) +.50(05) +.41(05) +.48(05)
  13-15: +.61(05) +.69(05) +.60(05) +.48(05)
  18-24: +.36(ns) +.60(05) +.70(05) +.60(05)
  27-36: +.29(ns) +.35(ns) +.58(05) +.76(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.59
e:Amount of positive behaviour
 -Boys  
  10-12: +.59(05) +.64(05) +.44(05) +.45(05)
  13-15: +.53(05) +.86(05) +.61(05) +.70(05)
  18-24: +.62(05) +.60(05) +.72(05) +.49(05)
  27-36: +.40(05) +.55(05) +.42(05) +.85(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.58
 -Girls 
  10-12: +.76(05) +.64(05) +.40(05) +.34(ns)
  13-15: +.54(05) +.74(05) +.62(05) +.48(05)
  18-24: +.48(05) +.60(05) +.73(05) +.57(05)
  27-36: +.47(05) +.54(05) +.64(05) +.78(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.58
f:Irritability
 -Boys  
  10-12: +.67(05) +.69(05) +.42(05) +.41(05)
  13-15: +.63(05) +.80(05) +.52(05) +.58(05)
  18-24: +.37(ns) +.68(05) +.61(05) +.55(05)
  27-36: +.37(ns) +.56(05) +.51(05) +.88(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.61
 -Girls 
  10-12: +.74(05) +.59(05) +.40(05) +.35(05)
  13-15: +.73(05) +.84(05) +.58(05) +.44(05)
  18-24: +.52(05) +.68(05) +.82(05) +.67(05)
  27-36: +.47(05) +.49(05) +.66(05) +.75(05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Subject code: P04

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929 /1
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicGirls, followed from age 0 to 18, Berkely, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality in adolescence (age 12-18)
Page in Source 39
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS, code P04
Operationalization
Ratings by four judges on the basis of notes from 
observations and interviews between age 12 to 18

Ratings were made on 7 point bi-polar adjective scales.

a.  Timid, self-conscious, sensitive,      lacks 
confidence, shy, easily hurt,
    inhibited, serious, humorless,
    rigid, precise
b.  Courteous, respectful,        conservative, 
compliant, tactful,      cooperative, patient, 
considerate
c.  Conscientious, dependable,    
    persevering
d.  Friendly, talkative, not unfriendly
e.  Social in situation, interested in
    people, natural, straightforward
f.  Independant, assertive, outgoing,
    leader, rescourceful, takes          initiative, 
independant at home
g.  Bold, impulsive, boastful,          uninhibited, 
show-off, pleasure
    loving, opinionated
h.  Irritable, disrespectful,          domineering, 
pugnacious, noisy,
    demanding, tactless, not dependable
    excitable, distractable
i.  Defiant, rude, sarcastic, critical
j.  Hostile, resentful
k.  Sulky, bitter
l.  Reserved, cold, aloof,          uncommunicative
m.  Popular, belongs to groups
n.  Calm, not nervous
 
Remarks
Adolescent happiness assessed in the same way.
(Both HAP 7.3 and AFF 5.1 are sumscores of adjective 
rating from the same sources)
 




Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.15 ns
a.



A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.68 p < .05
1
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.18 ns
2
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .05
b.


O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.40 ns
c.


A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.09 ns
3
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.04 ns
d.
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.56 p < .05
4
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.75 p < .05
5
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.26 ns
e.
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.56 p < .05
6
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.18 ns
f.


A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.52 p < .05
7
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.19 ns
g.


O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.41 ns
h.



A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.29 ns
8
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.05 ns
9

O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.54 p < .05
i.
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.71 p < .05
j.
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.17 ns
10
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.67 p < .05
k.
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.64 ns
11
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.70 p < .05
12
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=-.14 ns
l.

A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.74 p < .05
13
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.65 p < .05
m.
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.47 p < .05
14
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.60 p < .05
n.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, glass industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =106

Correlate
Author's labelAgressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    

Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.19 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, commercial and textile-manufacturing occupations, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =110

Correlate
Author's labelAgressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    
 
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, metal industry, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =84

Correlate
Author's labelAgressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    
  
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.23 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicSkilled labourers, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelAgressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    
 
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.25 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicAdministrative employees, General Sickfund, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelAgressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    
 
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, assembly industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelAgressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    
 
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.45 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /3
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicYoung female employees, cure-clinic, West Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelAgressivenes
Page in Source 147
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Spontaneous uncontrolled agressive action (abreaction) 
vs self-controlled, durable, conscientious behavior.    
 Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyMitchell (1972): study HK 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 1967
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =3966

Correlate
Author's labelHostility
Page in Source 43
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Six item index. Typical items are :
- Some people make you dislike them so
  that whatever they want you to do,   
  you just want to do the opposite.
- You feel that you are going to    
  explode.

For each item, the respondent was asked if he 
experienced the symptom many times, sometimes, hardly 
ever, or never (1 = many times and sometimes,  
0 = hardly ever and never).
Maximum score = 6, minimum score = 0.
Those with a score of two or more are
considered as hostile.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aG=-.18 p < .01
Figures based on half of the sample.
Linear.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelExternalizing problem behavior
Page in Source 35
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about calling names (also on 
MSN), fighting, threatening (also on MSN), teasing 
(also on MSN), destroying, being armed, stealing.
Summed rating
1: no problem behavior
2: some 
3: rather 
4: serious 
5: very serious
Observed distributionin %: 1: 38.35,2:37.49,3: 23.41,4: 0.75,5: 0.00

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=-
1 no problem behavior  M=8.2
2 some                 M=7,7
3 rather               M=7,3
4 serious              M=7,2
5 very serious         M=7,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelAnger
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Trained peer-rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.10
Readiness to become angry.
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.43
Readiness to recover from anger.
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.16
Occasional liability to extreme anger.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelAnger
Page in Source 27
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=-.21
Readiness to become angry.
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.22
Readiness to recover from anger.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelAnger
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
5-item indexes from the EASI-III Tempe-
rament Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242) rated on 
a 5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a lot':
1. "When displeased, I let people know   it"
2. "It takes a lot to get me mad         (reverse)"
3. "I am known as hot-blooded and        
quite-tempered"
4. "I yell and scream more than most     people my age"
5. "There are many things that annoy     me"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.21 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Anger at T2.

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.17  (001)
T2:  r = -.18  (001)
T3:  r = -.14  (001)
T4:  r = -.12  (001)
Sum: r = -.21  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.01
NAS: r(mean) = +.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelAnger
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242),
rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a 
lot':
1. "When displeased, I let people know   it"
2. "It takes a lot to get me mad  
   (reverse)."
3. "I am known as hot-blooded and        
quick-tempered"
4. "I yell and scream more than most 
   people my age"
5. "There are many things that annoy     me"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.21 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Anger at T2. 

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.17  (001)
T2:  r = -.18  (001)
T3:  r = -.14  (001)
T4:  r = -.12  (001)
Sum: r = -.21  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.01
NAS: r(mean) = +.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyZautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975
TitleThe Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00884787
Public18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelAnger
Page in Source 87/93
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Interviewer rating on a 5 point scale. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelAggressiveness
Page in Source 329
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
Rating by staffmembers on a 7-point aggressive-passive 
scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar=- p < .05
Open ward  : r = -.24 (05)
Closed ward: r = -.34 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelImpulse to aggression
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
A mean of the following four items: "I
feel like swearing", "I feel like losing my temper at 
people", "I feel like being a little rude to people", 
"I feel like picking a fight or arguing with my 
parents" Scale: 1.00 = never true to 5.00 = almost 
always true.
Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
                  Impulse to aggression
Happiness         T1       T2       T3       T4
T1        tau = -.34     -.27     -.20     -.19
T2        tau = -.24     -.41     -.25     -.26
T3        tau = -.18     -.32     -.37     -.26
T4        tau = -.20     -.31     -.30     -.41
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aggressive, angry
Subject code: P04aa

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelImpulse to aggression
Page in Source 122
Our classificationAggressive, angry, code P04aa
Operationalization
4-item index of closed questions on feelings of 
swearing, losing temper at teachers, being rude to 
teachers, picking a fight with parents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.33 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ambitious
Subject code: P04ab

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to excel
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAmbitious, code P04ab
Operationalization
Trained peer rating of desire to excel at performances 
in which the person has his chief interest (whether 
play, work or otherwise) on a 7-point scale on the 
basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ambitious
Subject code: P04ab

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to excel
Page in Source 27
Our classificationAmbitious, code P04ab
Operationalization
Class-master rating of desire to excel at performances 
in which Ss has his chief interest (whether work, play 
or otherwise) on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.53


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ambitious
Subject code: P04ab

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelThinking often about getting ahead
Page in Source 54
Our classificationAmbitious, code P04ab
Operationalization
Response to single question:
"Last week how often did you think about .ůGetting 
ahead"

Rated: not at all / sometimes / often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= - ns
High S.E.S  : G' = -.06 (ns)
Low S.E.S.  : G' = +.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelActivity
Page in Source 139
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
ĹIs always on the go'. Parent rating of the child  on a 
5-point scale ranging from 1 (not very 
typical/characteristic) to 5 (very 
typical/characteristic).
Remarks
Item from the Emotionality Activity and Sociability 
Temperament Survey (EAS).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-ar=+.13 p < .05
Child's rating of own happiness
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.09 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-ar=+.27 p < .05
Parents ratingof childs happiness
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=-.13 ns

Beta's controlled for childs:
- gender
- school
- other temperament traits
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental 
  - spiritual practice/belief


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelVitality
Page in Source 258
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions:
During the last four weeks
a. did you feel full of pep?
b. did you have a lot of energy?
c. did you feel worn out?
d. did feel tired?

Rated:
6: all of the time (100%) 
.
.
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Vitality subscale of SF-36 health questionnaire (Ware 
1992).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.18
Beta controlled for:
 - Mental Healthm(SF-3C subscale)
 - General Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyCasas et al. (2003): study ES Cataluna 1999
TitleStrategies to Achieve Goals Related to TV or Computer Activities: Their Correlates with Adolescents' Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 5th Conference of the International Society for Quality - of - Life Studies, July 2003, Frankfurt, Germany
URLhttp://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2005/CASAS.PDF
Public12-16 aged, secondary schools pupils, Catalunya, Spain, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =968

Correlate
Author's labelActivities to gain knowledge about computers
Page in Source 7,12,15
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Analysis of open-ended question:
(part B. of two part question)
what I am doing to get to know it is. 
Obtained answer categories:
(categories from open answers)
3 information searching
2 concrete actions
1 nothing
Observed distributionN=744; N= 3: 42,2%, 2: 24,1%, 3: 33,7%.
Remarks
Neither gender nor age showed statistical differences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aF=6,01 p < .003
df = 2,737
Those who search for information to gain knowledge 
about computers obtain higher levels of OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyCasas et al. (2003): study ES Cataluna 1999
TitleStrategies to Achieve Goals Related to TV or Computer Activities: Their Correlates with Adolescents' Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 5th Conference of the International Society for Quality - of - Life Studies, July 2003, Frankfurt, Germany
URLhttp://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2005/CASAS.PDF
Public12-16 aged, secondary schools pupils, Catalunya, Spain, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =968

Correlate
Author's labelActivities to achieve things seen on TV
Page in Source 7,12,13,15
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Analysis of a two-part open-ended question:
Part 1:
A. have you ever seen anyone on tv doing soomething 
that you would like to do, and you think you could do? 
Answers were analysed in two ways:
1 yes 
2 no.
B. if answer was positive, researchers classified into 
three answer categories the answers of adolescents who 
report what they would like doing:
1 related to sport 
2 media related activities
3 travelling or adventure activities.
Part2: If you have done it how did you go about doing 
what you have seen?  Answer categories:
1 nothing 
2 training or learning 
3 trying or demanding.
Observed distributionC: N=489; N= 1: 44,4%, 2: 37,2%, 3: 18,4%.
Remarks
Gender or age have nothing to do with the responses.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aF= ns
Part 2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study US 2002
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
PublicStudents, University of Illinois, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-ResponseNot reported.
Respondents N =193

Correlate
Author's labelEnergy
Page in Source 352
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Self-ratings on 7-points scale.
Observed distributionNot reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aDM=+
Mean energy among:
- very happy               5,3  (N=25)
- happy                    5,1  (N=42)
             Difference   +0,2

- moderately happy         4,7  (N=75)
- slightly happy           4,3  (N=43)
- unhappy                  4,0  (N=8)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=+.45 p < .001
Positive linear relation. The very happy are more 
energetic than the happy.


Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelPerceptual Sensitivity
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Detection of slight, low intensity stimuli from the 
external environment. (in total 12 items like "How 
often did the baby notice fabrics with scratchy texture 
(e.g., wool)?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.28
boys:  r=+.32 p<.01
girls: r=+.24 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.28
boys:  r=+.25 p<.01
girls: r=+.31 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=+.20
boys:  r=+.21 p<.01
girls: r=+.18 p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelActivity Level
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's gross motor activity, 
including
-  movement of arms and legs
- squirming
- locomotor activity

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of situations not reported
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyMcGrade (1968): study US 1963
TitleNewborn Activity and Emotional Response at Eight Months.
SourceChild Development, 1968, Vol. 39, 1247 - 1252
PublicInfants followed from birth to 8 month, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response46% unattainable.
Respondents N =24

Correlate
Author's labelNewborn activity
Page in Source 1249
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Observation of movements of hands and feet by method of 
Kessen et al. (1961), using motion pictures of four 
observations on two consecutive days.

1. Activity: Observation of movements  
   of hands and feet.

2. Reactivity: Difference between   
   unstimulated activity and activity  
   after S's forehead was rubbed.

3. Reactivity: Difference between   
   unstimulated activity and activity
   after removal of a nipple.
Remarks
Both variables measured at month 8.
                  
                   
                 
                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-8-ar=+.06 ns
          
                  
             
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-8-ar=-.09 ns
         
            
             
          
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-8-ar=-.51 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyMcGrade (1968): study US 1963
TitleNewborn Activity and Emotional Response at Eight Months.
SourceChild Development, 1968, Vol. 39, 1247 - 1252
PublicInfants followed from birth to 8 month, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response46% unattainable.
Respondents N =24

Correlate
Author's labelActivity
Page in Source 1249
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Examination by psychologist. Rated on 9-point scale 
(Activity: 'inactive - 
vigorous' rating scale, from Bayley Infant Behaviour 
Profile). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-8-ar=+.59 p < .01
Both variables measured at month 8.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelActivity
Page in Source 29
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Expert rating on the basis of observa- tion of 
expressive behavior on a bipo- lar 7-point 'inactive - 
vigorous' scale. 12 ratings between month 10-36 of age.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times 
between 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.
Correlations in r: mr is average r

             Months   Months   Months   Months
             10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.08
Boys  10-12:-.08(ns) -.18(ns) -.06(ns) -.27(ns)
      13-15:-.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.01(ns) -.17(ns)
      18-24:+.19(ns) +.24(ns) +.65(05) +.29(ns)
      27-36:+.25(ns) +.07(ns) +.21(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.11
Girls 10-12:+.03(ns) +.11(ns) +.07(ns) -.07(ns)
      13-15:+.01(ns) +.09(ns) +.29(ns) +.10(ns)
      18-24:+.07(ns) +.12(ns) +.34(ns) +.01(ns)
      27-36:+.06(ns) +.02(ns) +.20(ns) +.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelSpeed of movements
Page in Source 29
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Expert rating on the basis of observa- tion of 
expressive behavior on a 7- point 'slow - rapid' scale. 

12 ratings between month 10-36.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- 
tween 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.

             Months   Months   Months   Months
             10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.07
Boys  10-12:-.18(ns) -.31(ns) -.26(ns) -.39(05)
      13-15:-.05(ns) -.13(ns) -.07(ns) -.29(ns)
      18-24:+.06(ns) -.06(ns) +.35(ns) -.02(ns)
      27-36:+.10(ns) +.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.01
Girls 10-12:-.02(ns) +.10(ns) +.11(ns) -.07(ns)
      13-15:-.05(ns) +.10(ns) +.28(ns) -.01(ns)
      18-24:+.01(ns) -.04(ns) +.06(ns) -.27(ns)
      27-36:+.02(ns) -.03(ns) -.04(ns) -.27(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active
Subject code: P04ac

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelActivity level
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationActive, code P04ac
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's gross motor 
activity, including
-  movement of arms and legs
- squirming
- locomotor activity

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of situations not reported
Observed distributionpaternal data: N=128; maternal data: N=143
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.15
paternal report: r=+.25
maternal report: r=+.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudySchurer & Yong (2012): study AU 2001
TitlePersonality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random Coefficient models?
SourceHEDG WP 12/01, 2012, York, UK
URLhttp://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/12_01.pdf
Public20-60 aged general public, followed 9 years, Australia, 2001-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7158

Correlate
Author's labelBig 5 variables
Page in Source 32
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Big 5 personality variables:
a) extraversion
b) agreeableness
c) conscientiousness
d) emotional stability
e) openness to experience

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.07 p < .05
a) extraversion
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 p < .05
b) agreeableness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.04 p < .05
c) conscientiousness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.09 p < .05
d) emotional stability
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .05
e) openess to experience 

All coefficients for men, similar results for 
females. 

All beta's controlled for:
- household income
- age
- marital status
- number of children in household
- number of individuals in household
- health status
- education
- employment status
- total weekly work-hours
- reginal indicators
- time fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
a: extraversion
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: emotional stability
e: openness to experience

Rated 1 to 7
Observed distributionextraversion: Mean=4.4212; SD=1.0459 agreeableness: Mean=5.4036; SD=0.9245 conscientiousness: Mean=5.2060; SD=1.0249 emotional stability: Mean=5.1605; SD=1.0916 openness to experience: Mean=4.2435; SD=1.0620
Remarks
Scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.11 p < .001
extraversion
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.22 p < .001
agreeableness
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.03 ns
conscientiousness
b(.0321)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.10 p < .001
emotional stability
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 p < .05
openness to experience
 
OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelTraits
Page in Source 32
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Self report on 15 Questions, 3 questions on each of the 
five traits:
a: neuroticism
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: extraversion
d: openness for experience
Remarks
Short version of the Big Five Personality Domains - 
NEO-ACiv.
Data on the Big Five was only asked in the SOEP of the 
year 2005, after which the missing data was imputed for 
the other years based on the 2005 data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.24 p < .01
neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 p < .01
agreeableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.03 p < .10
conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.06 p < .01
extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.06 p < .01
openness to experience
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta's Controlled for:
- fit between preferred and actual working hours
- importance of having children/succes in a job
- amount of hours per week working and caring
- marital status
- age
- age-squared
- number of children 0-15
- unemployment rate
- born in East-German
- being a foreigner
- education
- age of youngest child
- objective health
N = 70859


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality: Agreeableness
Page in Source 508
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple question on agreeableness:
Texts not reported.

Rated:
1 completely disagree
:
7 completely agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) openness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) gender
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000 /1
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, followed 7 years 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 504,508
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .01
West Germany.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
East Germany.

b's controlled for:
- neighborhood characteristics
  - living conditions
  - social comparison
  - social cohesiveness
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - non-German nationality
  - age
  - age squared
  - income
  - education 
  - marital status
  - health (subj.)
- other personality traits
  - openness
  - extraversion
  - conscientiousness
  - neuroticism
  - external locus of control
  - internal locus of control


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelBig Five Dimensions and LOC
Page in Source 37
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
A: conscientiousness
B: neuroticism
C: extraversion
D: agreableness
E: openness
F: internal Locus of control
G: extrernal Locus of control

Rated:
1
.
.
7
Observed distributionA: M = 5,896 SD = 0,912; B: M = 3,923 SD = 1,227; C: M = 4,864 SD = 1,115; D: M = 5,411 SD = 0,955; E: M = 4,572 SD = 1,176; F: M = 5,135 SD = 0,696; G: M = 3,501 SD = 0,871

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
Conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
Neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .05
Extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
Agreableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Openness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Internal locus of control
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.18 p < .01
External locus of control

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyGutiÚrrez et al. (2005): study ES Madrid 2002
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being: Big Five Correlates and Demographic Variables.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2005, Vol. 38, 1561 - 1569
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886904002958
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.09.015
PublicNursing professionals, 7 hospitals, Madrid, Spain, 2002
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 1564-1566
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
NEO-FFI (Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1999). Inventario 
de Personalidad NEO revisado (NEO PI-R) e Inventario 
NEO reducido de cinco factores (NEO-FFI) [NEO PI-R, 
Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factors 
Inventory (NEO-FFI)]. Madrid: TEA Editions.)
Observed distributionM = 31.28 SD = 6.20
Error EstimatesCronbachs Alpha = 0.73
Remarks
Spanish version of NEO-FFI employed to assess the Big 
Five personality dimensions: Neuroticism, Extraversion, 
Openness to experience, Agreeableness, 
Conscientiousness
Range of correlations NEO-FFI with NEO-PIR: 0.87 - 0.93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controlled for personality:
   - neuroticism
   - extraversion
   - openness
   - conscientiousness
R^2 = 0.23
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - sex
   - age
   - marital status
- personality:
   - neuroticism
   - extraversion
   - openness
   - conscientiousness
R^2 = 0.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyLaukka (2007): study SE 2006
TitleUses of Music and Psychological Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 215 - 241
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9024-3
Public65-75 aged, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 229
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Selfreports on 2 selfrelated statements 
A Critical, quarrelsome.
B Sympathetic, warm.

Rated:
1 disagree strongly
2
3
4
5
6
7 agree strongly
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha .25
Remarks
Part of the 10-item Personality Inventory (Gosling et 
al. 2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Education level
- Health status
- Activity level
- Personality 
  - Extraversion
  - Conscientiousness
  - Emotional Stability
  - Openess


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 125,126,127,131
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Self report on 5 questions:
a. love to help others
b. care about others people's feelings
c. am interested in people
d. think of others first
e. know how to comfort others

Rated strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1)
Observed distributiona: 0.84, b: 0.83 c: 0.75 d: 0.74, e: 0.71
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha 0.72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=+.35 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyJoseph et al. (2004): study GB 2002
TitleRapid Assessment of Well-Being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS).
SourcePsychology and Psychotherapy; Theory, Research and Practice, 2004, Vol. 77, 463 - 478
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =241

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 474
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Self-report on 120 questions. Typical items are:
-I am a 'worrier'      
-I make friends easily      
-I have a vivid imagination      
-I trust others      
-I complete tasks successfully      
Rated:
1 strongly disagree
2 agree
3 neutral
4 agree
5 strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 32,21; sd = 5,47; range 16-44
Remarks
Five Factor Inventory; Costa & McCrae, 1991

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.42 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyProto & Rustichini (2015): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction, Income, and Personality.
SourceIZA Dp, 2015, No. 8837, 1 - 30
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8837.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117041

Correlate
Author's labelBig five personality
Page in Source 25
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
a) Neuroticism
b) Extraversion
c) Conscientiousness
d) Openness
e) Agreableness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-2.1 p < .01
a) Neuroticism
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.63 p < .01
b) Extraversion
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.74 p < .01
c) Conscientiousness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.09 ns
d) Openness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.44 p < .05
e) Agreeableness

OPRC's coefficients controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Gender
- Number of children
- Education
- Employment type
- Occupation type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyDemir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
DOIDOI:10,1007/s10902-006-9012-7
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =423

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 192, 194
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 9 questions
- tends to find fault with others
- is helpful and unselfish with others
- starts quarrels with others
- has a forgiving nature
- is generally trusting
- can be cold and aloof
- is considerate and kind to almost everyone
- is sometimes rude to others
- likes to cooperate with others

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 5 (agree strongly)
Observed distributionmean 3.99, SD 0.63
Error Estimates? = 0.75
Remarks
Agreeableness scale of Big Five Inventory (BFI, John & 
Srivastava, 1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-ar=+.44 p < .05
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.13 p < .06
Beta controlled for
- gender
- neuroticism
- extraversion
- conscientiousness
- openness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeable
Subject code: P04ad

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 84
Our classificationAgreeable, code P04ad
Operationalization
Agreeableness subscale of Neo Personality Inventory 
(Costa & Macrae, 1985)
Facets are:
- Trust
- Straightforwardness
- Altruism
- Compliance
- Modesty
- Tender-mindedness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE▓=.12 p < .05
                    Mean agreeableness         
a 10% least happy          41.2     
b 27% close to average     44.6    
c 10% most happy           50.9
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aBMCT= p < .05
a, b < c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeing, yea-saying
Subject code: P04ae

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelEPI Lie scale
Page in Source 69
Our classificationAgreeing, yea-saying, code P04ae
Operationalization
To assess possible social desirability bias the EPI 
liescale is included.
Eyssenck and Eysenck,; 1964, Manual of the Eysenck 
Personality Inventory (Stoughton, London)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.12 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeing, yea-saying
Subject code: P04ae

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality variables
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationAgreeing, yea-saying, code P04ae
Operationalization
a) Openess to experience
b) Conscientiousness
c) Extroversion
d) Agreeableness
e) Neuroticism
Remarks
Shortened versino of standard 'Big Five' questionaire 
(Gelitz & Schupp, 2005). Assessed in 2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 p < .01
a) openess to expierence
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.03 p < .01
b) conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.04 p < .01
c) extroversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 p < .01
d) agreeableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.20 p < .01
e) neuroticism

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Montly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Similar results for pooled OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeing, yea-saying
Subject code: P04ae

StudyMoum (1988): study NO Nord-Tr°ndelag 1984
TitleYea-saying and Mood-of-the-Day Effects in Self-Reported Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 117 - 139
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00302458
Public20+ aged, general public, Noth Trondelag county, followed 2 years, Norway, 1984-1986
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =622

Correlate
Author's labelYea-saying
Page in Source 128
Our classificationAgreeing, yea-saying, code P04ae
Operationalization
Index of 4 closed questions, having the
same content but phrased pairswise 
positively or negatively.    
1 If people stopped complaining about
  everything, everybody would be better
  of.
2 You have to learn how to let others
  know you're not satisfied, or else
  there'll be no improvements.
3 You have to content yourself with
  what you've got, otherwise you'll
  just be disappointed and bitter.
4 If you're not satisfied, it is
  important to let others know about
  it. 
Questions rated on a 5 point scale, 1: disagree 
completely,... 5: agree completely. Scores of all 
questions were summed.
Administered at T3.
 
Remarks
Happiness assessed at three points in time. The 
intervals varierd from several days to several months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-ar=+
happiness at T1             r= +.14
happiness at T2             r= +.14
happiness at T3             r= +.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeing, yea-saying
Subject code: P04ae

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 928
Our classificationAgreeing, yea-saying, code P04ae
Operationalization
Not reported
Error EstimatesConbach alpha: .66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 ns
PA: r = -.09 (ns)
NA: r = -.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeing, yea-saying
Subject code: P04ae

StudyMcCrae (1986): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1981
TitleWell-Being Scales do not Measure Social Desirability.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1986, Vol. 41, 390 - 392
PublicAdults, general public, Baltimore, USA, 1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability
Page in Source 391
Our classificationAgreeing, yea-saying, code P04ae
Operationalization
Social Desirability scale from MMPI(Minnesota 
Multiphasic Personality Inventory) items.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.45 p < .001
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.47 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreeing, yea-saying
Subject code: P04ae

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelConsistent (dis)- agreeing response tendencies
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationAgreeing, yea-saying, code P04ae
Operationalization
Over-all agreement score (see Couch & Keniston, 1960), 
indicative of 'yea saying' or 'nay saying'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.31 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyCummins et al. (2003d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 7, Report 7.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. The Effect of Work.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response85%
Respondents N =1993

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety about the World Situation
Page in Source 136
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Single question:
On a scale from 0 to 10, how anxious are you about the 
state of the world?
Level:
1: 30 or less
2: 40
3: 50
4: 60
5: 70
6: 80
7: 90
8: 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .584
1: Mt = 7,60, SD = 2,04
2: Mt = 7,69, SD = 1,63
3: Mt = 7,89, SD = 1,63
4: Mt = 7,84, SD = 1,46
5: Mt = 7,92, SD = 1,43
6: Mt = 7,76, SD = 1,60
7: Mt = 7,87, SD = 1,64
8: Mt = 7,84, SD = 2,23
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=+.02 p < .346
 Whole Sample
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=-.01 p < .813
 males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=+.03 p < .256
 females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyHeadey (1999): study AU AU Victoria 1987
TitleOld Age is not Downhill: The Satisfactions and Well-Being of Older Australians.
SourceAustralian Journal on Aging, 1999, Vol. 18, 32 - 37
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1741-6612.1999.tb00887.x
Public24-76 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, 1987
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 33
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Spielberger (1979) State Anxiety Scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.39
Correlations were disattenuated for measurement 
error


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1992): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleUnderstanding Happiness: A Theory of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceLongman Cheshire, 1992, Melbourne, Australia
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/headey_b_1992.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, 1981-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 42
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 item 'State Anxiety Scale' intended to 
measure how one feels 'right now'. The scale used 
consist of eight items (e.g. 'I feel calm'; 'I am 
tense') answered on a 4-point scale running from 'not 
at all' to 'very much'.
Spielberger 1979, Understanding Stress and Anxiety 
(Nelson, New York)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=-.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 69
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 item 'State Anxiety Scale' intended to 
measure how one feels 'right now'. The scale used 
consist of eight items (e.g. 'I feel calm'; 'I am 
tense') answered on a 4-point scale running from 'not 
at all' to 'very much'.
Spielberger 1979, Understanding Stress and Anxiety 
(Nelson, New York)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.33 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyHeinonen et al. (2004): study FI 1997
TitleIs the Evaluation of the Global Quality of Life Determined by Emotional Status?
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol.13, 1347 - 1356
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000040788.12947.b9
Public25-65 aged, 5 regions, Finland, 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =3838

Correlate
Author's labelState Anxiety
Page in Source 1352-1354
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Self report on 6 item short form of the state scale of 
the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
Typical items are:
-worry
-irritability
-tension
-listlessness
-poor sleeping
-problems
-demoralisation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-ar=-.61 p < .01
males
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aBeta=-.33 p < .001
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-ar=-.59 p < .01
females
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aBeta=-.35 p < .001
Beta's controled for
- socio-demographics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- physical health
  - self rated health
  - number of diseases
- functional well-being
  - self rated physical condition
  - ability to perform daily activities (ADL)
- social well-being
  - social support
  - satisfaction with family
- satisfaction with life-achievements


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /3
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de PersonalitÚ en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public50-69 aged women, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =747

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 103-107
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Self rating of personality;
0 not anxious or unquiet
1 anxious or unquiet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Not anxious or unquiet  M=7,02  Mt'=7,5
Anxious     or unquiet  M=5,77  Mt'=6,0.
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Not anxious or unquiet   M=6,89  Mt'=7,4
Anxious     or unquiet   M=5,79  Mt'=6,0
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=- p < .001
Not anxious or unquiet  M=7,56  Mt'=8,2.
Anxious     or unquiet  M=6,41  Mt'=6,8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 21
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
The Kuwait University Anxiety Scale (Abdel-Khalek 
2000). This scale consists of 20 brief items answered 
on a 4-point Likert-type scale.
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha = .92

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=-.50 p < .001
All
males  : r = -.44
females: r = -.54


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety at work
Page in Source 8
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
How often do you feel nervous or tense at work (1: 
never ....... 5: always)
Remarks
Data: Hofstede 91980) and Lynn (1995)
Based on international surveys among IBM empluyees and 
university students

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.45
Average happiness by average anxiety at work in 79 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyBecker & Ester (1987): study NL 1986
TitleRampbewustzijn in Nederland. (Beliefs about Coming Disasters in the Netherlands).
SourceSociale Wetenschappen, 1987, Vol. 30, 179 - 206
Public18-70 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1986
Sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =2016

Correlate
Author's labelDisaster awareness
Page in Source 182
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
5item Guttman-index:
1) end to world 
2) big war 
3) environmental disaster 
4) nuclear disaster 
5) economic disaster 
Ss were asked whether they expected such disasters. 
Probability rated on a 5-point scale, ranging from 
strongly disagree to strongly agree (order reversed). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.06
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=? ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, educational level, 
occupational level, income, social-economic 
category (allowance yes/no), political 
ineffectivity and neuroticism.
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-drpc=-.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelFree floating anxiety
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Free floating anxiety subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported
Observed distributionMean: 6,1; SD:3,4
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.63 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelSomatic anxiety
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Somatic anxiety subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:4.0; SD:2,4
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.56 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Depression subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) Experiential 
Index.
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:3,9; SD:2,9
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .67

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.78 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelHysteria
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Hysteria subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979)Experiential 
Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:4,5; SD:2,7
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.36 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPhobic avoidance
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Phobic avoidance subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:3,3; SD:2,1
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.27 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelObsessionality
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Obsessionalty subscale of Croqn-Crisp (1979) 
Experiental Index
Items not reported
Observed distributionMean:5,8; SD:3,5
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyCammock et al. (1994): study GB 1994
TitlePersonality Correlates of Scores on the Depression-Happiness Scale.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1994, Vol. 75, 1649 - 1650
PublicStudents, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labeltrait anxiety
Page in Source 1649
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.69
p is not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyWarr et al. (1979): study GB 1977
TitleScales for the Measurement of Social Work Attitudes and Aspects of Psychological.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1979, Vol. 52, 129 - 148
PublicFactory workers, blue collar, UK, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =590

Correlate
Author's labelSelf rated anxiety
Page in Source 140
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
6 item index of questions about worrying circumstances 
in the past few weeks. Typical items:
- Your health
- Britain's economic future
Answers scored on a seven point scale ranging from "not 
at all concerned"(1) to "extremely worried" (7)
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.23 p < .01
controlled for age   rpc=-.23
controlled for skill rpc=-.23
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-ar=-.18 p < .01
controlled for age   rpc=-.18
controlled for skill rpc=-.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyWarr et al. (1979): study GB 1977
TitleScales for the Measurement of Social Work Attitudes and Aspects of Psychological.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1979, Vol. 52, 129 - 148
PublicFactory workers, blue collar, UK, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =590

Correlate
Author's labelOverall self-rated anxiety
Page in Source 140
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Single question: " In general how worried or concerned 
do you feel these days?"
Answers scored on a seven point scale ranging from "not 
at all concerned"(1) to "extremely worried"(7).
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.22 p < .01
controlled for age   rpc=-.22
controlled for skill rpc=-.22
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-ar=-.22 p < .01
controlled for age   rpc=-.22
controlled for skill rpc=-.22
 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelReadiness to show fear in the face of bodily danger
Page in Source 27
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=-.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyAbbey & Andrews (1985): study US Detroit 1984
TitleModeling the Psychological Determinants of Life-Quality.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 1 - 34
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317657
PublicTranquilizer users, Detroit, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response40%
Respondents N =675

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 16
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Subscale of Hopkins Symptom Checklist, nervous, 
trembling, suddenly scared, fearful, heartpounding, 
avoid places, tense. 1 = not at all, 5 = extremely.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-cw-mq-*-20-ar=-.54


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's distress and/or extended 
latency to approach an intense or novel stimulus

Each rated on :
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of stimuli not reported
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=-.22 p < .05
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=-.34 p < .05
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempare-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242), rated on a 
5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a lot':
1. "I am easily frightened"
2. "I often feel insecure"
3. "I tend to be nervous in new     situations
4. "I have fewer fears than most people    my age" 
(reverse)
5. "When I get scared, I panic"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.40 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Fear at T2. 

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.29  (001)
T2:  r = -.36  (001)
T3:  r = -.31  (001)
T4:  r = -.32  (001)
Sum: r = -.40  (001)

PAS: r = -.19 
NAS: r = -.30 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 845
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = -.02 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = +.03 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyBrook et al. (1979): study US Dakota County, Minnesota 1972
TitleOverview of Adult Health Status Measures Fielded in Rand's Health Insurance Study.
SourceMedical Care, 1979, Vol. 17
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3764335?seq=10
PublicHeads of households, Dayton , USA, 1972-1979
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3441

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 24 + 29 + 31 + 42
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Self-report on 5 questions:
During the past month...
a. Have you been bothered by nervousness or your 
"nerves"? 
b. Have you been under or felt you were under any 
strain, stress, or pressure? 
c. Have you been anxious, worried, or upset? 
d. Did you feel relaxed, at ease or high strung, tight, 
or keyed-up? 
e. Were you generally tense or did you feel?
Observed distributionRange 5-30, M=12.11, SD=4.67
Error EstimatesInternal-Consistency=.88, Test-Retest=.70 with N=437

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.37 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyBradbury (1967): study US 1966
TitleA Study of Guilt and Anxiety as Related to Certain Psychological Variables.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, North Texas State University, 1967, USA
PublicUniversity students, North Texas State, USA, 1966/67
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 64
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
40-item questionnaire scored as 'true' or 'false' (IPAT 
Anxiety Scale Questionnaire; Self Analysis Form; see 
Cattell & Scheier, 1963)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-3-aE▓=-.35 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyMcGrade (1968): study US 1963
TitleNewborn Activity and Emotional Response at Eight Months.
SourceChild Development, 1968, Vol. 39, 1247 - 1252
PublicInfants followed from birth to 8 month, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response46% unattainable.
Respondents N =24

Correlate
Author's labelFearfulness
Page in Source 1249
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Examination by psychologist. Rated on 7-point scale 
(Fearfulness: 'reaction to the new or strange' rating 
scale, from Bayley Infant Behaviour Profile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-8-ar=-.55 p < .01
Both variables measured at month 8.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious
Subject code: P04af

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationAnxious, code P04af
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's distress and/or 
extended latency to approach an intense or novel 
stimulus

Each rated on :
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of stimuli not reported.
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=-.20
paternal report: r=-.15
maternal report: r=-.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Assertive
Subject code: P04ag

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelAssertiveness index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationAssertive, code P04ag
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on:
a: The ability to assert yourself when necessary
b: The extent to which you are tough and can take it
Both items scored on 1-9 D-T rating scale, summation by 
average.
Observed distributionM = 6.7 SD = 1.1
Remarks
Both items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.44 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.05
all cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- problem handling
- family activities
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- friends
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.05
married cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- problem handling
- family activities
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- friends
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Assertive
Subject code: P04ag

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationAssertive, code P04ag
Operationalization
Selfreport on 11 questions:
a: My decisions are not usually influenced by what 
everyone else is doing
b: I have confidence in my opnions even if they are 
contrary to the general consensus
c: I have confidence in my own opnions, even if they 
are different from the way most other people think
d: I tend to worry about what other people think of me
e: I often change my mind about decisions if my friend 
or family disagree
f: I am not afraid to voice my opinions, even when they 
are in opposition to the opinions of most people
g: Being happy with myself is more important to me than 
having others approve of me
h: It's difficult for me to voice my opinions on 
controversal matters
i: I tend to be influenced by people with strong 
opinions
j: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
what others think is important
k: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
the values of what others think is important

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 7,5; SD=4,1 Controls: M=10,8; SD=2,2
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Autonomy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=-.10 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Assertive
Subject code: P04ag

StudyForrester (1980): study US San Diego County, California 1980
TitleFactors Contributing to Life Satisfaction of Divorced Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, 1980, Arizona State University, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/forrester_ng_1980.pdf
Public21-71 aged divorced women, San Diego, California, USA, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of assertiveness
Page in Source 79
Our classificationAssertive, code P04ag
Operationalization
The extent to which one expresses one's feeling, needs 
and ideas and stands up for one's legitimate rights. 
48-item self report measure (Adult Self-Expression 
Scale, Gay e.a. 1975)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.51 p < . 001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.60 p < . 001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Assertive
Subject code: P04ag

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelAscendancy
Page in Source 285
Our classificationAssertive, code P04ag
Operationalization
Guilford-Martin Inventory of Factors: GAMIN-A scale.
This inventory reflects on characteristics of a 
positive self-concept.
This sub-scale in particular measures social 
assertiveness and has items reflecting a willingness to 
stand for one's rights and a lack of fearfullness of 
standing out in a acrowd, taking action in a 
troublesome situation or confronting disagreement.

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .01
T5 ascendancy by T5 happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelInclination to answer positively
Page in Source 350
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
3-item additive index revealing the inclinination to 
answer positively. Each rated on a 5-point scale.
Typical items are:
- If someone askes me something personal I reply 
straightforwardly.
- If someone startstalking to you, you 
  have to be as honest as possible
- It is a good thing that people say
  what they really feel.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.01 ns
T2 happiness by T2 yea-saying
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.10 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18 + aged, general public, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response61%
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability distortion_A
Page in Source 38
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Lie scale items from Eysenck Personality Inventory 
(Eysenck &      Eysenck, 1964).












Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18 + aged, general public, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response61%
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability distortion_B
Page in Source 38
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Crowne-Marlow Scale (1964).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.23 p < .05
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.25 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to be liked by his associates
Page in Source 26
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelEagerness for admiration
Page in Source 26
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.12


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to be liked by associates
Page in Source 27
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelEagerness for admiration
Page in Source 27
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyMatlin & Gawron (1979): study US 1977
TitleIndividual Differences in Pollyannaism.
SourceJournal of Personality Assesment. 1979, Vol. 43, 411 - 412
PublicUniversity students white, middle-class, State University of New-York, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Desirability
Page in Source 412
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Score on the Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale 
(Crowne-Marlow 1964)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.23 s
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyKlassen et al. (1975): study US Kansas 1972
TitleInfluence of Social Desirability on Symptom and Mood Reporting in a Community Survey.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, Vol. 43, 448 - 452
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0076863
Public18+ aged, general public, Kansas City, USA, 1971-1972
Sample
Non-Response27%
Respondents N =976

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Page in Source 450
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
14 item index: Social desiribility scale of Marlowe & 
Crowne 1960
(shortened version)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.15 p < .01
M-PL-g-sq-?-0-ar=+.17 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ar=.19 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-arpc=+.16
rpc controlled for age education and race.
Signs of correlations reversed.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aarpc=+.20
M-PL-g-sq-?-0-arpc=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability
Page in Source 1063,1065
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
6-item version of the Crowne-Marlow social desirability 
scale.Both the affirmation of implausible virtues (e.g. 
I am always courteous, even to people who are 
disagreeable) and the denial of plausible faults (e.g. 
There have been occasions when I've felt like smashing 
something) contribute to a higher social desirability 
score.
Low scores indicate less socially desirable responses.
Observed distributionWomen with husband in white collar job: Employed M = 2,72, Housewives M = 2,72 Women with husbands in blue collar job: Employed M = 2,84, Housewives M = 2,85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.09 ns
Employed women with white-collar husband
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.28 p < .005
Housewives with white collar husbands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.02 ns
Employed women with blue-collar husband
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+20 p < .005
Housewives with blue collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 ns
Employed women with white collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.15 p < .05
Housewives with white collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 ns
Employed women with blue-collar husband
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.09 ns
Housewives
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.10 p < .05
Employed women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.30 p < .05
Housewives
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.14 ns
Employed women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.16 ns
Housewives:
B'controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Husband's job status
- Respondents present or last job status
- Time pressure

Reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyCampbell et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleThe Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions.
SourceRussel Sage Foundation, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelSocial approval see-king tendency
Page in Source 109
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Social Desirability Scale (see Crown & Marlowe, 1963)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
33 item-index (Marlowe - Crowne Social Desirability 
Scale; see Crowne & Marlowe, 1964).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.14 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyHarder (1969): study US 1969
TitleSelf-Actualization, Mood, and Personality Adjustment in Married Women.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1969, USA
URLhttp://pocketknowledge.tc.columbia.edu/home.php/viewfile/12851
PublicMarried females, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Page in Source 50
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Marlowe - Crowne Social Desirability Scale (see Crowne 
& Marlowe, 1964)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+.24 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Page in Source 27
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
33-item index of true / false statements (Social 
Desirability Scale; see Crowne & Marlowe, 1964)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.28 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyPhillips & Clancy (1971): study US Various places 1967
TitleSome Effects of "Social Desirability" in Survey Studies.
SourceAmerican Journal of Sociology, 1971/72, Vol. 77, 921 - 940
Public21+ aged general public, New England and Mid-Atlantic States, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =404

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Page in Source 929 n
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
10-item index of the true/false statements, such as: 'I 
never hesitate to go out of my way to help someone in 
trouble' and 'There have been times when I feel like 
rebelling against people in authority' (shortened 
Social Desirability scale; see Crowne & Marlowe, 1964)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.24 p < . 01
G' based on proportion 'very happy'


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Page in Source 242
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
31-item index of true / false state-
ments (Social Desirability Scale; see Crowne & Marlowe, 
1964).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.28 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
31-item index of true/false statements
(Social Desirability Scale; see Crowne & Marlowe, 
1964). Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
T1 happiness:        tau = +.31  (001)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.27  (001)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.16  (001)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.19  (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSensitivity to criticism
Page in Source 94/179/302
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on sensitivity to 
criticism, being hurt by criticism, feeling disturbed 
when laughed at or blamed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.19
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.23
After control for social class: Gs = -.22
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.23
After control for social class: Gs = -.22
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .11 p < . 01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for superior approval
Page in Source 285
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center. 
 
Rater instruction:"To what extent does this person need 
warmth and nurturant support from immediate 
supervisors".

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.12 ns
T5 need for superior approval by T5 happiness

Later analysis of the full studygroup (N=266)  
showed a significantly negative correlation (BRAY 
1983 p 302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for peer approval
Page in Source 285
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center. 
 
Rater instruction:"To what extent does this person need 
warmth and acceptance from peers and subordinates?".

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.08 ns
T5 need for peer approval by T5 happiness.

Later analysis of the full studygroup (N=266) 
showed a significantly negative correlation (BRAY 
1983 p 302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelSuccorance
Page in Source 285
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) on need for 
succorance scale. 

This inventory reflects a desire for understanding and 
encouragement, including having others provide help in 
times of illness or trouble, react sympathetically 
about personal problems, and offer affection and 
favors.

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=_.01 ns
T5 need for deference by T5 happiness.

Later analysis of the full studygroup (N=266) 
showed a significantly negative correlation (BRAY 
1983 p 302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Approval seeking
Subject code: P04ah

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelCaring about what other people think of you
Page in Source 203
Our classificationApproval seeking, code P04ah
Operationalization
Selfreport on question: "Do you care about what people 
think of you? 
0 No 
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.15 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Avoidant
Subject code: P04ai

StudyToussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004
TitleForgiveness, Gratitude and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 635 - 654
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8
PublicPsychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelAvoidance
Page in Source 643-645
Our classificationAvoidant, code P04ai
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions about avoidance

Rated:
1 strongly disagree
-
-
5 strongly agree
Remarks
Transagression Related Interpersonal Motivations 
Inventory (TRIM, Mc Cullough et al, 1998)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.25 p < .05
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-ar=-.30 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Blaming
Subject code: P04aj

StudySchulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response4%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-blaming
Page in Source 1170
Our classificationBlaming, code P04aj
Operationalization
Single direct question whether the subject blamed 
himself for the disability, rated on a 5 point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-ar=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Blaming
Subject code: P04aj

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelSpousal Resentment
Page in Source 50,132,138,141
Our classificationBlaming, code P04aj
Operationalization
'Think back to your experiences as a working parent 
over the last two months.How have you spouse helped you 
to manage? How often in the past two months did your 
spouse do each of the following?
1. Held my job responsibilities against me. 2. Showed 
resentment of my needs as a working parent. 3. Was 
critical of my efforts to combine work and family.

Rated: 1= Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 
5 = Very often
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=1,8, SD=.70, Married Mothers M = 1,9 SD = .83, Single Mothers = NA
Error Estimatesalpha = .73

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.32 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.25 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.27 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.31 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Blaming
Subject code: P04aj

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelResentment from Friends, Neighbors and Relatives
Page in Source 50,133,138,141,143
Our classificationBlaming, code P04aj
Operationalization
Think back to your experiences as a working parent over 
the last two months. How have your friends, neighbors 
and relatives helped you to manage? How often in the 
past two months did friends, neighbors and relatives do 
each of the following?
1. Held my job responsibilities against me. 2. Showed 
resentment of my needs as a working parent. 3. Was 
critical of my efforts to combine work and family.

Rated: 1= Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 
5 = Very Often, 8 = Not Applicable
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=1,2, SD=.45, Married Mothers M = 1,4 SD = .62, Single Mothers M=1,6 SD = .81
Error Estimatesalpha = .78

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.26 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.08 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.10
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.13 ns
Single Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Blaming
Subject code: P04aj

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelBlaming orientation
Page in Source 58,80
Our classificationBlaming, code P04aj
Operationalization
Factors derived from topics mentioned in response to 
open questions on responsibilities, concerns and 
resources
a Economic difficulties
b Personal troubles
c Government and world difficulties
d Family troubles

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Remarks
Factor 9.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Blaming
Subject code: P04aj

StudyLaxer (1964): study US 1960
TitleRelation of Real Self-Rating to Mood and Blame and Their Interaction in Depression.
SourceJournal of Consulting Psychology, 1964, Vol. 28, 538 - 546
PublicPsychiatric patients, USA, 196?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response3
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelblame assignment
Page in Source 543
Our classificationBlaming, code P04aj
Operationalization
Response to question "What has brought me in my present 
condition?" such as:
- I am no good
- I have tried my best, but others would not cooperate
- I don't know why I am ill
From a set of 23 such statements patients selected 3 
that fitted their case best. Statements were written on 
cards, which patients took from a pile. Cards were 
shuffeled prior to each presentation to a patient.

Each of the statement had a precode self-blame score. 
The average of these scores from the 3 selected cards 
was computed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-ar=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Bold
Subject code: P04ak

StudyRobinson et al. (2001): study US 1986
TitleDispositional Cheerfullness. Early Genetic and Environmental Influences.
SourceEmde, R.N.; Hewitt, J.K.: Eds.: ''Infancy to Early Childhood'', Oxford University Press, 2001, New York, USA, 163 - 177
PublicToddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelProhibition-positive hedonic tone
Page in Source 167-170
Our classificationBold, code P04ak
Operationalization
Assessed just before Bayley testing in the home and 
again after inhibition rooom procedure with mother;
At home, infants are shown a plastic "glitter wand" by 
examiner, which is then placed in front of the infant, 
saying: "Don't touch."
In the lab, infants are shown a basket with three 
colorful balls placed in front of the infant saying: 
"Now, don't touch."
Behavior was videotaped and rated lateron.

Two ratings were made at different points of time:
a beginning with onset of prohibition, ending with 
child touching toy
b beginning with onset of permission, ending 30 sec 
later

1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter
Remarks
Twins were alternatingly assessed in the same room 
while the other was present.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.34 p < .01
at 14 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.36 p < .01
at 20 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.34 p < .01
at 24 months


Correlational finding on Happiness and Bold
Subject code: P04ak

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelSocial boldness
Page in Source 845
Our classificationBold, code P04ak
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = -.09 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = -.07 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.09 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.07 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Calm
Subject code: P04al

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelSoothability
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationCalm, code P04al
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's fussing, crying, or distress 
when soothing techniques are used by the caretaker or 
child

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.29 p < .05
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.17 ns
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Calm
Subject code: P04al

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelSoothability
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationCalm, code P04al
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's fussing, crying, 
or distress when soothing techniques are used by the 
caretaker or child

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.27
paternal report: r=+.26
maternal report: r=+.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Clever
Subject code: P04am

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationClever, code P04am
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 
30).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-20 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Clever
Subject code: P04am

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelOpen-minded; accuracy in thinking
Page in Source 342
Our classificationClever, code P04am
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 30) as 
well as in old age (T2: age 70). Correlation over this 
40-year-period is +.28  .

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2 load similarly on 
this factor.
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Clever
Subject code: P04am

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child;uncritical of child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationClever, code P04am
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in old age (T2: age 70). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.29 ns
Happiness assessed at T2 (age 70).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Critical
Subject code: P04an

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelQuickness of decision making
Page in Source 37
Our classificationCritical, code P04an
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
"While making your decisions are you a slow thinker or 
quick thinker?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.13
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+4.6
Instrument for happiness:
- last ten days cloud cover deviation

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudySchurer & Yong (2012): study AU 2001
TitlePersonality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random Coefficient models?
SourceHEDG WP 12/01, 2012, York, UK
URLhttp://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/12_01.pdf
Public20-60 aged general public, followed 9 years, Australia, 2001-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7158

Correlate
Author's labelBig 5 variables
Page in Source 32
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Big 5 personality variables:
a) extraversion
b) agreeableness
c) conscientiousness
d) emotional stability
e) openness to experience

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.07 p < .05
a) extraversion
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 p < .05
b) agreeableness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.04 p < .05
c) conscientiousness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.09 p < .05
d) emotional stability
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .05
e) openess to experience 

All coefficients for men, similar results for 
females. 

All beta's controlled for:
- household income
- age
- marital status
- number of children in household
- number of individuals in household
- health status
- education
- employment status
- total weekly work-hours
- reginal indicators
- time fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
a: extraversion
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: emotional stability
e: openness to experience

Rated 1 to 7
Observed distributionextraversion: Mean=4.4212; SD=1.0459 agreeableness: Mean=5.4036; SD=0.9245 conscientiousness: Mean=5.2060; SD=1.0249 emotional stability: Mean=5.1605; SD=1.0916 openness to experience: Mean=4.2435; SD=1.0620
Remarks
Scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.11 p < .001
extraversion
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.22 p < .001
agreeableness
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.03 ns
conscientiousness
b(.0321)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.10 p < .001
emotional stability
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 p < .05
openness to experience
 
OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelTraits
Page in Source 32
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Self report on 15 Questions, 3 questions on each of the 
five traits:
a: neuroticism
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: extraversion
d: openness for experience
Remarks
Short version of the Big Five Personality Domains - 
NEO-ACiv.
Data on the Big Five was only asked in the SOEP of the 
year 2005, after which the missing data was imputed for 
the other years based on the 2005 data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.24 p < .01
neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 p < .01
agreeableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.03 p < .10
conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.06 p < .01
extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.06 p < .01
openness to experience
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta's Controlled for:
- fit between preferred and actual working hours
- importance of having children/succes in a job
- amount of hours per week working and caring
- marital status
- age
- age-squared
- number of children 0-15
- unemployment rate
- born in East-German
- being a foreigner
- education
- age of youngest child
- objective health
N = 70859


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality variables
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
a) Openess to experience
b) Conscientiousness
c) Extroversion
d) Agreeableness
e) Neuroticism
Remarks
Shortened versino of standard 'Big Five' questionaire 
(Gelitz & Schupp, 2005). Assessed in 2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 p < .01
a) openess to expierence
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.03 p < .01
b) conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.04 p < .01
c) extroversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 p < .01
d) agreeableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.20 p < .01
e) neuroticism

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Montly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Similar results for pooled OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality: Conscientious
Page in Source 508
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions on conscientious:
Texts not reported.

Rated:
1 completely disagree
:
7 completely agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.07 p < .05
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) openness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) gender
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000 /1
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, followed 7 years 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 504,508
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Conscientiousness was indicated by questions on:
- selfdiscipline
- act dutifully
- aim for achievement.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.07 p < .05
East Germany

b's controlled for:
- neighborhood characteristics
  - living conditions
  - social comparison
  - social cohesiveness
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - non-German nationality
  - age
  - age squared
  - income
  - education 
  - marital status
  - health (subj.)
- other personality traits
  - openness
  - extraversion
  - agreeableness
  - neuroticism
  - external locus of control
  - internal locus of control


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelBig Five Dimensions and LOC
Page in Source 37
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
A: conscientiousness
B: neuroticism
C: extraversion
D: agreableness
E: openness
F: internal Locus of control
G: extrernal Locus of control

Rated:
1
.
.
7
Observed distributionA: M = 5,896 SD = 0,912; B: M = 3,923 SD = 1,227; C: M = 4,864 SD = 1,115; D: M = 5,411 SD = 0,955; E: M = 4,572 SD = 1,176; F: M = 5,135 SD = 0,696; G: M = 3,501 SD = 0,871

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
Conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
Neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .05
Extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
Agreableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Openness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Internal locus of control
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.18 p < .01
External locus of control

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelConscienciousness
Page in Source 575, 581, 582
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Selfreport on the extent to which they agree on 5 
questions, f.e.
- dependable, self-disciplined
- disorganized, careless

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 7 (agree strongly) 

Measures of the two different scales were standardized 
and averaged
Observed distributionM = 5.25, SD = 1.13
Error Estimates? >.75
Remarks
Subscale of TIPI (Ten Item Personality Inventory, 
Gosling et al., 2003), 2 items
Subscale of STA (single trait adjectives, Sheldon et 
al., 1997), 3 items (not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.21 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- extraversion
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- openness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyTyssen et al. (2009): study NO 1993
TitleLower Life Satisfaction in Physicians Compared with a General Population Sample: A 10-year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study of Course and Predictors.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2009, Vol. 44, 47 - 54
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00127-008-0403-4
PublicPhysicians followed 9 years after graduating, Norway, 1993-2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-ResponseResp. 17% , 38% at 1 year, 33% at 4 years, 38 % at 9 years.
Respondents N =631

Correlate
Author's labelConsciousness trait
Page in Source 49,51
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Basic Character Inventory (BCI). The 
compulsiveness/obsession dimension from the BCI is 
based on 9 dichotomous questions(agree/disagree). The 
author refers to this dimension as 'conscientiousness'.
Observed distributionTotal scores range from 0 (low) to 9 (high).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cBeta=-.02 ns
CI95[-.07 to +.03]

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- neuroticism
- extraversion
- married/cohabitant at T4
- perceived social support at T4
- work stress at T4
- negative life events at T4
- frequency of physical training at T4
- frequency of religious meetings at T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyGutiÚrrez et al. (2005): study ES Madrid 2002
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being: Big Five Correlates and Demographic Variables.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2005, Vol. 38, 1561 - 1569
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886904002958
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.09.015
PublicNursing professionals, 7 hospitals, Madrid, Spain, 2002
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 1565-1566
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
NEO-FFI (Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1999). Inventario 
de Personalidad NEO revisado (NEO PI-R) e Inventario 
NEO reducido de cinco factores (NEO-FFI) [NEO PI-R, 
Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factors 
Inventory (NEO-FFI)]. Madrid: TEA Editions.)
Observed distributionM = 33.26 SD = 6.18
Error EstimatesCronbachs Alpha = 0.78
Remarks
Spanish version of NEO-FFI employed to assess the Big 
Five personality dimensions: Neuroticism, Extraversion, 
Openness to experience, Agreeableness, 
Conscientiousness
Range of correlations NEO-FFI with NEO-PIR: 0.87 - 0.93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.21 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=.00 ns
Beta controlled for personality:
   - neuroticism
   - extraversion
   - openness
   - agreeableness
R^2 = 0.23
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - sex
   - age
   - marital status
- personality:
   - neuroticism
   - extraversion
   - openness
   - agreeableness
R^2 = 0.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyLaukka (2007): study SE 2006
TitleUses of Music and Psychological Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 215 - 241
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9024-3
Public65-75 aged, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 229 + 236
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Selfreports on 2 selfrelated statements 
A Dependable, self-disciplined.
B Disorganized, careless.

Rated:
1 disagree strongly
2
3
4
5
6
7 agree strongly
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha .25
Remarks
Part of the 10-item Personality Inventory (Gosling et 
al. 2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.04 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Education level
- Health status
- Activity level
- Personality 
  - Extraversion
  - Agreeableness
  - Emotional Stability
  - Openess


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 125,126,127,131
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
a. get chores done right away
b. do things according to a plan
c. make plans and stick to them
d. like to tidy up
e. pay attention to detail

Rated strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1)
Observed distributiona: 0.78, b: 0.74, c: 0.68, d: 0.65, e: 0.62
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha 0.78

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyJoseph et al. (2004): study GB 2002
TitleRapid Assessment of Well-Being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS).
SourcePsychology and Psychotherapy; Theory, Research and Practice, 2004, Vol. 77, 463 - 478
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =241

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 474
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Self-report on 120 questions. Typical items are:
-I am a 'worrier'      
-I make friends easily      
-I have a vivid imagination      
-I trust others      
-I complete tasks successfully      
Rated:
1 strongly disagree
2 agree
3 neutral
4 agree
5 strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 30,35; sd = 7,67; range 9-45
Remarks
Five Factor Inventory; Costa & McCrae, 1991

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyProto & Rustichini (2015): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction, Income, and Personality.
SourceIZA Dp, 2015, No. 8837, 1 - 30
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8837.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117041

Correlate
Author's labelBig five personality
Page in Source 25
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
a) Neuroticism
b) Extraversion
c) Conscientiousness
d) Openness
e) Agreableness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-2.1 p < .01
a) Neuroticism
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.63 p < .01
b) Extraversion
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.74 p < .01
c) Conscientiousness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.09 ns
d) Openness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.44 p < .05
e) Agreeableness

OPRC's coefficients controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Gender
- Number of children
- Education
- Employment type
- Occupation type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 26
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Trained peer rating (of keenness of interest in 
goodness and wickedness of actions) on a 7-point scale 
on the basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 27
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Class-mastere of keenness of interest in the goodness 
and wickedness of actions rating on a 7-point scale on 
the basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyDemir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
DOIDOI:10,1007/s10902-006-9012-7
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =423

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 192, 194
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Selfreport on 9 questions
- does a thorough job
- can be somewhat careless
- is a reliable worker
- tends to be disorganized
- tends to be lazy
- perserveres until the task is finished
- does things efficiently
- makes plans and follows through with them
- is easily distracted

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 5 (agree strongly)
Observed distributionmean 2.73, SD 0.75
Error Estimates? = 0.77
Remarks
Conscientiousness scale of Big Five Inventory (BFI, 
John & Srivastava, 1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gr=+.37 p < .05
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.17 p < .06
Beta controlled for
- gender
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- extraversion
- openness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study US 2002
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
PublicStudents, University of Illinois, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-ResponseNot reported.
Respondents N =193

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 352
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
NEO scale and facet scores.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aDM=-
Mean conscientiousness among:
- very happy               18,6  (N=25)
- happy                    20,7  (N=42)
              Difference   -2,1

- moderately happy         19,3  (N=75)
- slightly happy           17,5  (N=43)
- unhappy                  15,6  (N=8)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=+.41 p < .001
Positive linear relation, but the very happy are 
less conscientious than the happy.


Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelConscientious
Page in Source 84
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Conscientious subscale of Neo Personality Inventory 
(Costa & Macrae, 1985)
Facets are:
- Competence
- Order
- Dutifulness
- Achievement striving
- Self-discipline
- Deliberation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE▓=.12 p < .05
                    Mean conscientious         
a 10% least happy          38.2   
b 27% close to average     44.6    
c 10% most happy           40.8
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
 a < b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-organized, reliable
-neat
-ambitious, persevering
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and   T3(1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.21 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.18 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.24 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .05
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.14 p < .05
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.15 p < .05
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.03 ns
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientious
Subject code: P04ao

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 845
Our classificationConscientious, code P04ao
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = +.13 p < .01 after control for the other 
Cattell personality variables.
▀ = +.14 p < .01 after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coherence (sense of)
Subject code: P04ap

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy need satisfaction
Page in Source 574, 581, 582
Our classificationCoherence (sense of), code P04ap
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about their feeling of 
autonomy in general, f.e.
- I feel free to express my ideas and opinions
- that my choices were based on my true interests and 
values
- free to do things my own way
- that my choices expressed my "true self"

Aggregate measures were computed by standardizing and 
averaging the two measures
Observed distributionM = 3.68, SD = .58
Error Estimates?=.73
Remarks
the Basic Psychological Needs scale (BPNS; Deci et al., 
2001) with 7 items
te need-satisfaction scale (Sheldon et al., 2001) with 
3 items

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- competence need satisfaction
- relatedness need satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coherence (sense of)
Subject code: P04ap

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelself-concordance
Page in Source 575, 581, 582
Our classificationCoherence (sense of), code P04ap
Operationalization
Rated agreement with 4 reasons why they strive for a 
goal
- external (because I have to or my situation demands 
it)
- introjected (because I feel guilty, anxious, or 
ashamed if I didn't)
- identified (because I identify with it, even when its 
not fun and anjoyable)
- intrinsic (because it is intrinsically interesting or 
challenging)

Ratings were based on either a single or four important 
self-generated personal goal, in last case the ratings 
were averaged

A single self-concordance measure is computed by 
summing the intrinsic and identified ratings and 
subtracting the externeal and introjected ratings
Observed distributionM = 2.65, SD = 2.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- goal progress (selfrated succes at this goal(s))


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coherence (sense of)
Subject code: P04ap

StudySmits et al. (1995): study NL 1992
TitleWell-being and control in older persons: The prediction of well-being from control measures.
SourceIntenational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1995, Vol. 40, 237 - 251
DOIDOI: 10.2190/JH5F-2XWH-Y101-7EWF
PublicElderly, Sassenheim, the Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response24,4%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelsense of coherence
Page in Source 241, 245
Our classificationCoherence (sense of), code P04ap
Operationalization
Self report on 11 questions. 
Typical question: "Has life until now had a clear goal 
or destination for you?"
Adapted Dutch version of 13 item Sense of Coherence 
questionnaire.
Observed distributionM=35,94 (sd=25,07)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .77
Remarks
data available for 85 Ss

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gr=+.24 p < .05
positive affect= -.04 (ns)
negative affect= +.45 (05)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-g


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coherence (sense of)
Subject code: P04ap

StudySnekkevik et al. (2003): study SE 1993
TitleIs Sense of Coherence Stable after Multiple Trauma.
SourceClinical Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 17, 443 - 453
PublicRehabilitation patients, followed 2 years after trauma, Sweden 1993-1999
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelSense of coherence
Page in Source 106-107
Our classificationCoherence (sense of), code P04ap
Operationalization
Selfreport on 13 questions:
a: Doing the things you do every day isů
b: Do you have very mixed-up feelings and ideas?
c: Does it happen that you have feelings inside you 
would rather not feel?
d: Many people- even those with a strong character- 
sometimes feel like sad sacks(losers) in certain 
situations. How often have felt this way in the past?
e: When sometthing happened, have you generally found 
that:
f: How often do you the feeling that there"s little 
meaning in the things you do in life?
g: How often do you have feelings that there's little 
meaning in the things you do in your daily life?
h: How often do you have feelings that you're not sure 
you can keep under control?
i: Do you have the feeling that you don't really care 
about what goes on around you?
j: Has it happened in the past that you were surprised 
by the behaviour of people whom you ought to know?
k: Has it happened that people whom you counted on 
disappoited you?
l: Until now, your life has had
m; Do you have the feeling that you're being treated 
unfairly?
n: Do yoy have the feeling that you are in an 
anfamiliar situation and don't know what to do?
Observed distributionRange; 25-91, median T1 63, T2 68, T3 65
Error EstimatesCronbach alphavaried from 0.86 to 0,89 T1 -T2 r = +.61, T2-T3 rs= +.59
Remarks
Abreviated Antonovsky Sense of Coherence Checklist 
(SOC-13)
Assesses at:
T1: Within one week after admission (median 35 days, 
range 6-80 days after injury)
T2:  Shortly before discharge ( median 161 days, range 
73-290 days after injure)
T3: at follow up (median24 months, range 12-41 months 
after injure)T1: ..

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cr= ns
T1 sense of coherence by T3 happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cr= ns
T2 sense of coherence by T3 happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-crpc=+.42 p < .05
T1 happiness (recalled before injury) by T1 sense 
of coherence
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-crpc=+.40 p < .005
T2 happiness by T2 sense of coherence
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-crpc=+.57 p < .05
T3 happiness by T3 sense of coherence

rpc's controled for current
- general health (GHQ-20)
- depression
- anxiety


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conservating
Subject code: P04aq

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelConservation
Page in Source 845
Our classificationConservating, code P04aq
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = +.05 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = +.06 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conservative
Subject code: P04ar

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualitńt in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelConservatism
Our classificationConservative, code P04ar
Operationalization
Single direct question:
1   'I like to try out something new'
2   'I had better keep everything it is now.'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ▀

1978      -.09       -.15       -.09       +.05
1980      -.08       -.16       -.08       +.05
1984                                       
1988      -.03       -.05       -.03       +.03

▀'s controlled for age, gender, perceived class
and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ▀

1978      -.11       -.02       -.05       +.07
1980      -.04       -.02       -.02       +.05
1984
1988      -.01       -.01       -.01       +.04
   
▀'s controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conservative
Subject code: P04ar

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /4
TitlePolitik und GlŘck. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =855

Correlate
Author's labelDislike of abrupt changings
Page in Source 233
Our classificationConservative, code P04ar
Operationalization
Single direct question: no (0) yes (1)
'I like it most when everything goes as usual, I don't 
like abrupt changings'.
Choosen from a pack of 16 persondescriptions as being 
characteristic for oneself.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=-
Young (16 - 29) and pensioners only. In both 
categories the less cheerfull claim more dislike 
of abrupt changings.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conservative
Subject code: P04ar

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelconservative ideology
Page in Source 131,137, 153
Our classificationConservative, code P04ar
Operationalization
0: no conservative ideology
1:    conservative ideology

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.14 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by having 
conservative ideology.

Beta controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conservative
Subject code: P04ar

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelConservative
Page in Source 285
Our classificationConservative, code P04ar
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center.  
 
Rater instruction:"To what extent does this person tend 
to oppose social change and refrain from challenging 
traditions?".

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.34 p < .01
T5 conservatism by T5 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 928
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
Self-report on the following questions:
a.If you say you will do something, do you always keep 
your promise no matter how inconvenient it might be?
b.Were you ever greedy by helping yourself to more than 
your share of anything?
c.Have you ever blamed someone for doing something you 
knew was really your fault?
d.Are all your habits good and desirable ones?
e.Have you ever taken anything (even a pin or button) 
that belonged to someone else?
f.Have you ever broken or lost something belonging to 
someone else?
g.Have you ever said anything bad or nasty about 
anyone?
h.As a child were you ever cheeky to your parents?
i.Have you ever cheated at a game?
j.Have you ever taken advantage of someone?
k.Do you always practice what you preach?
l.Do you sometimes put off until tomorrow what you 
ought to do today?

Rated: yes/no
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.77 2.32 females 3.63 2.33
Remarks
Score on  Lie-subscale of Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (Revised).
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyCrandall & Putman (1980): study US Idaho 1975 /2
TitleRelations between Measures of Social Interest and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1980, Vol. 20, 156 - 168
PublicPsycology students, USA, University of Idaho, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =61

Correlate
Author's labelDenial of negative traits
Page in Source 166
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
13 positive traits and 14 negative traits are selected 
from the original list of 33 statements. 

a. Before voting I thoroughly investigate the 
qualifications of all the candidates.
b. I never hesitate to go out of my way to help someone 
in trouble.
c. It is sometimes hard for me to go on with my work if 
I am not encouraged.
d. I have never intensely disliked anyone.
e. On occasions I have had doubts about my ability to 
succeed in life.
f. I sometimes feel resentful when I donĺt get my way.
g. I am always careful about my manner of dress.
h. My table manners at home are as good as when I eat 
out in a restaurant.
i. If I could get into a movie without paying and be 
sure I was not seen I would probably do it.
j. On a few occasions, I have given up something 
because I thought too little of my ability.
k. I like to gossip at times.
1. There have been times when I felt like rebelling 
against people in authority even though I knew they 
were right.
m. No matter who Iĺm talking to, Iĺm always a good 
listener.
n. I can remember ôplaying sickö to get out of 
something.
o. There have been occasions when I have taken 
advantage of someone.
p. Iĺm always willing to admit it when I make a 
mistake.
q. I always try to practice what I preach.
r. I donĺt find it particularly difficult to get along 
with loudmouthed, obnoxious people.
s. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive and 
forget.
t. When I donĺt know something I donĺt mind at all 
admitting it.
u. I am always courteous, even to people who are 
disagreeable.
v. At times I have really insisted on having things my 
own way.
w. There have been occasions when I felt like smashing 
things.
x. I would never think of letting someone else be 
punished for my wrong-doings.
y. I never resent being asked to return a favor.
z. I have never been irked when people expressed ideas 
very different from my own.
aa. I never make a long trip without checking the 
safety of my car.
ab. There have been times when I was quite jealous of 
the good fortune of others.
ac. I have almost never felt the urge to tell someone 
off.
ad. I am sometimes irritated by people who ask favors 
of me.
ae. I have never felt that I was punished without 
cause.
af. I sometimes think when people have a misfortune 
they only got what they deserved.
ag. I have never deliberately said something that hurt 
someoneĺs feelings.

Subject use 5 point scales (from "not at all true of 
me" to "very much true of me") to rate themselves on 14 
negative traits. Reversing the scoring of ratings of 
negative traits and summing them yielded the measure.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-?-0-ar=+.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyClum & Clum (1973): study US 1971
TitleChoice of Defense Mechanisms and Their Relationship to Mood Level
SourcePsychological Reports, 1973, Vol. 32, 507 - 510
PublicUndergrates, San Diego State College, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelDefense mechanisms
Page in Source 509
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
Inventory containing 10 stories, dealing with the 
following conflict areas: authority, independence, 
masculinity (male form), feminity (female form), 
competition and situational. After reading each story 
each S was asked to respond to four questions 
corresponding to four types of behavior evoked by the 
situation described in the story:
-purpose actual behavior
-impulsive behavior (in fantasy)
-thoughts
-feelings
Five responses are provided for each question, each 
response representing one of five defense mechanisms. 
Each S marked a plus for the response most 
representative for his reaction and a minus for the one 
least representative. (Defense Mechanism Inventory; see 
Gleser & Ihilevich, 1969).

1. TURNING AGAINST OTHERS: Defenses    that deal with 
conflict through
   attacking a real or presumed exter-
   nal frustration object (Turning
   against Object cluster).

2. PROJECTION: Defenses which justify
   the expression of agression towards
   an external object through first
   attributing negative intent or
   characteristics to it (Projection
   cluster).

3. INTELLECTUALIZATION: Defenses that
   deal with conflict through invoking
   a general priciple that 'splits off'
   affect from content and represses 
   the former; e.g. intellectualiza-    tion, 
isolation, rationallization
   (Principalization cluster).

4. TURNING AGAINST SELF: Defenses that
   deal with conflict through directing
   aggressive behavior towards S 
   himself; e.g. masochism and auto-
   sadism (Turning against Self 
   cluster)

5. REVERSAL: Defenses that deal with
   conflict by responding in a positive
   or neutral fashion to a frustrating
   object which might be expected to
   evoke negative reaction, e.g. 
   negation, denial, reaction forma-
   tion, and repression (Reversal 
   cluster).
Remarks
Correlations were presented for males only. Among 
females no relationships were found, exept in the case 
of turning against others.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.33 ns
Action behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.40 ns
Fantasy behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.44 p < .05
Thought behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.29 ns
Affect.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.57 p < .01
SUMSCORE.
Among females also a tendency for the defence 
turning against others to be negatively related to 
hedonic level.
                              
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.01 ns
Action behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.05 ns
Fantasy behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.40 ns
Thought behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.10 ns
Affect.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.21 ns
SUMSCORE.
       
         
         
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.33 ns
Action behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.20 ns
Fantasy behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.47 p < .05
Thought behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.04 ns
Affect.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.43 p < .05
SUMSCORE.
  
 
     
            
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.21 ns
Action behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.21 ns
Fantasy behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.13 ns
Thought behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.24 ns
Affect.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.28 ns
SUMSCORE.
    
       
            
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.10 ns
Action behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.37 ns
Fantasy behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.59 p < .01
Thought behavior.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.43 p < .05
Affect.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.55 p < .01
SUMSCORE.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelRepression
Page in Source 215/219
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
20-item index referring to denial of hostility towards 
significant others, avoidance of tension-producing 
activi- ties, avoidance of recall of past events, etc. 
(DPI Repression Scale; see Jackson & Messick, 1964).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.05 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelPresenting a false self
Page in Source 94/294
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
2-item index of closed questions on putting up a front 
to people, putting on an act to impress people.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.23
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.29
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .11 p < . 01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .05 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelHiding true feelings
Page in Source 94/298
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
2-item index of closed questions on not showing real 
feelings to others,not showing anger.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.08
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .05 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelRepression and denial
Page in Source 104
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
Clinical rank order of denial of un-
pleasant and disturbing affects on the basis of general 
clinical experience with the subjects and observation 
in experimental situations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelSupressivity and concealment of emotions
Page in Source 105
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
Clinical rank order on the basis of general clinical 
experience with the subjects and observation in 
experimen- tal situations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.42 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelEvasive test-attitu-de (social-desirabi-lity)
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
MMPI Suppression Scale (see Gough, 1953), measuring the 
degree to which S has been guarded or evasive, or 
overly frank and self-critical in responding.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P04as

StudyMcKinley Runyan (1980): study US 1932
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Chart: Perceptions of the Course of Subjective Experience.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1980, Vol. 11, 45 - 64
PublicHighschool pupils, Oakland, USA, 1932, followed from age 12 to 38, 1959
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =91

Correlate
Author's labelDefense mechanism of denial.
Page in Source 59-60
Our classificationDefensive, code P04as
Operationalization
1. Low
2. High 
Rating on the basis of Kroeber-Haan conceptualisation 
of coping and defense (Haan 1963). Average of rating by 
interviewer who spend about 12 hours with the subject 
and a judge who rated the transcripts. Assesed at T2.
Observed distribution1: N=41 2: N=40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-lg-9-aDM=- ns
No significant difference in current happiness 
(T2).

Significant differences in recalled happiness at 
earlier ages. High deniers recall more happiness 
(both males an females).
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, glass industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =106

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding 
actions.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, commercial and textile-manufacturing occupations, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =110

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding
actions.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, metal industry, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =84

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding 
actions.                     
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.24 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicSkilled labourers, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding 
actions.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicAdministrative employees, General Sickfund, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding 
actions.                        
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, assembly industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding 
actions.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.26 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /3
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicYoung female employees, cure-clinic, West Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Agressive, egocentric, suspicious behavior, 
authoritarian-conformistic thinking vs considering 
other people, moderated, tolerant, understanding 
actions.                 
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.23 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant
Subject code: P04at

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelDominance
Page in Source 845
Our classificationDominant, code P04at
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = -.15 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = -.14 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment/marital status and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.15 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.14 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Need for dominance
Subject code: P04at01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to impose ownwill
Page in Source 26
Our classificationNeed for dominance, code P04at01
Operationalization
Trained peer rating of desire to impose own will on 
others (as opposed to tole- rance) on a 7-point scale 
on the basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Need for dominance
Subject code: P04at01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to impose own will
Page in Source 27
Our classificationNeed for dominance, code P04at01
Operationalization
Class-master rating of desire to impose own will 
onothers (as opposed to tole- rance) on a 7-point scale 
on the obser- vation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant behavior
Subject code: P04at02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelWideness of influence
Page in Source 26
Our classificationDominant behavior, code P04at02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating (of the extent to which he makes 
his influence felt among any of his fellows whenever he 
speaks or acts) on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant behavior
Subject code: P04at02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of influence
Page in Source 26
Our classificationDominant behavior, code P04at02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating of intensity of Ss influence on his 
special intimates on a 7-point scale as the basis of 
observa- tion during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant behavior
Subject code: P04at02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelInfluence
Page in Source 27
Our classificationDominant behavior, code P04at02
Operationalization
Class-master rating of degree in which he makes his 
influence felt among the fellows on a 7-point scale on 
the basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dominant behavior
Subject code: P04at02

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of leading roles played in a play
Page in Source 64
Our classificationDominant behavior, code P04at02
Operationalization
2 questions on having played a leading role and number 
of roles.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=+.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of being able to use knowledge and skills
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he is able to use 
his/her knowledge and skills. 4-point scale ranging 
from "wholly agree" to "not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.32
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of being able to use knowledge and skills
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he is able to use 
his/her knowledge and skills. 4-point scale ranging 
from "wholly agree" to "not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.16
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudySmits et al. (1995): study NL 1992
TitleWell-being and control in older persons: The prediction of well-being from control measures.
SourceIntenational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1995, Vol. 40, 237 - 251
DOIDOI: 10.2190/JH5F-2XWH-Y101-7EWF
PublicElderly, Sassenheim, the Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response24,4%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelself-efficacy
Page in Source 241, 245
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Selfreport on twelve items.
Typical item: "When I make plans, I am certain I can 
make them work."
Dutch version by Bosscher of the General self-efficacy 
scale.
Observed distributionM= 47,35 (sd= 6,90)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .61
Remarks
data available for 52 Ss

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gr=-.10 ns
positive affect = -.08 (ns)
negative affect = -.08 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of being able to use knowledge and skills
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he is able to use 
his/her knowledge and skills. 4-point scale ranging 
from "wholly agree" to "not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.22
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, opportunities to make 
personal contacts, possibilities to decide on 
matters concerning one's own personal life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to suceed, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyCasas et al. (2003): study ES Cataluna 1999
TitleStrategies to Achieve Goals Related to TV or Computer Activities: Their Correlates with Adolescents' Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 5th Conference of the International Society for Quality - of - Life Studies, July 2003, Frankfurt, Germany
URLhttp://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2005/CASAS.PDF
Public12-16 aged, secondary schools pupils, Catalunya, Spain, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =968

Correlate
Author's labelActivities to gain knowledge about computers
Page in Source 7,12,15
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Analysis of open-ended question:
(part B. of two part question)
what I am doing to get to know it is. 
Obtained answer categories:
(categories from open answers)
3 information searching
2 concrete actions
1 nothing
Observed distributionN=744; N= 3: 42,2%, 2: 24,1%, 3: 33,7%.
Remarks
Neither gender nor age showed statistical differences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aF=6,01 p < .003
df = 2,737
Those who search for information to gain knowledge 
about computers obtain higher levels of OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of being able to use knowledge and skills
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he is able to use 
his/her knowledge and skills. 4-point scale ranging 
from "wholly agree" to "not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.22
Controlled for: Income, housing density, 
education, social status, anxiety, chronic 
illness, freq. of meetings with relatives, no. of 
friends, opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, easyness of life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, loneliness, feeling of chance to succeed, 
feeling of being liked, gets sufficient attention, 
satisfaction with income, age, gender, no. of 
communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyBowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001
TitleAn Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the ESRC/MRC HSRC Quality of Life Survey in Britain.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2004, Vol. 69, 1 - 36
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:SOCI.0000032656.01524.07
Public65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response23%
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-efficacy
Page in Source 11, 15
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
a: How much control do you feel you have over the 
important things in your life?
   1: a lot of control
   2: some control
   3: little/no control 
b: Things never work out the way I want them to
c: When I make plans I am certain to make them work 
d: Failure just makes me try harder

Rated 
1: strongly disagree
;
5: strongly agree'
Remarks
(Schwarzer, 1993)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.23 p < .01
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.03
Beta controlled for:
- social comparisons and expectations
- health
- health values
- social capital
- age
- gender
- socioeconomic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Efficacious, productive
Subject code: P04au

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelAbleness in life
Page in Source 92
Our classificationEfficacious, productive, code P04au
Operationalization
Closed question on specific feelings about life: "I 
think my life is helpless...capable".
Rated on a 7-point scale ranging from positive (7) to 
negative (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.47
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:  
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=+.50
O-DT asked second: r=+.50
O-DT asked third : r=+.40
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.30
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.30
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.30
Index of positive affects: r=+.30
Index of negative affects: r=-.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.30
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.40
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Egoistic
Subject code: P04av

StudyCharness & Grosskopf (2001): study ES 1998
TitleRelative Pay offs and Happiness: An Experimental Study.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2001, Vol. 45, 301 - 328
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00148-2
PublicUniversity students, Barcelona, Spain, 1998
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =121

Correlate
Author's labelDecision 1: egalitarian over other-rewarding
Page in Source 307
Our classificationEgoistic, code P04av
Operationalization
Ss met in one large room and were explained that they 
would randomly be assigned one of two roles in an 
experiment:
A: Passive role (dead), no say in the decision, only 
asked what they would do if they had been in the other 
role and/or to predict the choice of B
B: Active role (live), makes two decisions about 
partition of money between A and B.
After this introduction Ss were randomly assigned 
either role A or role B. 
Next Ss answered written questions about respectively 
general happiness (GH), comparative happiness (CH) and 
momentary happiness (MH)
Then B's were asked to choose between two options for 
partition between all A and B subjects, which were 
equally rewarding for themselves:
1 other-rewarding: 900 for A, 600 for B
2 egalitarian:     600 for A, 600 for B
Observed distributionEgalitarian 34 %, Other-rewarding 66 %
Remarks
Values were in Spanish Peseta's: 150 = US$ 1
Only active subjects (B) considered here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDM=+ ns
Other-rewarding choice:  GH=6.60 (MH=5.98)
Egalitarian choice:      GH=6.71 (MH=6.24)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ars=+.04 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.04 ns
rpc controled for mood of the moment (MH)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Egoistic
Subject code: P04av

StudyCharness & Grosskopf (2001): study ES 1998
TitleRelative Pay offs and Happiness: An Experimental Study.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2001, Vol. 45, 301 - 328
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00148-2
PublicUniversity students, Barcelona, Spain, 1998
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =121

Correlate
Author's labelDecision 2 (egalitarian vs downgrading choice)
Page in Source 307
Our classificationEgoistic, code P04av
Operationalization
Ss met in one large room and were explained that they 
would randomly be assigned one of two roles in an 
experiment:
A: Passive role (dead), no say in the decision, only 
asked what they would do if they had been in the other 
role and/or to predict the choice of B
B: Active role (live), makes two decisions about 
partition of money between A and B

After this introduction Ss were randomly assigned 
either role A or role B. Next Ss answered written 
questions about respectively general happiness (GH), 
comparative happiness (CH) and momentary happiness (MH)

Then B's were asked to choose between two options for 
partition between all A and B subjects, which were 
equally rewarding for themselves:
1 downgrading: 400 for A, 600 for B
2 egalitarian: 600 for A, 600 for B
Observed distributionEgalitarian 88%, downgrading 12%
Remarks
Values were in Spanish Peseta's: 150 = US$ 1
Only active subjects (B) considered here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDM= ns
Downgrading: GH = 5.86 (MH=5.43)
Egalitarian: GH = 6.74 (MH=6.15)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ars=-.13 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=-.13 ns
rpc controled for mood of the moment (MH)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Egoistic
Subject code: P04av

StudyFeingold (1983): study US 1978
TitleHappiness, Unselfishness, and Popularity.
SourceJournal of Psychology, 1983, Vol. 115, 3 - 5
PublicUniversity students, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =175

Correlate
Author's labelUnselfishness
Page in Source 5
Our classificationEgoistic, code P04av
Operationalization
Self perceived interest in 'helping people', rated on a 
10-points scale
ranging from 1 (=not interested at all)
to 10 (=very interested).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-br=+.18
Men   r=+.27 (05)
Women r=+.09 (ns) 
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-brpc=+.14 ns
Men   rpc=+.19 (ns)
Women rpc=+.09 (ns)
rpc controlled for popularity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Egoistic
Subject code: P04av

StudyCameron (1975): study US 1970
TitleMood as an Indicant of Happiness: Age, Sex, Social Class and Situational Differences.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 216 - 224
PublicCollege students, Detroit, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =187

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-serving and other-serving orientation
Page in Source 218/220
Our classificationEgoistic, code P04av
Operationalization
Time-sampling, the question asked 21 times during 10 
weeks: "Were you mainly thinking about satisfying your 
own or anothers interests?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-ar=
Self-serving orientation:
Happy   mood: r=+.15 (05)  
Neutral mood: r=-.14  ns
Unhappy mood: r=+.17 (05)  

Other-orientation:
Happy   mood: r=-.06  ns
Neutral mood: r=+.22 (01)  
Unhappy mood: r=+.03  ns

Happiness assessed by time sampling. Correlations 
concern frequency of report of happy, neutral or 
sad mood.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Egoistic
Subject code: P04av

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelSelfishness
Page in Source 285
Our classificationEgoistic, code P04av
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center. 
 
Rater instruction:"To what extent is this person 
occupied with self-interest with little or no concern 
for others?"

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=-.43 p < .001
T5 selfishness by T5 happiness

Later analysis of full study-group also showed a 
significantly negative correlation (BRAY 1983: 
303)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Empathic
Subject code: P04aw

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelWarmth
Page in Source 76
Our classificationEmpathic, code P04aw
Operationalization
Selfreport on multiple questions
Subscale of extraversion in Eysenk Personality 
Inventory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=+.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Empathic
Subject code: P04aw

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1980a): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleHappiness and Games of Chance.
SourcePaper Institut fŘr Demoskopie, 1980, Allensbach, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/noelle-neumann_e_1980.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany, 1979
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelidentification
Page in Source 10
Our classificationEmpathic, code P04aw
Operationalization
Answer to the question which persons Ss had identified 
with in a TV serie on the Holocaust.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Cheerful Ss mentioned more identifications


Correlational finding on Happiness and Empathic
Subject code: P04aw

StudyRobinson et al. (2001): study US 1986
TitleDispositional Cheerfullness. Early Genetic and Environmental Influences.
SourceEmde, R.N.; Hewitt, J.K.: Eds.: ''Infancy to Early Childhood'', Oxford University Press, 2001, New York, USA, 163 - 177
PublicToddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelEmpathy-positive expression
Page in Source 167-170
Our classificationEmpathic, code P04aw
Operationalization
Simulated distress to another, which tended to induce 
empathy:
each twin was exposed to distress
a by examiner (at home & in lab)
b by mother (at home & in lab)
c by prerecorded infant cry (only in lab)
A maximum of each presentations was made at each age.

Rating scale:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

rating for the 30sec simulated distress
Remarks
Twins were alternatingly assessed in the same room 
while the other was present.
For more procedural details see chapter 3 of "Infancy 
to Early Childhood" by Emde and Hewitt, 2001.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.30 p < .01
at 14 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .01
at 20 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.26 p < .01
at 24 months


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional
Subject code: P04ax

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationEmotional, code P04ax
Operationalization
a: extraversion
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: emotional stability
e: openness to experience

Rated 1 to 7
Observed distributionextraversion: Mean=4.4212; SD=1.0459 agreeableness: Mean=5.4036; SD=0.9245 conscientiousness: Mean=5.2060; SD=1.0249 emotional stability: Mean=5.1605; SD=1.0916 openness to experience: Mean=4.2435; SD=1.0620
Remarks
Scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.11 p < .001
extraversion
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.22 p < .001
agreeableness
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.03 ns
conscientiousness
b(.0321)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.10 p < .001
emotional stability
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 p < .05
openness to experience
 
OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional
Subject code: P04ax

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelEmotionality
Page in Source 139
Our classificationEmotional, code P04ax
Operationalization
ĹTends to be somewhat emotionalĺ. Parent rating of the 
child on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (not very 
typical/characteristic) to 5 (very 
typical/characteristic).
Remarks
Item from the Emotionality Activity and Sociability 
Temperament Survey (EAS).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-ar=-.06 p < .05
Child's rating of own happiness
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-ar=-.38 p < .05
Parents rating of child's happiness
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=-.32 ns

Beta's controlled for childs:
- gender
- school
- other temperament traits
  - shyness
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental 
  - spiritual practice/belief


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional
Subject code: P04ax

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 575, 581, 582
Our classificationEmotional, code P04ax
Operationalization
Selfreport on the extent to which they agree on 5 
questions, f.e.
- anxious, easily upset
- calm, emotionally stable

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 7 (agree strongly)

Measures of the two different scales were standardized 
and averaged
Observed distributionNeuroticism M = 3.30, SD = 1.07; USA M = 3.34, Singapore M = 3.27
Error Estimates? < .75
Remarks
Subscale of TIPI (Ten Item Personality Inventory, 
Gosling et al., 2003), 2 items
Subscale of STA (single trait adjectives, Sheldon et 
al., 1997), 3 items (not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.43 p < .01
All 
Beta controlled for
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Conscienciousness
- Openness
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.27 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- cultural membership
- gender
- competence need (self rated satisfaction)
- goal progress (Selfreport on sucess at most 
important personal goals)
- self-esteem
- social support (Selfreport on satisfaction with 
overall social support)
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.34 p < .01
USA
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.15 p < .01
Singapore

Beta's controlled for
- gender
- competence need satisfaction
- goal progress
- self-esteem
- social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional
Subject code: P04ax

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional stability
Page in Source 125,126,127,131
Our classificationEmotional, code P04ax
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
a. get stressed out easily
b. get irritated easily
c. change my mood a lot
d. often feel depressed
e. worry about things

Rated strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1)
Observed distributiona: 0.82, b: 0.80, c: 0.75, d: 0.74, e: 0.72
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha 0.79

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=+.36 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.28 p < .00
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional
Subject code: P04ax

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral emotionality
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationEmotional, code P04ax
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242), rated on a 
5-point scale. Each item ranging from 'a little' to 'a 
lot':
1. "I frequently get upset"
2. "I am almost always calm - nothing    ever bothers 
me (reverse)"
3. "I get excited easily"
4. "I am somewhat emotional"
5. "I often feel like crying".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.33 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Emotionality at T2.

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.25  (001)
T2:  r = -.29  (001)
T3:  r = -.28  (001)
T4:  r = -.23  (001)
Sum: r = -.33  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.08
NAS: r(mean) = +.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudySchurer & Yong (2012): study AU 2001
TitlePersonality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random Coefficient models?
SourceHEDG WP 12/01, 2012, York, UK
URLhttp://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/12_01.pdf
Public20-60 aged general public, followed 9 years, Australia, 2001-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7158

Correlate
Author's labelBig 5 variables
Page in Source 32
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Big 5 personality variables:
a) extraversion
b) agreeableness
c) conscientiousness
d) emotional stability
e) openness to experience

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.07 p < .05
a) extraversion
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 p < .05
b) agreeableness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.04 p < .05
c) conscientiousness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.09 p < .05
d) emotional stability
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .05
e) openess to experience 

All coefficients for men, similar results for 
females. 

All beta's controlled for:
- household income
- age
- marital status
- number of children in household
- number of individuals in household
- health status
- education
- employment status
- total weekly work-hours
- reginal indicators
- time fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
a: extraversion
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: emotional stability
e: openness to experience

Rated 1 to 7
Observed distributionextraversion: Mean=4.4212; SD=1.0459 agreeableness: Mean=5.4036; SD=0.9245 conscientiousness: Mean=5.2060; SD=1.0249 emotional stability: Mean=5.1605; SD=1.0916 openness to experience: Mean=4.2435; SD=1.0620
Remarks
Scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.11 p < .001
extraversion
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.22 p < .001
agreeableness
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.03 ns
conscientiousness
b(.0321)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.10 p < .001
emotional stability
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 p < .05
openness to experience
 
OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study AU 1981
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed from 1981 to 1989
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 15+51
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self report on 24 questions measuring sociability an 
impulsiveness
Eysenk Personality Inventory
(Items moet ik nog opzoeken)
Error EstimatesCrombach alpha 0.63

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.18 p < .05
1981 Extraversion by 1983 Happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.25 p < .05
1981 Extraversion by 1983 Happiness: disattenuated
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-a
Disattenuated correlation were obtained assuming 
validity coefficient of 0.63 for extraversion and 
0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 76
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreport on multiple questions.
Eysenk Personality Inventory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelTraits
Page in Source 32
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self report on 15 Questions, 3 questions on each of the 
five traits:
a: neuroticism
b: agreeableness
c: conscientiousness
d: extraversion
d: openness for experience
Remarks
Short version of the Big Five Personality Domains - 
NEO-ACiv.
Data on the Big Five was only asked in the SOEP of the 
year 2005, after which the missing data was imputed for 
the other years based on the 2005 data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.24 p < .01
neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 p < .01
agreeableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.03 p < .10
conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.06 p < .01
extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.06 p < .01
openness to experience
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta's Controlled for:
- fit between preferred and actual working hours
- importance of having children/succes in a job
- amount of hours per week working and caring
- marital status
- age
- age-squared
- number of children 0-15
- unemployment rate
- born in East-German
- being a foreigner
- education
- age of youngest child
- objective health
N = 70859


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /2
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de PersonalitÚ en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
PublicAdult women, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 102
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Bipolar factor introversion/extraversion derived from 
responses on the Heron (1967) personality inventory:
most items in this inventory were drawn from the MMPI, 
16 PF Cattel, Wesley rigidity scale and LSI-A.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.05 ns
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.04 ns
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.14 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion index
Page in Source 12
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Exact index of extraversion not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.13 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  n) interview cohort
  o) time between unemployment entry and 
     interview
- Environmental characteristics:
  p) national unemployment rate
  q) region/state in Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 ns
B additionally controlled for:
  a) self-esteem in getting a job within the 
     upcoming 6 months
- Personality:
  b) locus of control index
  c) neuroticism index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality variables
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
a) Openess to experience
b) Conscientiousness
c) Extroversion
d) Agreeableness
e) Neuroticism
Remarks
Shortened versino of standard 'Big Five' questionaire 
(Gelitz & Schupp, 2005). Assessed in 2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 p < .01
a) openess to expierence
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.03 p < .01
b) conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.04 p < .01
c) extroversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08 p < .01
d) agreeableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.20 p < .01
e) neuroticism

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Montly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Similar results for pooled OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality: Extraversion
Page in Source 508
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions on extraversion:
Texts not reported.

Rated:
1 completely disagree
:
7 completely agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) openness
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) gender
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000 /1
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, followed 7 years 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 504,508
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
East Germany

b's controlled for:
- neighborhood characteristics
  - living conditions
  - social comparison
  - social cohesiveness
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - non-German nationality
  - age
  - age squared
  - income
  - education 
  - marital status
  - health (subj.)
- other personality traits
  - openness
  - conscientiousness
  - agreeableness
  - neuroticism
  - external locus of control
  - internal locus of controll


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelBig Five Dimensions and LOC
Page in Source 37
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
A: conscientiousness
B: neuroticism
C: extraversion
D: agreableness
E: openness
F: internal Locus of control
G: extrernal Locus of control

Rated:
1
.
.
7
Observed distributionA: M = 5,896 SD = 0,912; B: M = 3,923 SD = 1,227; C: M = 4,864 SD = 1,115; D: M = 5,411 SD = 0,955; E: M = 4,572 SD = 1,176; F: M = 5,135 SD = 0,696; G: M = 3,501 SD = 0,871

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
Conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
Neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .05
Extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
Agreableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Openness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Internal locus of control
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.18 p < .01
External locus of control

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 221, 222, 225, 227
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self-report on questionnaire
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004
Extraversion as measured by Short version of the Big 
Five Personality Domains (NEO-AC; Costa and McCrae), 
assessed in 2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.14
T3 LEVEL of happiness)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.09 p < .001
Beta controlled for
-current priorities at T3 for life goals
-gender
-age
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-having a partner
-years of education
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.08 p < .001
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness (14 year lag)

Beta controlled for
-average priority at T 1,2,3 for life-goals
-gender
-age
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelExtroversion
Page in Source 24
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Extroversion on a scale of 1 - 7.
Observed distributionM = 5.29 SD = 1.23
Remarks
Result is for latest year available in 1990 - 2005 
(usually 2005).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 20
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Extraversion subscale of the Eysenck Personality 
questionaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) in its Arabic 
form (Abdel Khalek & Eysenck 1983)
Consists of Yes/ No questions
Observed distributionM = 12,32; SD = 4,55
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha = .78

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=.+38 p < .001
All
males  : r = +.35
females: r = +.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 575, 581, 582
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreport on the extent to which they agree on 5 
questions, f.e.
- extraverted, enthusiastic
- reserved, quiet

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 7 (agree strongly)

Measures of the two different scales were standardized 
and averaged
Observed distributionM = 4.76, SD = 1.20
Error Estimates? >.75
Remarks
Subscale of TIPI (Ten Item Personality Inventory, 
Gosling et al., 2003), 2 items
Subscale of STA (single trait adjectives, Sheldon et 
al., 1997), 3 items (not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.20 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscienciousness
- openness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudySchimmack et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1997
TitleCulture, Personality, and Subjective Well-Being: Integrating Process Models of Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 82, 582 - 593
PublicStudents in Germany; Japan; Mexico, USA and Teachers in Ghana, 1997
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 586
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self report on personality traits on the NEO-FFI.
Observed distributionM = US: 3.38, Germany: 3.29, Japan: 3.19, Mexico: 3.53, Ghana: 3.43 SD = US: 0.60, Germany: 0.51, Japan: 0.54, Mexico: 0.48, Ghana: 0.44

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-ar=+.53 ns
US
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-ar=+.44 ns
Germany
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-ar=+.42 ns
Japan
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-ar=+.32 ns
Mexico
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-ar=+.44 ns
Ghana
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-aChi▓=79 ns
Unconstrained
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-aChi▓=81 ns
Constrained within individualism (US and Germany) 
and collectivism (Japan, Mexico and Ghana)
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-aChi▓=81 ns
Constrained across all samples


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 42,62
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
- It is easy for me to liven things up 
- I am a talkative person
- People think I am a very lifely person
- I can easy lighten up a boring party
- I tend to stay in the background in the company of 
other people.

Rated: 1 not applicable at all, to 7 completely 
applicable. The answers were summed up and changed to a 
10 point scale.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1987) and T3 (1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between more and 
less extraverted Ss over this 12 year period
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.07 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age▓
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.07 p < .001
additional controlled for lifecourse events 
(happened or not):
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.07 p < .001
additional controlled for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyTyssen et al. (2009): study NO 1993
TitleLower Life Satisfaction in Physicians Compared with a General Population Sample: A 10-year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study of Course and Predictors.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2009, Vol. 44, 47 - 54
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00127-008-0403-4
PublicPhysicians followed 9 years after graduating, Norway, 1993-2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-ResponseResp. 17% , 38% at 1 year, 33% at 4 years, 38 % at 9 years.
Respondents N =631

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion trait
Page in Source 49,51
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Basic Character Inventory (BCI). The intensity 
dimension from the BCI is based on 9 dichotomous 
questions(agree/disagree), which is basically a measure 
of extraversion/introversion, to which author refers as 
extraversion.
Total scores range from 0 (low) to 9 (high).
Observed distributionPossible range range from 0 (low) to 9 (high).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cBeta=-.04 ns
CI95[.08 to +.009]

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- neuroticism
- conscientiousness
- married/cohabitant at T4
- perceived social support at T4
- work stress at T4
- negative life events at T4
- frequency of physical training at T4
- frequency of religious meetings at T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudySuhail & Chaudhry (2004): study PK 2000
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim Culture.
SourceJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 23, 359 - 376.
DOIDOI:10.1521/jscp.23.3.359.35451
Public16-80 aged, general public, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =973

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion Introversion scale
Page in Source 369
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self report on 10 questions.
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .69
Remarks
An Extraversion/Introversion Scale (EIS) was adapted 
from the Eysenck Personality Inventory (1953). Three 
professionals were requested to select only 10 items 
from the original scale considering the conceptual 
definitions of the constructs. The EIS was scored on a 
yes/no scale with a higher score indicating more 
extraverted behaviour.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.00
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=+.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyGutiÚrrez et al. (2005): study ES Madrid 2002
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being: Big Five Correlates and Demographic Variables.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2005, Vol. 38, 1561 - 1569
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886904002958
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.09.015
PublicNursing professionals, 7 hospitals, Madrid, Spain, 2002
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 1564-1566
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
NEO-FFI (Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1999). Inventario 
de Personalidad NEO revisado (NEO PI-R) e Inventario 
NEO reducido de cinco factores (NEO-FFI) [NEO PI-R, 
Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factors 
Inventory (NEO-FFI)]. Madrid: TEA Editions.)
Observed distributionM = 31.41 SD = 7.07
Error EstimatesCronbachs Alpha = 0.80
Remarks
Spanish version of NEO-FFI employed to assess the Big 
Five personality dimensions: Neuroticism, Extraversion, 
Openness to experience, Agreeableness, 
Conscientiousness
Range of correlations NEO-FFI with NEO-PIR: 0.87 - 0.93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.36 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.25 p < .01
Beta controlled for personality:
   - neuroticism
   - extraversion
   - agreeableness
   - conscientiousness
R^2 = 0.23
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .01
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - sex
   - age
   - marital status
- personality:
   - neuroticism
   - openness
   - agreeableness
   - conscientiousness
R^2 = 0.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyLaukka (2007): study SE 2006
TitleUses of Music and Psychological Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 215 - 241
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9024-3
Public65-75 aged, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 229 + 236
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreports on 2 selfrelated statements 
A Extraverted, enthusiastic.
B Reserved, quiet.

Rated
1 disagree strongly
2
3
4
5
6
7 agree strongly
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha .50
Remarks
Part of the 10-item Personality Inventory (Gosling et 
al. 2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.22 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Education level
- Health status
- Activity level
- Personality 
  - Agreeableness
  - Conscientiousness
  - Emotional Stability
  - Openess


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 125,126,127,131
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self report on 5 questions:
a. start conversations
b. make friends easily
c. stay in the background
d. don't talk al lot
e. enjoy meeting new people

rated strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1)
Observed distributiona: 0.76, b: 0.73, c: 0.70, d: 0.67, e: 0.58
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha 0.69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=+.36 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.11 p < .00
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 928
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self-report on the following questions:
a:Are you a talkative person?
b:Are you rather lively?
c:Do you enjoy meeting new people?
d:Can you usually let yourself go and  enjoy yourself 
at a lively party?
e:Do you usually take the initiative in making new 
friends?
f:Can you easily get some life into a rather dull 
party?
g:Do you tend to keep in the background on social 
occasions?
h:Do you like mixing with people?
i:Do you like plenty of bustle and excitement around 
you?
j:Are you mostly quiet when you are with other people?
k:Do other people think of you as being very lively?
l:Can you get a party going?

Rated: yes/no
Remarks
Score on subscale Extraversion of Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (Revised)
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.32 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyJoseph et al. (2004): study GB 2002
TitleRapid Assessment of Well-Being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS).
SourcePsychology and Psychotherapy; Theory, Research and Practice, 2004, Vol. 77, 463 - 478
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =241

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 474
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Self-report on 120 questions. Typical items are:
-I am a 'worrier'      
-I make friends easily      
-I have a vivid imagination      
-I trust others      
-I complete tasks successfully      
Rated:
1 strongly disagree
2 agree
3 neutral
4 agree
5 strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 28,32; sd = 6,97; range 13-44
Remarks
Five Factor Inventory; Costa & McCrae, 1991

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.58 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 928
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Extraversion scale of the revised 48 item Eysinck 
Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck & Barrett 
1985)
Yes/no version
Error EstimatesConbach alpha: .85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.32 p < .001
PA: r = +.27 ((001)
NA: r = -.22 (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyNettle (2005): study GB 2000 /1
TitleHappiness. The Science behind Your Smile.
SourceOxford University Press, 2005, Oxford, UK
PublicAdults, Great Britain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =574

Correlate
Author's labelExtroversion
Page in Source 102
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Rated on a 5-point numeric scale by extroversion score.
The four groups are formed by creating quartiles from 
set of scores;
1: Low
2: Low-Mid
3: High-Mid
4: High
Observed distributionMeasure not reported
Remarks
N=567

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-?-5-aDM=+
1: Low         M= 3,4
2: Low-Mid     M= 3,6         
3: High-Mid    M= 3,8         
4: High        M= 4,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyProto & Rustichini (2015): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction, Income, and Personality.
SourceIZA Dp, 2015, No. 8837, 1 - 30
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8837.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117041

Correlate
Author's labelBig five personality
Page in Source 25
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
a) Neuroticism
b) Extraversion
c) Conscientiousness
d) Openness
e) Agreableness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-2.1 p < .01
a) Neuroticism
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.63 p < .01
b) Extraversion
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.74 p < .01
c) Conscientiousness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.09 ns
d) Openness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.44 p < .05
e) Agreeableness

OPRC's coefficients controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Gender
- Number of children
- Education
- Employment type
- Occupation type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyFrancis & Bolger (1994): study GB 1993
TitlePersonality and Psychological Well-Being in Later Life.
SourceThe Irish Journal of Personality, 1994, Vol. 18, 444 - 447
Public55-85 aged, retired civil servants, United Kingdom, 199?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 446, 446
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions:
a.  Are you a talkative person?
b. Are you rather lively?
c.  Do you enjoy meeting new people?
d. Can you usely let yourself go and enjoy     yourself 
at a lively party?
e. Do you  usely take the initiative in making new 
friends?
f.  Can you easily get some life into a rather dull 
party?
g. Do you tend to keep in the background on social 
occasions? 
h. Do you like mixing with people?
i. Do you like plenty of bustle and excitement around 
you?
j. Are you mostly quiet when you are with other people?
k. Do other people think of you as very being lively?
L. Can you get a party going?

0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.29 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyFrancis & Bolger (1994): study GB 1990
TitlePersonality and Psychological Well-Being in Later Life.
SourceThe Irish Journal of Personality, 1994, Vol. 18, 444 - 447
Public55-85 aged retired civil servants, UK, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 446
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Extraversion on Eysenck personality scale; self-report 
on the following questions:

-Are you a talkative person?
-Are you rather lively?
-Do you enjoy meeting new people?
-Can you usually let yourself go and  enjoy yourself at 
a lively party?
-Do you usually take the initiative in -making new 
friends?
-Can you easily get some life into a rather dull party?
-Do you tend to keep in the background on social 
occasions?
-Do you like mixing with people?
-Do you like plenty of bustle and excitement around 
you?
-Are you mostly quiet when you are with other people?
-Do other people think of you as being very lively?
-Can you get a party going?
Error Estimatesalpha = .84
Remarks
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.29 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyLee et al. (2008): study US 2008
TitleSocial Connectedness, Extraversion, and Subjective Well-Being: Testing a Mediation Model.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2008, Vol. 45, 414 - 419
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886908001955
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.017
PublicCollege students and LGB, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =443

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 418
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10  questions on whether a statement 
applies to respondent:
a Life of the party
b Don't talk a lot
c Feel comfortable around people
d Start conversations
e Have little to say
f Talk to different people 
g Donĺt  draw  attention to myself
h Don't mind being  center of attention
i Quiet around strangers

Rated: 5-point scale
1 very inaccurate
..
..
5 very accurate
Observed distributionM=3.41 SD=0.85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.57 p < .01
LGB sample
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.20
when controled for social connectedness
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.38 p < .01
College sample
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.07 ns
when controled for social connectedness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyDemir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
DOIDOI:10,1007/s10902-006-9012-7
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =423

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 194, 192
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions:
- is talkative
- is reserved
- is full of energy
- generates a lot of enthusiasm
- tends to be quiet
- has an assertive personality
- is sometimes shy, inhibited
- is outgoing, sociable

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 5 (agree strongly)
Observed distributionmean 3.44, SD 0.75
Error Estimates? = 0.82
Remarks
Extraversion scale of Big Five Inventory (BFI, John & 
Srivastava, 1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-ar=+.48 p < .05
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.23 p < .06
Beta controlled for
- gender
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- openness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 84
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Extraversion subscale of Neo Personality Inventory 
(Costa & Macrae, 1985)
Facets are:
- Friendliness 
- Gregariousness 
- Assertiveness 
- Activity Level
- Excitement-Seeking
- Cheerfulness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE▓=.25 p < .05
                    Mean extraversion         
a 10% least happy         104.9     
b 27% close to average    120.4    
c 10% most happy          132.9
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a < b < c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-sociable, affectionale
-active, optimistic
-funloving
-person oriented
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and   T3(1986)


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.25 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.21 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 self-rated extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 ns
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
T1 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.15 p < .05
T2 happiness (LS) by T3 spouse-rated extraversion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 674
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Cattel (1973) Sixteen Personality
Factor Questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=
Both extraversion and hedonic level assessed at 
four times (three month intervals)
Correlations at:
T1: r = +.12  (001)
T2: r = +.17  (001)
T3: r = +.20  (001)
T4: r = +.25  (001)
PAS: r(mean) = +.21
NAS: r(mean) = -.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 674
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Eysenk (1964) Personality Inventory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=
Both extraversion and hedonic level assessed at 
four times (three month intervals)
Correlations at:
T1: r = +.11  (01)
T2: r = +.15  (001)
T3: r = +.15  (01)
T4: r = +.22  (001)
PAS: r(mean) = +.20
NAS: r(mean) = -.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 845
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = -.02 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = -.03 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ▒ 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 81
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
by Guilford et al 1976.
Defined by general activity, ascendance and 
sociability.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+ s
T1 extraversion by T1 happiness:
- young(18-49) : r= +.26 (001)
- old  (50-97) : r= +.12 (05)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.12 p < .01
T1 extraversion by T2 happiness (2-10 yrs later)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.26 p < .01
T1 extraversion by T3 happiness (10-17 yrs later)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ▒ 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelThinking introversion
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
by Guilford et al 1976.
Defined by restraint and thoughtfulness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+ ns
T1 thinking introversion by T1 happiness:
- young(18-49) : r= +.06 ns
- old  (50-97) : r= +.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P04ay

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelNormal introversion
Page in Source 116
Our classificationExtraverted, code P04ay
Operationalization
Fusion factor indicative of social withdrawal or 
disturbed introversion (with shy, seclusive, 
submissive, guil- ty, depressed, masochistic personali- 
ties) vs social participation or normal extraversion 
(with poised, sociable,
dominant, confident and spontaneous personalities).
(Fusion Factor A fromt he MMPI Scales: see Kassebaum et 
al., 1959).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . s
Average hedonic level correlated significantly 
with  a number of the MMPI scales. There were 
large negative correlations with most of the 
scales indicative of psychopathology.
Data were not fully presented.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fail anxious
Subject code: P04ba

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelTest-anxiety
Page in Source 242
Our classificationFail anxious, code P04ba
Operationalization
16-item index of questions on anxiety about exams and 
other tests (adapted Test Anxiety Questionnaire; see 
Mandler & Sarason, 1952).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.16 p < . 001
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fail anxious
Subject code: P04ba

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTest anxiety
Our classificationFail anxious, code P04ba
Operationalization
A mean of 14 true/false items, adopted from the 
Mandler-Sarason Test Anxiety Questionnaire, measuring 
how anxious respondent gets about tests and exams. 
Scale: 1.00 = low; 2.00 = high test anxiety. Assessed 
at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- s
                  Test anxiety  
Happiness         T1             T2
T1          tau = -.17 (001)     -.11 (01)
T2          tau = -.13 (001)     -.18 (001)
T3          tau = -.12 (001)     -.17 (001)
T4          tau = -.15 (001)     -.19 (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fail anxious
Subject code: P04ba

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSensitivity to failure
Page in Source 94/306
Our classificationFail anxious, code P04ba
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on 'feeling disturbed 
when done something badly', 'bothered by finding that 
some- one has a poor opinion of you', 'dis-
turbed when becoming aware of some fault or inadequacy 
in oneself'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.06
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.06
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.19
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .07 p < . 01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .05 p < . 05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .11 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft fŘr Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelEase to forgive yourself
Page in Source 443
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How easy do you think it 
is to forgive yourself?
Rated
0
.
10
Observed distributionN= 0:2%, 1:3%, 2:5%, 3:6%, 4:6%, 5:15%, 6:13%, 7:15%, 8:18%, 9:8%, 10:5%,DKNA:3%
Remarks
N=2153

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 6.3  M = 5.9             +0.4
top 3:  M = 6.2  M = 5.8             +0.4 
top 5:  M = 6.1  M = 5.7             +0.4
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1654
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft fŘr Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelEase to forgive others
Page in Source 442
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How easy is it for you 
to forgive others?
Rated
0
.
10
Observed distributionN= 0:2%, 1:2%, 2:7%, 3:7%, 4:6%, 5:13%, 6:12%, 7:17%, 8:20%, 9:9%, 10:4%,DKNA:2%
Remarks
N=2153

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 6.3  M = 6.0             +0.3
top 3:  M = 6.2  M = 5.8             +0.4 
top 5:  M = 6.1  M = 5.7             +0.4
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1654
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affect
Page in Source 7
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions.
Indicate for every item a number that corresponds best 
with you current feeling.
1. I've got warm feelings towards hem/her
2. I've friendly feelings towards him/her
3. I've happy feelings towards him/her
4. I've got positive feelings towards him/her
5. I feel soft (tender) hearted towards him/her
6. I'm of good will towards him/her
7. I have caring feelings for him/her
8. I feel good with him/her
9. I've got affection for him/her
10.I've got friendly feelings towards him/her.
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more 
forgiving response)
Error EstimatesCronbach 's alpha for subscale: >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgressing.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.28 p < .01
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.17 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative cognition
- Negative behaviour
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelNegative cognition
Page in Source 6, 7,8
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions.
Indicate for every item the number that best fits your 
current thoughts.I think that he/she is:
1. contemptible
2. really bad
3. horrible
5. frightening
4. worth nothing
6. immoral
7. corrupt
8. a bad person
When condidering this person,
9. I disapprove of him/her
10.I reject him/her
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more 
forgiving response)
Error EstimatesCronbach 's alpha for subscale : >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgressing.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.35 p < .01
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.51 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelNegative behavior
Page in Source 7
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions.
When considering this person, how would you react or 
how are you reacting:
1. to avoid him/her
2. to ignore him/her
3. not paying attention to him/her
4. to put him/her in his/her place
5. to speak ill of him/her
6. not take notice of him/her
7. not speak to him/her
8. to treat him her in a negative way
9. to stay away from him/her
10.to be very sharply when you speak with him/her.
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more 
forgiving response)
Error EstimatesCronbach 's alpha for subscale : >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgressing.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.26 p < .01
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.06 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative cognition
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelNegative affect
Page in Source 7
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions.
Indicate for every item a number that corresponds best 
with you current feeling.
1. I've got negative feelings towards hem/her
2. I've got hostile feelings towards him/her
3. I don't feel loved by him/her
4. I feel disgrace for him/her
5. I've hidden anger towards him/her
6. I'm angry with him/her
7. He/She leaves me cold
8. I don't like him/her
9. I feel bitterness against him/her
10.He disgusts me
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more 
forgiving response)
Error EstimatesCronbach 's alpha for subscale : >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgression.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.27 p < .01
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.21 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Negative cognition
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelPositive cognition
Page in Source 7
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
Indicate for every item a number that corresponds best 
with you current thoughts. I think that he/she is:
1. a decent personality
2. respectful
3. loving
4. a good person
5. nice
When considering this person:
6. I wish him/her all the best
7. I think well of him/her
8. I hope that he/she does well in his/her life
9. I hope he she will succeed in life
10.I hope she/he will find happiness. 
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more 
forgiving response)
Error EstimatesCronbach 's alpha for subscale: >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgressing.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.30 p < .01
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative cognition
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive behaviour


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelPositive behavior
Page in Source 7
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions. 
When considering this person, how would you react or 
how are you reacting:
1. to show, him/her friendship
2. to help him /her
3. to be nice to him/her
4. to be thoughtful towards him/her
5. to open myself to him/her
6. to lend him/her support
7. to enter into a good relation with hem/her
8. to do him/her a favor
9. to help him/her with problems
10.to be present at his/her party.
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more 
forgiving response)
Error EstimatesCronbach 's alpha for subscale: >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgressing.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.31 p < .01
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=+.25 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative cognition
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyMaltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004
TitleForgiveness and Happiness. The Differing Contexts of Forgiveness using the Distinction between Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 1 - 13
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-004-0924-9
PublicStudents, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =244

Correlate
Author's labelForgiveness
Page in Source 8
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions related to a specific 
transgression encompassing:
- negative affect
- negative cognition
- negative behaviour
- positive affect
- positive cognition
- positive behaviour
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of 
agreement-disagreement
Remarks
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 
1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional 
forgiveness of another person for a specific 
transgressing.
For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further 
Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright 
Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health 
Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bR▓=.14 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bRa▓=.11
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.37 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyToussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004
TitleForgiveness, Gratitude and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 635 - 654
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8
PublicPsychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelForgiveness of self
Page in Source 643-645
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about dispositional 
forgiveness of self:
Questions not reported

Rated:
1 always false of me
.
.
7 almost always true of me
Remarks
Subscale of Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS; Thompson 
et al, 2005).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=+.44 p < .001
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.43 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyToussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004
TitleForgiveness, Gratitude and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 635 - 654
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8
PublicPsychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelForgiveness of others
Page in Source 643-645
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Self report on 6 questions about forgiveness of others

rated:
1 almost always false to me
-
-
7  almost always true to me
Remarks
Subscale of Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS, Thompson 
et al, 2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.28 p < .05
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=+.33 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Forgiving
Subject code: P04bb

StudyToussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004
TitleForgiveness, Gratitude and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 635 - 654
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8
PublicPsychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelForgiveness of situations
Page in Source 642-645
Our classificationForgiving, code P04bb
Operationalization
Self report on 6 questions about forgiveness of 
situations

rated:
1 almost always false to me
-
-
7= almost always true on me.
Remarks
Subscale of Heartland forgiveness scale (HFS< Thompson 
et al, 2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.41 p < .001
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=+.38 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fortuitous
Subject code: P04bc

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelWriting firmness
Page in Source 64
Our classificationFortuitous, code P04bc
Operationalization
S's signature.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Fortuitous
Subject code: P04bc

StudyNeugarten et al. (1961): study US 1955
TitleThe Measurement of Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1961, Vol. 16, 134 -143
Public50+ aged, whites followed 2,5 years, Kansas City, USA., 196?
Sample
Non-ResponsePanel group: 16% refusal; 26% dropout after 4 interviews. Quasi panel: 17% dr.
Respondents N =177

Correlate
Author's labelResolution and fortitude
Page in Source 139
Our classificationFortuitous, code P04bc
Operationalization
Content analysis of interview records by 2 independent 
judges (component of the Life Satisfaction Rating. LSR, 
Neugarten et al 1961).

5-point scale:
5. Try and try again attitude. Active 
   personal responsibility, takes the 
   bad and the good and makes the most
   of it.
4. Can take life as it comes. Has no 
   complaint of the way life has    treated him. 
Assumes responsibility
   readily.
3. Has ups and downs. Shows a trace of 
   extra-punitiveness or intropunitive-
   ness concerning his difficulties in 
   life.
2. Feels he hasn't done better because
   he has not gotten the breaks. Has 
   worked hard but feels he never got 
   anywhere.
1. Talks of hard knocks which he has    not mastered 
(extrapunitive). Blames
   self a great deal (intropunitive).
   Feels helpless; overwhelmed by    life.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-fi-v-5-ar=+.48
C-RG-h-fi-v-5-ar=+.70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Genuine
Subject code: P04bd

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy need satisfaction
Page in Source 574, 581, 582
Our classificationGenuine, code P04bd
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about their feeling of 
autonomy in general, f.e.
- I feel free to express my ideas and opinions
- that my choices were based on my true interests and 
values
- free to do things my own way
- that my choices expressed my "true self"

Aggregate measures were computed by standardizing and 
averaging the two measures
Observed distributionM = 3.68, SD = .58
Error Estimates?=.73
Remarks
the Basic Psychological Needs scale (BPNS; Deci et al., 
2001) with 7 items
te need-satisfaction scale (Sheldon et al., 2001) with 
3 items

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- competence need satisfaction
- relatedness need satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Genuine
Subject code: P04bd

StudyFrancis & Bolger (1994): study GB 1993
TitlePersonality and Psychological Well-Being in Later Life.
SourceThe Irish Journal of Personality, 1994, Vol. 18, 444 - 447
Public55-85 aged, retired civil servants, United Kingdom, 199?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 445,446
Our classificationGenuine, code P04bd
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions:
a. If you say you will do something, do you always keep 
your promise no matter how inconvenient it might be?
B. Were you ever greedy by helping yourself to more 
than your share of anything?
C. Have you ever blamed someone for something that you 
really knew it was your fault?
D. Are all your habits good and desirable ones?
E. Have you ever taken anything (even a pin or a 
button) that belonged to someone else?
F. Have you ever broken or lost something that belonged 
to someone else?
G. Have you ever said anything bad or nasty about 
anyone?
H. As a child were you ever cheeky to your parents?
i. Have you ever cheated at a game?
J. Have you ever taken advantage of something?
K. Do you always practice what you preach?
L. Do you sometimes put off until tomorrow what you 
ought to do today?

0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Genuine
Subject code: P04bd

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelPure-mindedness
Page in Source 26
Our classificationGenuine, code P04bd
Operationalization
Trained peer rating (of extent to which he shuns 
telling or hearing stories of immoral meaning) on a 
7-point scale on the basis of observation during 6 
months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Genuine
Subject code: P04bd

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelTest dishonesty
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationGenuine, code P04bd
Operationalization
MMPI Lie Scale (See Gough, 1953), scored on a series of 
'false' answers to questions that usually are answered 
'true'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.25 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Guilty
Subject code: P04be

StudyBradbury (1967): study US 1966
TitleA Study of Guilt and Anxiety as Related to Certain Psychological Variables.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, North Texas State University, 1967, USA
PublicUniversity students, North Texas State, USA, 1966/67
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelGuilt feelings
Page in Source 64
Our classificationGuilty, code P04be
Operationalization
50-item sentence completion blank (Mosher Incomplete 
Sentences Test (MIST); (Mosher, 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-3-aE▓=-.15 p < .01
Total guiltscore
O-HP-g-sq-v-3-aE▓=-.18 p < .01
Hostile guilt subscale
O-HP-g-sq-v-3-aE▓=-.12 p < .05
Sex guilt subscale
O-HP-g-sq-v-3-aE▓=-.02 ns
Morality-conscience guilt subscale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Guilty
Subject code: P04be

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelProjective guilt
Page in Source 120
Our classificationGuilty, code P04be
Operationalization
Score from stories told to the standard Thematic 
Apperception Test cards (see Murray, 1943).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.44 p < . 10
Guilt
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.44 p < . 10
Guilt-relief


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happy
Subject code: P04bf

StudyVitterso et al. (2009): study NO 2005
TitleLife Satisfaction is not a Balanced Estimator of the Good Life: Evidence from Reaction Time Measures and Self-Reported Emotions.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 1 - 17
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9058-1
PublicStudents and technical staff university, Norway, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30

Correlate
Author's labelRecognition of happy/sad faces
Page in Source 9
Our classificationHappy, code P04bf
Operationalization
Reaction time in recognition task


POP-OUT REACTION TIME

Participants were exposed to a series of 3 X 3 matrices 
of smiles of which half showed 8 identical and neutral 
faces and 1 happy face and half showed 8 identical and 
neutral faces and 1 sad face. The deviant face occurred 
randomly at all positions in the matrix over 18 trails 
of this test. 

Participants were told that they would see nine faces 
on the screen and that one of them differed from the 
others, by being either a happy face among neutral 
faces or being a sad face among neutral faces. 

A random half of the participants were told to press 
the 'happy' (button the 'm' key marked with a red 
sticker) if the happy face appeared and a 'sad' button 
(the 'z' key marked with a red sticker) if a sad face 
appeared. For the remaining half of the sample the 
instructions were reversed so that the 'happy' button 
was the 'z' key and the sad button was the 'm' key.

Participants were told to respond as quickly as 
possible. Each trail consisted of the following 
sequence: (a) a fixation point appeared at the center 
of the screen for 500 ms, (b) a 3 X 3 face matrix was 
then displayed until the participant pressed one of the 
two response keys on the keyboard. 


DOT-PROBE REACTION TIME

A total of 20 pairs of happy and sad faces were 
displayed on the computer screen.

Each trail consisted of the following sequence: (a) a 
fixation point appeared at the center of the screen for 
500 ms, (b) the happy and sad faces were displayed in 
the right and left positions of the screen for 3000 ms, 
(c) the two faces disappeared from the screen, and (d) 
an X appeared in the center of the screen location 
where of the faces had been. 

The X remained on the screen until the participant 
pressed one of the two response keys on the keyboard. 
Participants were told that they would see two faces on 
the screen, and were instructed not to respond until an 
X appeared. 

They were told then when the X appeared on the screen 
they should respond as quickly as possible. If they saw 
the X appear on the right side of the screen, they 
should press the right button (the 'm' key marked with 
a red sticker); if the saw the X appeared on the left 
side, they should press the left button (the 'z' key 
marked with a red sticker). 

Happy and sad faces were presented randomly on the left 
and the right side of the screen, and the X appeared 
randomly on either the happy or the sad side of the 
screen. 

In the computation of pop-out and dot-probe RT means 
that error trails (i.e. pressing the 'happy' button for 
a sad face and vice versa) and responses outside the 
range +/- 3 SD from the individual's own mean were 
included. 

X is referred as the 'Happy X' when it appeared where 
the happy faces had been and referred as the 'Sad X' 
when it appeared where the sad faces had been.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.20 ns
recognition time happy face      pop-out test
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.33 ns
recognition time sad face        pop-out test
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.31 ns
recognition time happy face      dot-probe test
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.15 ns
recognition time sad face        dot probe test


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happy
Subject code: P04bf

StudyVitterso et al. (2009): study NO 2005
TitleLife Satisfaction is not a Balanced Estimator of the Good Life: Evidence from Reaction Time Measures and Self-Reported Emotions.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 1 - 17
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9058-1
PublicStudents and technical staff university, Norway, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30

Correlate
Author's labelPleasure as trait emotion
Page in Source 8
Our classificationHappy, code P04bf
Operationalization
Selfreport on three questions: 

Normally I feelů.. 
a: pleased 
b: satisfied 
c: happy
Observed distributionM= 5.06, SD= 0.87
Remarks
Rating scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=+.36 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happy
Subject code: P04bf

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelHappy nature
Page in Source 219
Our classificationHappy, code P04bf
Operationalization
Closed question: "Would you say that by nature you are 
a happy person?" 
0: No 
1: Yes
Observed distribution1: 90%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.76 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Helpless
Subject code: P04bh

StudyKammann (1979): study NZ 1976 /1
TitleSourcebook for Affectometer 1.
Source'Why not?' Foundation, 1979?, Dunedin, New Zealand
PublicAdults, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelInadequacy
Our classificationHelpless, code P04bh
Operationalization
Subscale of Mental Illness Scale of the Cornell Medical 
Index

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.43 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Helpless
Subject code: P04bh

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelProjective helplessness
Page in Source 120
Our classificationHelpless, code P04bh
Operationalization
Score from told stories to the Standard Thematic 
Apperception Test cards (see Murray, 1943), indicative 
of feeling or being helpless, feeling weak or inef- 
fectual, being dominated, dependent.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.56 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honest
Subject code: P04bi

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelHonesty
Page in Source 461, 466, 471
Our classificationHonest, code P04bi
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Please tell me ... Cheating on tax if you have the 
chance
1 never justifiable
:
10 always  justifiable
Observed distributionM=8.60, SD=2.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.04 p < .01
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.02 ns
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honest
Subject code: P04bi

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelNo cheat
Page in Source 159
Our classificationHonest, code P04bi
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
0: cheating in taxes is sometimes justified
1: cheating in taxes is never justified
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M= 0.58, SD= 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.27 p < .000
B controlled for: 
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- education
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- trust in people
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honest
Subject code: P04bi

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 928
Our classificationHonest, code P04bi
Operationalization
Not reported
Error EstimatesConbach alpha: .66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 ns
PA: r = -.09 (ns)
NA: r = -.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honest
Subject code: P04bi

StudyFrancis & Bolger (1994): study GB 1990
TitlePersonality and Psychological Well-Being in Later Life.
SourceThe Irish Journal of Personality, 1994, Vol. 18, 444 - 447
Public55-85 aged retired civil servants, UK, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 446
Our classificationHonest, code P04bi
Operationalization
Lie-score on Eysenck personality scale; self-report on 
the following questions:

-If you say you will do something, do you always keep 
your promise no matter how inconvenient it might be?
-Were you ever greedy by helping yourself to more than 
your share of anything?
-Have you ever blamed someone for doing something you 
knew was really your fault?
-Are all your habits good and desirable ones?
-Have you ever taken anything (even a pin or button) 
that belonged to someone else?
-Have you ever broken or lost something belonging to 
someone else?
-Have you ever said anything bad or nasty about anyone?
-As a child were you ever cheeky to your parents?
-Have you ever cheated at a game?
-Have you ever taken advantage of someone?
-Do you always practice what you preach?
-Do you sometimes put off until tomorrow what you ought 
to do today?
Error Estimatesalpha = .58
Remarks
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Humorous
Subject code: P04bj

StudyIngersoll -Dayton et al. (2004): study TH 1999
TitleMeasuring psychological Well-Being: Insights from Thai Elders.
SourceThe Gerontologist, 2004, Vol. 44, 596 - 604
Public60+aged, Thailand, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =460

Correlate
Author's labelIntrapersonal well-being
Page in Source 601-602
Our classificationHumorous, code P04bj
Operationalization
A. Acceptance:
   a: You are a relaxed person and are not easily 
worried.
   b: When you have small problems, you can let go of 
your worries.
   c: When something bad happens to you, you can accept 
it. 

B. Enjoyment:
   a: You have a good sense of humor.
   b: You laugh easily.
   c: You have good times with other people

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2: disagree
3: agree
4: strongly agree
Observed distributionM=3.24 SD=0.54
Remarks
Intrapersonal well-being index was created by 
confirmatory factor analyses and it is a mean of the 
subscales acceptance and enjoyment.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-?-0-ar=+.27 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Humorous
Subject code: P04bj

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelSense of humor
Page in Source 26
Our classificationHumorous, code P04bj
Operationalization
Trained-peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelQuickness of decision making
Page in Source 37
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
"While making your decisions are you a slow thinker or 
quick thinker?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.13
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+4.6
Instrument for happiness:
- last ten days cloud cover deviation

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelDiscounting and self-control
Page in Source 36
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions.
A: "I often work on things that will only pay off in a 
couple of years"
B: "With everything I do, I am only concerned about the 
immediate consequences (a period of a couple of days or 
weeks)"
C: "Do you find it difficult to control your 
expenditures?"
D: "I have good control of my investments and their 
returns"
E: "Do you have little self-control or are you very 
disciplined?"

Rated as:
1: totally disagree
.
.
7: totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.11
Working on things that will only pay in a couple 
of years
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.05
Interest only in short-run consequences
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.29
Difficulties in controlling expenditures
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.17
Good control of investments and their return
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.03
Level of self-control (discipline)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=-1.9
Working on things that will only pay in a couple 
of years
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=-1.9
Interest only in short-run consequences
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-1.7
Difficulties in controlling expenditures
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+2.6
Good control of investments and their return
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+9.8
Level of self-control (discipline)

Instrument for happiness:
- last ten days cloud cover deviation

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyGross et al. (1997): study US 1992
TitleEmotion and Aging: Experience, Expression, and Control.
SourcePsychology and Ageing, 1997, Vol. 12, 590 - 599
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9416628
PublicNuns, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =1080

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived control of affective experience
Page in Source 595
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
Participants first reported how frequently they 
experience each of 5 emotions (1;  never to 4; often)
-  happiness
-  sadness
-  fear
-  anger
-  disgust

Participants next indicated for each of these emotions 
their ability to control
a:  the inner experience
b:  the external signs
Rated
1  not at all
2  a little
3  pretty well
4  very well
Remarks
Carstensen Emotion Questionnaire (CEO)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cr=+.18 p < .001
a: internal mood control
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cr=+.01 ns
b: external mood control

Difference in correlation betwenn a and b 
significant.

Happiness (M-TH) is an item in Emotion 
Questionnaire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelPoor inhibition of impulse
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242) rated on a 
5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a lot':
1. "I have trouble controlling my          impulses"
2. "Usually I can't stand waiting"
3. "I can tolerate frustration better 
    than most, (reverse)"
4. "I have trouble resisting my            cravings" 
(for food, cigarettes,       etc.).
5. "I like to spend my money right away
    rather than save it for"         long-range goods".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.22 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Poor inhibition of impulse at 
T2.

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.16  (001)
T2:  r = -.23  (001)
T3:  r = -.18  (001)
T4:  r = -.18  (001)
SUM: r = -.22  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.05
NAS: r(mean) = +.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelControl
Page in Source 845
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = +.02 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = +.03 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyKahana & Kahana (1975): study US 1970
TitleThe Relationship of Impulse Control to Cognition and Adjustment among Institutionalized Aged Women.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 679 - 687
Public55+ aged white females living in nursing home, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =91

Correlate
Author's labelImpulse control
Page in Source 682-685
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
Score based on test data, self-reports, staff ratings 
and interviewer's ratings for motor control, delay of 
gratification and reflectiveness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.22 ns
Self-report: delay of gratification. r▓=.06  (05)
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.23 ns
Self-report: motor control. r▓=.06  (05)
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.11 ns
Self-report: reflectiveness.
                        
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.07 ns
Interviewer-rating: motor control.
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.10 ns
Interviewer-rating: reflectiveness.
                   
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.27 ns
Staff-rating: delay of gratification.
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.12 ns
Staff-rating: motor control.
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.13 ns
Staff-rating: reflectiveness.
                
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.00 ns
Test: motor control (draw a line).
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.10 ns
Test: motor control (draw a circle).
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.02 ns
Test: delay of gratification (Michel 1956).
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.01 ns
Test: motor control (Singer 1961).
▀'s control all other indicators of control

O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aR▓=.16 ns
Total variance explained.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Subject code: P04bk

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelEccentric test- attitude
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationImpulsive (vs self controlled), code P04bk
Operationalization
MMPI Invalidity Scale (see Gough, 1953)
supposedly indicative of gross eccen- tricity, 
carelessness in responding, or
lack of personal restraint.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.64 p < .05
Inspection of the individual items suggests that 
low scores would be indicative of well-adjusted 
conventionality and high scores of eccentric de- 
viance with bizarre and unpleasant admission.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelPrivacy index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Index of 3 single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The extent to which you are in touch with your own 
feelings
b: Your independence or freedom: the chance you have to 
do what you want
c: The privacy you have: being alone when you  want to
All scored on a 1-9 rating scale, summation by average.
Observed distributionM = 6.6 SD = 1.2
Remarks
All items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.40 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyKirchler (1984b): study AT 1983
TitleSechs Monate ohne Arbeit. (Six Months without Work).
SourceWISO (Wirtschafts und Sozialpolitische Zeitschrift des I.S.A.), 1984, Vol. 3, 66 - 81
PublicUnemployed, followed 6 months after job loss, Linz Austria, 1983
Sample
Non-ResponseDropout due to refusal 23%
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality structure
Page in Source 279
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Three types derived from scores on
German version of the Cattel 16 PF test
(Schneewind et al 1987)

Happiness assessed at four times after
falling unemployed:
T1  1 month
T2  2 month
T3  3 month
T4  6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-v-5-aDMt= p < .01
Happiness at T1
-Social sensitive dependents   Mt' = 7.94
-Self-assured dominants        Mt' = 8.51
-Insecure-submissive types     Mt' = 7.70

This pattern remains largely identical from T1
to T4, both among Ss who remain unemployed and
who find a job. After becoming re-employed 
insecure-submissive Ss improved most in happiness 
(Ms' = 9.15)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Selfreport on 11 questions:
a: My decisions are not usually influenced by what 
everyone else is doing
b: I have confidence in my opnions even if they are 
contrary to the general consensus
c: I have confidence in my own opnions, even if they 
are different from the way most other people think
d: I tend to worry about what other people think of me
e: I often change my mind about decisions if my friend 
or family disagree
f: I am not afraid to voice my opinions, even when they 
are in opposition to the opinions of most people
g: Being happy with myself is more important to me than 
having others approve of me
h: It's difficult for me to voice my opinions on 
controversal matters
i: I tend to be influenced by people with strong 
opinions
j: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
what others think is important
k: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
the values of what others think is important

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 7,5; SD=4,1 Controls: M=10,8; SD=2,2
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Autonomy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=-.10 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy need satisfaction
Page in Source 574, 581, 582
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about their feeling of 
autonomy in general, f.e.
- I feel free to express my ideas and opinions
- that my choices were based on my true interests and 
values
- free to do things my own way
- that my choices expressed my "true self"

Aggregate measures were computed by standardizing and 
averaging the two measures
Observed distributionM = 3.68, SD = .58
Error Estimates?=.73
Remarks
the Basic Psychological Needs scale (BPNS; Deci et al., 
2001) with 7 items
te need-satisfaction scale (Sheldon et al., 2001) with 
3 items

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- competence need satisfaction
- relatedness need satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyNapier & Jost (2008): study US 2000
TitleWhy are Conservatives Happier than Liberals?
SourcePsychological Science, 2008, Vol. 19, 565 - 572
PublicVoters, before and after presidential election, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1142

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for cognition
Page in Source 567
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Mean of responses to two questions: 
a: preference for difficult vs simple problems 
(dichotomous variable) and
b:liking responsability for thinking
Each rated on a 5-point numerical scale ranging from 
dislike a lot to like a lot. Rescaled to range from 0 
to 1
Error EstimatesInter item correlation: r=+.49; p<.001
Remarks
Scores adjusted for non response, within-household 
selection, poststratification of age and education, and 
attrition from T1 to T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.20 p < .001
T1 need for cognition by T2 happiness

B controlled for:
- Political conservatism
- Income
- Education
- Sex
- Age
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Church attendance
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.19 p < .001
B additionally controlled for:
- Rationalization of inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyRyff & Keyes (1995): study US 1990
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 719 - 727
Public25+ aged, USA, 199?
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1108

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 724
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Self report on 3 items rated on a 6-point scale ranging 
from completely disagree to completely agree.
-High scorers: are self-determining and independent; 
able to resist social pressures to think and act in 
certain ways; regulate behavior from within; evaluate 
self by personal standards.
-Low scorers: are concerned about the expectations and 
evaluations of others; rely on judgments of others to 
make important decisions; conform to social pressures 
to think and act in certain ways.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-4-br=+.08 p < .00
C-BW-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.12 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal control
Page in Source 263
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Self report on 5 questions such as;
- I can run my life pretty much the way I want to

Rated: strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3: .80
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 personal control by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.65 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.42 p < .01
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.62 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.34 p < .01
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.74 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.54 p < .01
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.52 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.30 p < .01
Beta's controled for:
- home stress
- network support
- spouse conflict
- coping style


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyRyff (1989): study US 1984
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 1073
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. 
Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly 
agree to disagree. 
High scorers are self-determining and independent; able 
to resist social pressures to think and act in certain 
ways; regulate behavior from within; evaluate self by 
personal standards.
Low scorers are concerned about the expectations and 
evaluations of others; rely on judgments of others to 
make important decisions; conform to social pressures 
to think and act in certain ways.
Observed distributionYoung adults: women (m=82.49, sd=12.84), men (m=82.93, sd=14.20) Middle aged adults: women (m=87.62, sd=14.26), men (m=87.34, sd=13.35) Older adults: women (m=86.90, sd=15.83), men (m=85.12, sd=11.30)
Error Estimatesalpha=.86 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.36 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelIndependence
Page in Source 845
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
▀ = +.19 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
▀ = +.15 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment and employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.19 ns
▀ controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 ns
▀ further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyCameron (1975): study US 1970
TitleMood as an Indicant of Happiness: Age, Sex, Social Class and Situational Differences.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 216 - 224
PublicCollege students, Detroit, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =187

Correlate
Author's labelEgo-Strength
Page in Source 218/220
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
Barron Ego-Strength Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-ar=
Happy   mood: r=-.08  ns
Neutral mood: r=+.02  ns
Unhappy mood: r=-.04  ns

Happiness assessed by time sampling. Correlations 
concern frequency of report of happy, neutral or 
sad mood.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P04bl

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelIndependence of judgement
Page in Source 22
Our classificationIndependent, code P04bl
Operationalization
9-item index: (Independence of Judgement Scale; see 
Barron, 1965)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, glass industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =106

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Shy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.24 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, commercial and textile-manufacturing occupations, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =110

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Shy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.      
        
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.18 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, metal industry, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =84

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Shy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.      

Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicSkilled labourers, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Shy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.38 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicAdministrative employees, General Sickfund, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Shy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.     
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, assembly industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Shy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /3
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicYoung female employees, cure-clinic, West Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelInhibitance
Page in Source 147
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Sy, timid, tensed actions, uncertainty to make 
decisions vs unrestrained, self-confident, independent, 
active behavior, desirability to undertake things.      
   
Part of 114 item Freiburger Pers÷nlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyErdman (1981): study NL 1978
TitleWelbevinden bij Hartpatienten. (Well-Being of Heartpatients).
SourceThesis, Swets & Zeitlinger, 1981, Lisse, Netherlands
PublicHeart patients, The Netherlands 1978-1979
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6,0%
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelSocial inhibition
Page in Source 103
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Factor derived from respouses of the following 
statements:
-I dislike to speak to a group
-I am the leader of a group
-I like to say what to do
-I am shy
-I dislike to much people around me
-I have no influence on people

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-dDM=- ns
               inhibition score
-Happy(3)      M = 11.08    SD = 2.59
-Unhappy(1-2)  M = 11.25    SD = 2.28
difference     M = -0.17    Sd = 0.31
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=0 ns
-Happy(4)       M = 10.92   SD = 2.42
-Unhappy(1+3)   M = 10.92   SD = 2.47
difference      M =  0.0    SD = 0.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelRepression and denial
Page in Source 104
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Clinical rank order of denial of un-
pleasant and disturbing affects on the basis of general 
clinical experience with the subjects and observation 
in experimental situations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelConcealment of emotions
Page in Source 105
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Clinical rank order of suppressivity and concealment of 
emotions, on the ba- sis of general clinical experience 
with the subject and observation of their behavior and 
reactions in experimental situations.
Assessed one year before hedonic level (AFF 3.1) was 
measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.42 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inhibited
Subject code: P04bn

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHypobolic - hyperbo-lic verbal expession
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationInhibited, code P04bn
Operationalization
Clinical rank order on the basis of ge- neral clinical 
experience with the sub- jects and observation of their 
behavior and reactions to experimental situat- ions, 
for the relative degree to which S understates and 
overstates and habi- tually uses strong  words to 
express himself.
Assessed one year before AFF 3.1 was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-atau=_.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
2       Less than 10 Ss1
3       M=5.43      Mt=4.9
4       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.43      Mt=6.0
6       M=7.09      Mt=6.8  
7       M=7.22      Mt=6.9 
8       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
9       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
10      M=8.09      Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .09      Mt=5.1
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=-.04      Mt=5.0
4       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
5       M= .78      Mt=5.8
6       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
8       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
9       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
10      M=1.68      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.24      Mt=4.1
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.26      Mt=4.2
4       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
5       M=2.95      Mt=6.5
6       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
7       M=3.15      Mt=7.2
8       M=3.18      Mt=7.3
9       M=3.23      Mt=7.4
10      M=3.17      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.34 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.27 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.22 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.32 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyOgris (1994): study AT 1994
TitleKorrelate mit Lebenszufriedenheit: GlŘck und Wohlbefinden in Osterreich und Slowenien. (Correlates of Life-Satisfaction, Happiness and Well-Being in Austria and Slovenia).
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/ogris_g_1994.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Austria 1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labellocus of control
Page in Source 3
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
3 questions:
1 My life and my days were determined
  by other people in many ways
2 It is not good for me to plan far 
  ahead, because fate is often
  coming earlier
3 Usually I can represent my interests
  so good, that I can obtain what I 
  wanted 

  Each rated on a 7 step scale:
  totally disagree.......totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.14
question 1....determined by others...
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.11
question 1
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.08
question 1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.09
question 2...not good to plan....
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.11
question 2
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.15
question 2
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.2
question 3....represent my interests
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.16
question 3
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.15
question 3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M= .36      Mt=5.4
5       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
6       M= .96      Mt=6.0
7       M=1.63      Mt=6.6
8       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
9       M=2.08      Mt=7.1
10      M=2.24      Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=2.76      Mt=5.9
5       M=3.05      Mt=6.8
6       M=2.95      Mt=6.5
7       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
8       M=3.22      Mt=7.4
9       M=3.28      Mt=7.6
10      M=3.24      Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=4.67      Mt=4.1
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=6.04      Mt=5.6
5       M=7.09      Mt=6.8
6       M=6.81      Mt=6.5  
7       M=7.01      Mt=6.7 
8       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
9       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
10      M=6.80      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.32 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.25 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.31 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualitńt in Ísterreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut fŘr Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultńt der Universitńt Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelStability orientation of locus-of-control
Page in Source 48,T28
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Two item index of direct questions that discriminate on 
stability factors of locus-of-control (e.g. fact vs. 
chance).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=-.07
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=-.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualitńt in Ísterreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut fŘr Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultńt der Universitńt Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelSelf perceived locus-of-control
Page in Source 48,T28
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Direct question on self perceived locus-of-control

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.22
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.15      Mt=4.9
2       M= .00      Mt=5.0
3       M=-.31      Mt=4.7
4       M= .15      Mt=5.2
5       M= .81      Mt=5.8
6       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
7       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
8       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
9       M= .91      Mt=5.9
10      M=1.14      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.37      Mt=4.6
2       M=2.00      Mt=3.3
3       M=2.06      Mt=3.5
4       M=2.38      Mt=4.6
5       M=2.49      Mt=5.0
6       M=2.50      Mt=5.0
7       M=2.56      Mt=5.2
8       M=2.62      Mt=5.4
9       M=2.45      Mt=4.8
10      M=2.46      Mt=4.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.18      Mt=3.5
2       M=4.13      Mt=3.5
3       M=3.82      Mt=3.1
4       M=4.63      Mt=4.0
5       M=5.24      Mt=4.7
6       M=5.83      Mt=5.4  
7       M=6.10      Mt=5.7 
8       M=6.53      Mt=6.1
9       M=6.48      Mt=6.1
10      M=6.14      Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.21 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.33 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.27 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .71      Mt=5.7
2       M= .98      Mt=6.0
3       M= .74      Mt=5.7
4       M=1.15      Mt=6.1
5       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
8       M=1.75      Mt=6.8
9       M=2.26      Mt=7.3
10      M=2.04      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
2       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
3       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.22      Mt=7.4
5       M=3.25      Mt=7.5
6       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
7       M=3.33      Mt=7.8
8       M=3.39      Mt=8.0
9       M=3.50      Mt=8.3
10      M=3.44      Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
2       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
3       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
4       M=6.83      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.34      Mt=7.0  
7       M=7.61      Mt=7.3 
8       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
9       M=8.49      Mt=8.3
10      M=8.69      Mt=8.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .71      Mt=5.7
2       M= .98      Mt=6.0
3       M= .74      Mt=5.7
4       M=1.15      Mt=6.1
5       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
8       M=1.75      Mt=6.8
9       M=2.26      Mt=7.3
10      M=2.04      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
2       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
3       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
4       M=6.83      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.34      Mt=7.0  
7       M=7.61      Mt=7.3 
8       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
9       M=8.49      Mt=8.3
10      M=8.69      Mt=8.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
2       M=3.13      Mt=7.1
3       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
4       M=3.22      Mt=7.4
5       M=3.25      Mt=7.5
6       M=3.24      Mt=7.5
7       M=3.33      Mt=7.8
8       M=3.39      Mt=8.0
9       M=3.50      Mt=8.3
10      M=3.44      Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.27 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .0010
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.27 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .0010
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.25 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.27 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.27 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=  .03     Mt=5.0
2       M=-1.45     Mt=3.6
3       M=- .37     Mt=4.6
4       M=  .40     Mt=5.4
5       M=  .78     Mt=5.8
6       M= 1.09     Mt=6.1
7       M= 1.79     Mt=6.8
8       M= 1.90     Mt=6.9
9       M= 2.33     Mt=7.3
10      M= 1.97     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.67      Mt=5.2
2       M=3.95      Mt=3.3
3       M=4.74      Mt=4.2
4       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
5       M=6.35      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.94      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.37      Mt=7.1 
8       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
9       M=8.33      Mt=8.1
10      M=8.35      Mt=8.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.80      Mt=6.0
2       M=2.45      Mt=4.8
3       M=2.56      Mt=5.2
4       M=2.79      Mt=6.0
5       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
6       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
7       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
8       M=3.12      Mt=7.1
9       M=3.19      Mt=7.3
10      M=3.21      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.42      Mt=4.7
2       M=2.59      Mt=5.3
3       M=2.75      Mt=5.8
4       M=2.69      Mt=5.6
5       M=2.92      Mt=6.4
6       M=2.90      Mt=6.3
7       M=2.87      Mt=6.3
8       M=2.97      Mt=6.6
9       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
10      M=3.05      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.14      Mt=4.8
2       M= .72      Mt=5.7
3       M= .57      Mt=5.6
4       M= .61      Mt=5.6
5       M= .79      Mt=5.8
6       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
7       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
8       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
9       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
10      M=1.49      Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.43      Mt=4.9
2       M=6.24      Mt=5.8
3       M=5.94      Mt=5.5
4       M=6.10      Mt=5.7
5       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.7  
7       M=7.07      Mt=6.7 
8       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
9       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
10      M=8.27      Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.34 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.53 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.28 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.42 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.31 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.17 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.53 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.28 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=2.88      Mt=2.1
2       M=3.24      Mt=2.5
3       M=3.96      Mt=3.3
4       M=4.56      Mt=4.0
5       M=5.01      Mt=4.5
6       M=5.75      Mt=5.3  
7       M=6.03      Mt=5.6 
8       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
9       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
10      M=5.94      Mt=5.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=1.70      Mt=2.3
2       M=1.91      Mt=3.0
3       M=2.22      Mt=4.1
4       M=2.25      Mt=4.2
5       M=2.42      Mt=4.7
6       M=2.41      Mt=4.7
7       M=2.53      Mt=5.1
8       M=2.57      Mt=5.2
9       M=2.70      Mt=5.7
10      M=2.48      Mt=4.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.27 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.46 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.38 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.42 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.22 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyLai & McDonald (1995): study CA Calgary, Alberta 1991
TitleLife Satisfaction of Chinese Elderly Immigrants in Calgary
SourceCanadian Journal of Aging,1995, Vol.14, 536 - 552
DOIDOI:10.1017/SO714980800009107
PublicChinese elderly immigrants, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response14.7%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelSense of personal control
Page in Source 543, 545-546
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Sense of personal control was measured by Pearlin and 
Schooler (1978) scale:

1. I have little control about things that happen to 
me.
2. Some of my problems I can't seem to solve at all.
3. There is not much that I can do to change important 
things in my life.
4. I often feel helpless dealing with the problems of 
life.
5. Sometimes I feel like a play ball of life.
6. I can do almost everything, if I want to.
7. What will happen in the future considerably depends 
on myself.

Rated
No
It depends
Yes 

Scores ranged from one to three for the positive 
statements and three to one for the negative 
statements.
Observed distributionRange 7-21
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha reliabilty coefficient is .83

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .01
All
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .001
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.58      Mt=5.3
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.64      Mt=5.5
4       M=2.68      Mt=5.6
5       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
6       M=2.87      Mt=6.2
7       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
8       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
9       M=3.22      Mt=7.4
10      M=3.22      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=3.33      Mt=2.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
4       M=6.03      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
6       M=7.10      Mt=6.8  
7       M=7.40      Mt=7.1 
8       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
9       M=8.62      Mt=8.5
10      M=9.00      Mt=8.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .26      Mt=5.3
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
5       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
7       M=1.95      Mt=7.0
8       M=2.59      Mt=7.6
9       M=2.91      Mt=7.9
10      M=2.79      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.26 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.17 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.50 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.41 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.25 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.49 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelLocus of control
Page in Source 109/130 ff
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a 5-point scale: How 
much control do you feel you have over the important 
events in your life: almost total control / mostly 
under my control / about half the time I can control 
the important events / mostly not under my control / 
almost no control.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.29
ALL Ss (married (including not formally married 
cohabitating Ss (considered as married)) and 
non-married).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aChi▓=+ p < .000
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.13
Beta controlled for: 
gender, age, household income, marital status, 
being in love, desire to change dating pattern or 
marital status, social support (1. instrumental: 
problems managing money, deciding how to spend 
money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying 
job, not enough money to get by on; 2. expressive: 
no close companions, no one to depend on, 
unsatisfying sex life, problems communicating, 
dissatisfied with marital status, not enough close 
friends, no one to show love/affection, too 
dependent on others, not having children, no one 
to understand problems; 3. interpersonal demands:
too many responsibilities, no one to depend on, 
too many demands on time, problems communicating, 
problems with children, problems with 
spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts with those who are 
close), and satisfaction with: job and financial 
situation, friendships, love relationships and 
living situation.

NON-MARRIED Ss ONLY:

- males:   r = +.19  ▀ = +.09
- females: r = -.04  ▀ = -.07
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, 
except marital status and gender.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.67      Mt=5.6
2       M=2.77      Mt=5.9
3       M=2.59      Mt=5.3
4       M=2.90      Mt=6.3
5       M=2.86      Mt=6.2
6       M=3.10      Mt=7.0
7       M=3.05      Mt=6.8
8       M=3.15      Mt=7.2
9       M=3.15      Mt=7.2
10      M=3.14      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.98      Mt=5.5
2       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
3       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
4       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
6       M=7.18      Mt=6.9  
7       M=7.37      Mt=7.1 
8       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
9       M=8.34      Mt=8.2
10      M=8.57      Mt=8.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .10      Mt=5.1
2       M= .21      Mt=5.2
3       M= .06      Mt=5.1
4       M= .48      Mt=5.5
5       M= .58      Mt=5.6
6       M= .99      Mt=6.0
7       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
8       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
9       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
10      M=1.37      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.36 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.31 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.35 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.14 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.73      Mt=5.8
2       M=2.54      Mt=5.1
3       M=2.57      Mt=5.2
4       M=2.79      Mt=6.0
5       M=2.79      Mt=6.0
6       M=3.02      Mt=6.7
7       M=2.71      Mt=5.7
8       M=3.09      Mt=7.0
9       M=3.08      Mt=6.9
10      M=3.03      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .98      Mt=6.0
2       M=-.34      Mt=4.7
3       M= .68      Mt=5.7
4       M= .44      Mt=5.4
5       M= .86      Mt=5.9
6       M= .45      Mt=5.5
7       M=1.25      Mt=6.3
8       M=2.10      Mt=7.1
9       M=2.05      Mt=7.1
10      M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.15 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.27 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.21 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.25 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.03      Mt=5.0
2       M=-.44      Mt=4.6
3       M= .02      Mt=5.0
4       M= .39      Mt=5.4
5       M= .63      Mt=5.6
6       M= .56      Mt=5.6
7       M= .98      Mt=6.0
8       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
9       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
10      M=1.32      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.23      Mt=4.7
2       M=4.58      Mt=4.0
3       M=4.95      Mt=4.4
4       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
5       M=5.97      Mt=5.5
6       M=6.15      Mt=5.7  
7       M=6.55      Mt=6.2 
8       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
9       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
10      M=8.03      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.43      Mt=4.8
2       M=2.33      Mt=4.4
3       M=2.30      Mt=4.3
4       M=2.51      Mt=5.0
5       M=2.59      Mt=5.3
6       M=2.76      Mt=5.9
7       M=2.76      Mt=5.9
8       M=2.85      Mt=6.2
9       M=2.82      Mt=6.1
10      M=2.85      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.25 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.36 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.30 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.23 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.36 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.24 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.93      Mt=6.4
2       M=2.92      Mt=6.4
3       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
4       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
5       M=3.23      Mt=7.4
6       M=3.34      Mt=7.8
7       M=3.35      Mt=7.8
8       M=3.43      Mt=8.1
9       M=3.47      Mt=8.2
10      M=3.52      Mt=8.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
2       M=5.83      Mt=5.4
3       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.19      Mt=6.9
5       M=7.32      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.93      Mt=7.7  
7       M=8.07      Mt=7.9 
8       M=8.55      Mt=8.4
9       M=8.91      Mt=8.8
10      M=9.00      Mt=8.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .87      Mt=5.9
2       M= .58      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
4       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
7       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
8       M=2.12      Mt=7.1
9       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
10      M=2.63      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.30 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.24 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .06      Mt=5.1
2       M= .00      Mt=5.0
3       M= .08      Mt=5.1
4       M= .18      Mt=5.2
5       M= .50      Mt=5.5
6       M= .91      Mt=5.9
7       M= .84      Mt=5.8
8       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
9       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
10      M=1.18      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.46      Mt=4.9
2       M=2.22      Mt=4.1
3       M=2.23      Mt=4.1
4       M=2.36      Mt=4.5
5       M=2.57      Mt=5.2
6       M=2.57      Mt=5.2
7       M=2.66      Mt=5.5
8       M=2.72      Mt=5.7
9       M=2.81      Mt=6.0
10      M=2.69      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.59      Mt=4.0
2       M=4.58      Mt=4.0
3       M=4.90      Mt=4.3
4       M=5.20      Mt=4.7
5       M=5.40      Mt=4.9
6       M=6.25      Mt=5.8  
7       M=6.16      Mt=5.7 
8       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
9       M=6.67      Mt=6.3
10      M=6.60      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.21 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.30 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.24 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.17 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.29 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.22 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
4       M=6.60      Mt=6.2
5       M=6.67      Mt=6.3
6       M=6.98      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.34      Mt=7.0 
8       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
9       M=8.12      Mt=7.9
10      M=8.67      Mt=8.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.45      Mt=4.8
4       M=3.17      Mt=7.2
5       M=3.19      Mt=7.3
6       M=2.98      Mt=6.6
7       M=2.97      Mt=6.6
8       M=3.05      Mt=6.8
9       M=3.16      Mt=7.2
10      M=3.26      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.10      Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06      Mt=6.9
3       M=2.88      Mt=6.3
4       M=3.07      Mt=6.9
5       M=3.18      Mt=7.3
6       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
7       M=3.27      Mt=7.6
8       M=3.35      Mt=7.8
9       M=3.48      Mt=8.3
10      M=3.41      Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
2       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
3       M=5.35      Mt=4.8
4       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.92      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.58      Mt=7.3 
8       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
9       M=8.37      Mt=8.2
10      M=8.62      Mt=8.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=-.36      Mt=4.6
4       M= .67      Mt=5.7
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M= .83      Mt=5.8
7       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
8       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
9       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
10      M=1.76      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
2       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
3       M= .35      Mt=5.4
4       M= .53      Mt=5.5
5       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
7       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
8       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
9       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
10      M=2.28      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.41 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.26 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.32 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.29 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.41 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.25 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.26 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyBorg & Wńchterhshńuser (1990): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleZur Eukolos-Dyskolos Dimension: KontrollŘberzeugungen und Zufriedenheit. (Satisfaction and Controlbelief).
SourceArchiv fŘr Psychologie, 1990, Vol. 142, 49 - 58
PublicStudents and professionals, town Germany, 1988
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =264

Correlate
Author's labelInternal or external locus-of-control belief
Page in Source 53
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Respondents were indicated as internal or external 
depending on their filling out the IPC questionnaire of 
Krampen (1981) by which they rate the locus-of-control 
as internal (I-scale) or external (P-scale = 'others"; 
C-scale = 'chance').
Observed distributionPredominantly internal (gt 87% on I-scale and lt 84% on P- and C-scales)were 47 repondents Predominantly external (< 87 on I-scale and > 84 on P- and/or C-scale) were 63 respondents
Remarks
154 respondents were left out of consideration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-aDMt=+ p < .000
Happiness rated before and after filling out 
questionnaire on satisfaction with 19 apects of 
life)
             Before      After
- internals: Mt=7.47     Mt=7.21
- externals: Mt=5.75     Mt=5.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.52      Mt=3.9
2       M=5.36      Mt=4.8
3       M=5.69      Mt=5.2
4       M=5.65      Mt=5.1
5       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.76      Mt=6.4  
7       M=7.13      Mt=6.8 
8       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
9       M=8.37      Mt=8.2
10      M=8.03      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.61      Mt=5.4
2       M=2.90      Mt=6.3
3       M=2.90      Mt=6.3
4       M=2.99      Mt=6.6
5       M=3.14      Mt=7.1
6       M=3.12      Mt=7.1
7       M=3.18      Mt=7.3
8       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
9       M=3.34      Mt=7.8
10      M=3.44      Mt=8.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .09      Mt=5.1
2       M= .41      Mt=5.4
3       M= .74      Mt=5.7
4       M= .33      Mt=5.3
5       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
7       M=1.78      Mt=6.8
8       M=1.78      Mt=6.8
9       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
10      M=1.83      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.43 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.25 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.26 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.36 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.43 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.26 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.21 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelLocus of control index
Page in Source 12
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Exact index measuring internal locus of control not 
reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.38 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Personality:
  a) neuroticism index
  b) extraversion index
- Individual characteristics:
  c) self-esteem in getting a job within the
     upcoming 6 months
  d) gender
  e) age and age squared
  f) disabled
  g) marital status
  h) having a partner
  i) employment status spouse
  j) employment status partner
  k) (number of) children in household
  l) education
  m) migrant status
  n) wage in last job
  o) duration of last job
  p) unemployment benefits
  q) reason of termination of last job
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  r) interview cohort
  s) time between unemployment entry and 
     interview
Environmental circumstances:
  t) region/state in Germany
  u) national unemployment rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality: Internal locus of control
Page in Source 508
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions on internal locus of 
control:
Texts not reported.

Rated:
1 completely disagree
:
7 completely agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 p < .01
IN EAST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
IN WEST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) openness
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) gender
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality: External locus of control
Page in Source 508
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions on external locus of 
control:
Texts not reported.

Rated:
1 completely disagree
:
7 completely agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.23 p < .01
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) openness
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) gender
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000 /1
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, followed 7 years 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelExternal locus of control
Page in Source 504,508
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Not specified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 p < .01
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.23 p < .01
East Germany

b's controlled for:
- neighborhood characteristics
  - living conditions
  - social comparison
  - social cohesiveness
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - non-German nationality
  - age
  - age squared
  - income
  - education 
  - marital status
  - health (subj.)
- other personality traits
  - openness
  - extraversion
  - agreeableness
  - neuroticism
  - conscientiousness
  - internal locus of control


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelBig Five Dimensions and LOC
Page in Source 37
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
A: conscientiousness
B: neuroticism
C: extraversion
D: agreableness
E: openness
F: internal Locus of control
G: extrernal Locus of control

Rated:
1
.
.
7
Observed distributionA: M = 5,896 SD = 0,912; B: M = 3,923 SD = 1,227; C: M = 4,864 SD = 1,115; D: M = 5,411 SD = 0,955; E: M = 4,572 SD = 1,176; F: M = 5,135 SD = 0,696; G: M = 3,501 SD = 0,871

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
Conscientiousness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
Neuroticism
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .05
Extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .01
Agreableness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Openness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
Internal locus of control
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.18 p < .01
External locus of control

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.30      Mt=3.7
2       M=4.68      Mt=4.1
3       M=4.69      Mt=4.1
4       M=5.45      Mt=4.9
5       M=5.90      Mt=5.4
6       M=6.62      Mt=6.2  
7       M=6.89      Mt=6.5 
8       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
9       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
10      M=7.99      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.25      Mt=4.8
2       M=-.44      Mt=4.6
3       M= .15      Mt=5.2
4       M= .26      Mt=5.3
5       M= .85      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
7       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
8       M=1.85      Mt=6.8
9       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
10      M=1.58      Mt=6.6
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.42      Mt=4.7
2       M=2.71      Mt=5.7
3       M=2.54      Mt=5.1
4       M=2.76      Mt=5.9
5       M=2.85      Mt=6.2
6       M=3.01      Mt=6.7
7       M=2.95      Mt=6.5
8       M=3.10      Mt=7.0
9       M=3.09      Mt=7.0
10      M=3.17      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.50 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.28 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.27 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atc=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.41 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.29 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.51 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.28 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=  .03     Mt=5.0
2       M=-1.45     Mt=3.6
3       M=- .37     Mt=4.6
4       M=  .40     Mt=5.4
5       M=  .78     Mt=5.8
6       M= 1.09     Mt=6.1
7       M= 1.79     Mt=6.8
8       M= 1.90     Mt=6.9
9       M= 2.33     Mt=7.3
10      M= 1.97     Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=  .03     Mt=5.0
2       M=-1.45     Mt=3.6
3       M=- .37     Mt=4.6
4       M=  .40     Mt=5.4
5       M=  .78     Mt=5.8
6       M= 1.09     Mt=6.1
7       M= 1.79     Mt=6.8
8       M= 1.90     Mt=6.9
9       M= 2.33     Mt=7.3
10      M= 1.97     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.67      Mt=5.2
2       M=3.95      Mt=3.3
3       M=4.74      Mt=4.2
4       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
5       M=6.35      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.94      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.37      Mt=7.1 
8       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
9       M=8.33      Mt=8.1
10      M=8.35      Mt=8.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.80      Mt=6.0
2       M=2.45      Mt=4.8
3       M=2.56      Mt=5.2
4       M=2.79      Mt=6.0
5       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
6       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
7       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
8       M=3.12      Mt=7.1
9       M=3.19      Mt=7.3
10      M=3.21      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.80      Mt=6.0
2       M=2.45      Mt=4.8
3       M=2.56      Mt=5.2
4       M=2.79      Mt=6.0
5       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
6       M=3.00      Mt=6.7
7       M=3.04      Mt=6.8
8       M=3.12      Mt=7.1
9       M=3.19      Mt=7.3
10      M=3.21      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.67      Mt=5.2
2       M=3.95      Mt=3.3
3       M=4.74      Mt=4.2
4       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
5       M=6.35      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.94      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.37      Mt=7.1 
8       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
9       M=8.33      Mt=8.1
10      M=8.35      Mt=8.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.53 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.28 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.28 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.53 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.42 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.23 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.42 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.28 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.28 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.53 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.53 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelLocus of control
Page in Source 221, 222, 225, 227
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Self-report on questionnaire
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004
Variant of Rotter-scale (1966), developed by Krampen 
(1981; see also Nolte et al. 1996). Assessed in 2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.30
T3 LEVEL of happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.42 p < .001
Beta controlled for
-current priorities at T3 for life goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-having a partner
-years of education
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.28 p < .001
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness (14 year lag)

Beta controlled for
-average priority at T 1,2,3 for life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .11      Mt=5.1
2       M=-.14      Mt=4.9
3       M=-.02      Mt=5.0
4       M= .43      Mt=5.4
5       M= .69      Mt=5.7
6       M= .96      Mt=6.0
7       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
8       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
9       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
10      M=1.05      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=4.79      Mt=4.2
2       M=3.81      Mt=3.1
3       M=4.67      Mt=4.1
4       M=5.22      Mt=4.7
5       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
6       M=5.80      Mt=5.3  
7       M=6.39      Mt=6.0 
8       M=6.77      Mt=6.4
9       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
10      M=6.98      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.23      Mt=4.1
2       M=2.44      Mt=4.8
3       M=2.40      Mt=4.7
4       M=2.64      Mt=5.5
5       M=2.68      Mt=5.6
6       M=2.75      Mt=5.8
7       M=2.79      Mt=6.0
8       M=2.96      Mt=6.5
9       M=2.95      Mt=6.5
10      M=2.78      Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.32 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.27 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.33 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
4       M=7.19      Mt=6.9
5       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.37      Mt=7.1  
7       M=7.76      Mt=7.5 
8       M=8.38      Mt=8.2
9       M=8.81      Mt=8.7
10      M=9.08      Mt=9.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
4       M=3.19      Mt=7.3
5       M=3.25      Mt=7.5
6       M=3.32      Mt=7.7
7       M=3.31      Mt=7.7
8       M=3.46      Mt=8.2
9       M=3.48      Mt=8.3
10      M=3.58      Mt=8.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less thaN 10 Ss
3       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
4       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
5       M=2.08      Mt=7.1
6       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
7       M=2.36      Mt=7.4
8       M=2.91      Mt=7.9
9       M=3.00      Mt=8.0
10      M=2.95      Mt=7.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.37 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.31 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.17 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.22 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.21 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.39 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P04bo

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P04bo
Operationalization
Single question: "How much freedom of choice and 
control do you feel you have over the way your life 
turns out?" rated on a 10-point numerical scale ranging 
from 'none at all' to 'a great deal'. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
2       M=6.36      Mt=6.0
3       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
4       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
5       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
6       M=6.95      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.37      Mt=7.1 
8       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
9       M=8.49      Mt=8.3
10      M=8.73      Mt=8.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
3       M= .44      Mt=5.4
4       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
5       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.76      Mt=6.8
7       M=2.02      Mt=7.0
8       M=2.42      Mt=7.4
9       M=2.88      Mt=7.9
10      M=2.74      Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
2       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
3       M=5.35      Mt=4.8
4       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.92      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.58      Mt=7.3 
8       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
9       M=8.37      Mt=8.2
10      M=8.62      Mt=8.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.10      Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06      Mt=6.9
3       M=2.88      Mt=6.3
4       M=3.07      Mt=6.9
5       M=3.18      Mt=7.3
6       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
7       M=3.27      Mt=7.6
8       M=3.35      Mt=7.8
9       M=3.48      Mt=8.3
10      M=3.41      Mt=8.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.10      Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06      Mt=6.9
3       M=2.88      Mt=6.3
4       M=3.07      Mt=6.9
5       M=3.18      Mt=7.3
6       M=3.21      Mt=7.4
7       M=3.27      Mt=7.6
8       M=3.35      Mt=7.8
9       M=3.48      Mt=8.3
10      M=3.41      Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
2       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
3       M=5.35      Mt=4.8
4       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.92      Mt=6.6  
7       M=7.58      Mt=7.3 
8       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
9       M=8.37      Mt=8.2
10      M=8.62      Mt=8.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.23      Mt=4.8
2       M=-.36      Mt=4.6
3       M=-.63      Mt=4.4
4       M= .17      Mt=5.2
5       M= .55      Mt=5.5
6       M= .48      Mt=5.5
7       M= .91      Mt=5.9
8       M= .69      Mt=5.7
9       M= .77      Mt=5.8
10      M= .41      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.94      Mt=6.5
2       M=2.69      Mt=5.6
3       M=2.60      Mt=5.3
4       M=2.45      Mt=4.8
5       M=2.81      Mt=6.0
6       M=2.77      Mt=5.9
7       M=2.86      Mt=6.2
8       M=3.01      Mt=6.7
9       M=3.08      Mt=6.9
10      M=2.94      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.06      Mt=6.9
2       M=2.86      Mt=6.2
3       M=2.75      Mt=5.8
4       M=3.03      Mt=6.8
5       M=3.12      Mt=7.1
6       M=3.09      Mt=7.0
7       M=3.25      Mt=7.5
8       M=3.30      Mt=7.7
9       M=3.40      Mt=8.0
10      M=3.47      Mt=8.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
2       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
3       M= .35      Mt=5.4
4       M= .53      Mt=5.5
5       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
7       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
8       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
9       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
10      M=2.28      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.40      Mt=4.9
2       M=4.50      Mt=3.9
3       M=4.95      Mt=4.4
4       M=5.37      Mt=4.9
5       M=5.80      Mt=5.3
6       M=6.35      Mt=5.9  
7       M=6.36      Mt=6.0 
8       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
9       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
10      M=7.87      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
2       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
3       M= .35      Mt=5.4
4       M= .53      Mt=5.5
5       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
7       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
8       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
9       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
10      M=2.28      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.40 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.29 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.44 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.26 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.41 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.26 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.41 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.35 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.40 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.20 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.32 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.32 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.25 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.41 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.37 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.43 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.26 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa