Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CHANGE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CHANGE
Subject Code: P02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE0
P02aaChange in personality1
P02aa01Change in personality organization0
P02aa02Change in personality traits0
P02abCurrent stage of development6
P02aa02aChange in ambitiousness0
P02aa02bChange in approval seeking0
P02aa02cChange in dominance0
P02acCourse of development1
P02aa02dChange in control orientation3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CHANGE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in personality
Subject code: P02aa

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1978
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicAdults, trainees and controls, followed 10 weeks, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1978
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =23

Correlate
Author's labelBeliefs about self
Page in Source 60
Our classificationChange in personality, code P02aa
Operationalization
28-item index with 4 response categories. Typical items 
are:
- I choose my emotions and feelings
- I believe my personality is fixed
- I am ready to try out new
  experiences 
Assessed at the start (T1) and the end (T2) of a course 
on happiness and mental health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-br=+.80 p < .01
T1 LEVEL of beliefs to T1 LEVEL of happiness

A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-br=+.75 p < .01
T1-T2 CHANGE in beliefs to T1-T2 CHANGE in 
happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in control orientation
Subject code: P02aa02d

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelMastery
Page in Source 104-5
Our classificationChange in control orientation, code P02aa02d
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions such as:
- I have little control over the things that happen to 
me
- I can do just anything I really set my mind to do

Pearlin and Schooler (1978) Mastery Scale. Range 7-35
Observed distributionRange: 7-35; T1: M = 22,6, SD = 5,1; T2: M = 21,2, SD = 4,7
Remarks
Assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 20 week 
rehabilitation program
T1-T2 change: ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.06 ns
T1 control belief by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.13 ns
Beta controled for:
- age, gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.24 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in control belief by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.33 p < .054
Beta controled for
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in control orientation
Subject code: P02aa02d

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelSelf efficacy: control symptoms
Page in Source 104-105
Our classificationChange in control orientation, code P02aa02d
Operationalization
Self report on six questions such as:
- How confident are you that you can control your 
breathlessness by taking your medications?

Subscale of Sullivan 1998 self efficacy scale
Observed distributionRange 0-24; T1: M = 17,8 SD = 3,2 T2: M = 19,7 SD = 2,9
Remarks
Assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 20 week 
rehabilitation program
T1- T2 change p<.002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.06 ns
T1 symptom control by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.15 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in symptom control by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.25 ns
Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in control orientation
Subject code: P02aa02d

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelSelf efficacy: maintain function
Page in Source 104-105
Our classificationChange in control orientation, code P02aa02d
Operationalization
Self report on three questions such as:
- How confident are you that you cab get regular 
excercise?

Maintain function subscale of Sullivan (1998) self 
efficacy scale
Observed distributionRange: 0-12; T1: M = 7,2, SD = 2,4; T2: M = 8,0, SD = 2,6
Remarks
Assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 20 week 
rehabilitation program
T1=T2 change ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.29 ns
T1 maintain function by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+32 p < .073
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.19 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in maintain function by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.27 ns
Betas controled for:
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage of development
Subject code: P02ab

StudyVitterso et al. (2009): study NO 2005
TitleLife Satisfaction is not a Balanced Estimator of the Good Life: Evidence from Reaction Time Measures and Self-Reported Emotions.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 1 - 17
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9058-1
PublicStudents and technical staff university, Norway, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal growth
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent stage of development, code P02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 18 questions on:
A: Curiosity (5 items)
B: Flow (3 items)
C: Complexity (5 items)
D: Competence (5 items)  

Examples of the items are: 
A: I enjoy trying to solve complex problems (curiosity)
B: When I am participating in an activity, I tend to 
get so involved that I lose track of time (flow)
C: I love to think up new ways of doing things 
(complexity)
D: I can perform a wide variety of tasks (competence)

Rated
1: totally disagree
5: totally agree
Observed distributionM= 3.80, SD= 0.44

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.17 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage of development
Subject code: P02ab

StudyConstantinople (1970): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Average Level of Happiness among College Students.
SourcePaper 1970 based on unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/constantinople_ap_1970.pdf
PublicUndergraduate college students, University of Rochester, USA, followed 12 month, 1965-68
Sample
Non-Response50% return of mailed questionnaire.
Respondents N =581

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social development
Page in Source 10
Our classificationCurrent stage of development, code P02ab
Operationalization
60-item Inventory of Psycho-Social Development.

Aa. Succesful first stage: basic trust
Ab. Unsuccessful first stage: basic
    mistrust.
Ba. Succesful second stage: autonomy.
Bb. Unsuccessful second stage: shame
    and doubt.
Ca. Successful third stage: initiative.
Cb. Unsuccessful third stage: guilt.
Da. Successful fourth stage: industry.
Db. Unsuccessful fourth stage: 
    inferiority.
Ea. Successful fifth stage: identity.
Eb. Unsuccessful fifth stage: identity
    diffusion.
Fa. Successful sixth stage: intimacy.
Fb. Unsuccessful sixth stage:
    isolation.
Remarks
These dat concern all Ss from the Constantinople
(1965) sample (see above).
In this analysis N = 581.
                        
                         

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
Aa:basic trust
-freshman males   : r = +.34 (01)
-senior males     : r = +.48 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.33 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.43 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-
Ab:basic mistrust
-freshman males   : r = -.37 (01)
-senior males     : r = -.58 (01)
-freshman females : r = -.21 (01)
-senior females   : r = -.42 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
Ba:autonomy
-freshman males   : r = +.12 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.18 (05)
-freshman females : r = +.10 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.12 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-
Bb:shame and doubt
-freshman males   : r = -.10 (ns)
-senior males     : r = -.21 (05)
-freshman females : r = -.07 (ns)
-senior females   : r = -.25 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
Ca:initiative
-freshman males   : r = +.19 (05)
-senior males     : r = +.38 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.36 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.24 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-
Cb:guilt
-freshman males   : r = -.32 (01)
-senior males     : r = -.46 (01)
-freshman females : r = -.18 (05)
-senior females   : r = -.24 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
Da:industry
-freshman males   : r = +.14 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.25 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.09 (ns)
-senior females   : r = +.16 (ns)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-
Db:inferiority
-freshman males   : r = -.13 (ns)
-senior males     : r = -.21 (05)
-freshman females : r = -.15 (ns)
-senior females   : r = -.23 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
Ea:identity
-freshman males   : r = +.18 (05)
-senior males     : r = +.48 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.35 (01)
-senior females   : r = +.42 (01)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-
Eb:identity diffusion
-freshman males   : r = -.12 (ns)
-senior males     : r = -.10 (ns)
-freshman females : r = -.01 (ns)
-senior females   : r = -.21 (05)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+
Fa:intimacy
-freshman males   : r = +.14 (ns)
-senior males     : r = +.39 (01)
-freshman females : r = +.19 (05)
-senior females   : r = +.20 (05)
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-
Fb:isolation
-freshman males   : r = -.22 (01)
-senior males     : r = -.36 (01)
-freshman females : r = -.27 (01)
-senior females   : r = -.36 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage of development
Subject code: P02ab

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social development
Page in Source 52-57
Our classificationCurrent stage of development, code P02ab
Operationalization
60-item inventory describing characte- ristics 
indicative of successful and unsuccessful resolutions 
of the first six developmental crises of Erikson's 
stages of psycho-social development (adapted from 
Wessman & Ricks; see last pages).

               
              
                  
1a. Successful first stage: basic trust

1b. Unsuccessful firit stage: basic
    mistrust.

2a. Successful second stage: autonomy.
            

2b. Unsuccessful second stage: shame
    and doubt.

3a. Successful third stage: initiative.

3b. Unsuccessful third stage: guilt.
            
                 
               
4a. Successful fourth stage: industry.

4b. Unsuccessful fourth stage:   
    inferiority.

5a. Successful fifth stage: identity.
            

              
5b. Unsuccessful fifth stage: identity
    diffusion.

6a. Successful sixth stage: intimacy.

6b. Unsuccessful sixth stage: isolation 
Remarks
Analysis on the basis of the 16 most happy and 16 least 
happy Ss in each of the 8 sex/class groups (N-256).
The same items as in the Wessman & Ricks study were 
used. In this study each item was rated on a 7-point 
scale ranging from 'definitely most uncharacteristic of 
you' to 'definitely most characteristic of you'. 
Significance and elaboration were based on Analysis of 
Variance.
                           
                                                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.            
                                     
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=- p < .01
Lower in junior years, esp. among males.
In senior years stronger among females.
              
                                   
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM= ns
Slightly negative among males.
Slightly positive among females.
                            
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=- p < .01
Stronger among females than among males.
Unaffected by stage of study.
                 
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.
                            
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=- p < .01
Among males stronger in freshman years.
Among females strongest in senior years and lowest 
in junior years.
              
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.
            
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=- p < .01
Unaffected by sex and study.
                
               
                     
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Among males strongest in sophomore years and 
lowest in senior years.
Among females stronger in senior years.
                      
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=- p < .01
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.
         
                 
                
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.
                             
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=- p < .01
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage of development
Subject code: P02ab

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social stagesof development
Page in Source 107-109
Our classificationCurrent stage of development, code P02ab
Operationalization
60-item Q sort, describing characteris- tics indicative 
of successful and un- successsful resolutions of the 
first six developmental crisis of Erikson's stages of 
psycho-social development (see Erikson, 1959).
There were 5 items indicative of suc- cessful and 5 
items indicative of un- successful resolution for each 
of the six stages. The subjeect was instructed to fit 
the set of items into a forced, seminormal distribution 
on a 7-point scale ranging from 'least characteris- 
tic' to 'most characteristic'.


1A. Successful oral sensory:
    basic trust.
    Placid and untroubled / accessible
    to new ideas / imperturbable opti-
    mist / able to take things as they
    come / deep, unshakable faith in
    himself.

1B. Unsuccessful oral sensory:
    basic mistrust.
    Incapable of absorbing frustration
    and everything frustrates him /
    can't share things with anybody /
    pessimistic, little hope / dim nos-
    talgia for lost paradise / never
    gets what he really wants.

2A. Successful muscular anal:
    autonomy.
    Values independence above securi-
    ty / free and spontaneous / stands
    on his own two feet / quietly goes
    his own way / good judge of when to
    comply and when to assert himself.

2B. Unsuccessful muscular anal:
    shame and doubt.
    An automatic response to all situ-
    ations / meticulous and over-orga-
    nized / cautious, hesitant, doubt-
    ing / feels as if he were being
    followed / always in the wrong,
    apologetic.

3A. Successful locomotor genital:
    initiative.
    Adventuresome / dynamic / ambit-
    ious / inventive, delights in find-
    ing new solutions to new problems /
    sexually aware.

3B. Unsuccessful locomotor genital:
    guilt.
    Sexually blunted / afraid to impot-
    ence / thinks too much about the
    wrong things / big smoke but no
    fire / inhibited and self-restrict-
    ed.

4A. Successful latency:
    industry.
    Conscientious and hard working /
    interested in learning and likes to
    study / serious, has high stand-
    ards / accomplishes much, truly
    productive / excels in his work.

4B. Unsuccessful latency:
    inferiority.
    Can't fulfill his ambitions / does-
    n't apply himsel fully / fritters
    away his time / ineffective, does-
    n't amount to much / a playboy, al-
    ways 'hacking' around.

5A. Successful puberty adolescence:
    identity.
    Confidence is brimming over / natu-
    ral and genuine / poised / knows
    who he is and what he wants out of
    life / pride in his own character
    and values.

5B. Unsuccessful puberty and adolescen-
    ce: role diffusion.
    A poseur, all facade and pretence /
    spreads himself thin / attempts to
    appear at ease / never knows he
    feels / afraid of commitment.

6A. Successful young adulthood:
    intimacy.
    Candid, not afraid to expose him-
    self / warm and friendly /  has
    sympathetic concern for others /
    tactful in interpersonal relat-
    ions / comfortable in intimate re-
    lationships.

6B. Unsuccessful young adulthood:
    isolation.
    Little regard for the rest of the
    world / pre-occupied with himself /
    very lonely / cold and remote / se-
    cretly oblivious of the opinions of
    others.
Remarks
Self-description made both in very elated and in very 
depressed moods. ('an accurate picture of yourself as 
your honestly feel and believe you are'.)













Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.21 ns
1A.Basic trust: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.44 ns
                in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.56 p < . 05
1B. Basic mistrust: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.86 p < . 05
                    in depression







A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.03 ns
2A. Autonomy: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.50 p < . 05
              in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.45 ns
2B. Shame and doubt: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.74 p < . 05
                     in depression







A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.63 p < . 05
3A. Initiative: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.66 p < . 05
                in depression





A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.28 ns
3B. Guilt: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.39 ns
           in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.62 p < . 05
4A. Industry: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.48 p < . 05
              in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.56 p < . 05
4B. Inferiority: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.62 p < . 05
                 in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.42 ns
5A. Identity: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.54 p < . 05
              in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.26 ns
5B. Role diffusion: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.23 ns
                    in depression





A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.67 p < . 05
6A. Intimacy: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.69 p < . 05
              in depression







A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.71 p < . 05
6B. Isolation: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.66 p < . 05
               in depression


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage of development
Subject code: P02ab

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social development
Page in Source 112/113
Our classificationCurrent stage of development, code P02ab
Operationalization
Analysis of individual items from a 60- item Q sort, 
filled out both in very elated and in very depressed 
moods for both self-concept ('an accurate picture of 
yourself as you honestly feel and be- lieve you are') 
and ideal-concept ('the picture of the sort of person 
you have hoped to become or fancied yourself to be').

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= + p < . 05
The unhappy men were more concerned, in both their 
real-self and ideal-self, with Erikson's fourth 
development crisis Industry vs Inferiori- ty, 
while the happy men were more concerned with the 
sixth stage Intimacy vs Isolation.
(See also 'Congruency between Real and Ideal 
Self-Image', and 'Content of Self-Image'; S 2.1.1 
and S 2.2).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current stage of development
Subject code: P02ab

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-sexual stages of development
Page in Source 124
Our classificationCurrent stage of development, code P02ab
Operationalization
Composite clinical rank order on symp- 
tomatic characteristics indicative of degree of 
fixation at or regression to the various psycho-sexual 
stages. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= ns
1. Oral receptive

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= ns
2. Oral aggressive

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= ns
3. Anal expulsive

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.44 p < . 10
4. Anal rententive

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= ns
5. Urethral icarian



Correlational finding on Happiness and Course of development
Subject code: P02ac

StudySteca et al. (2004): study IT 1990
TitleSelf-Efficacy Beliefs as Personal Determinants of Subjective Well-Being across Ages.
SourcePresentation 2nd European Conference on Positive Psychology, 2004, Pallanza, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/steca_p_2004.pdf
PublicElementary school students followed 10 years, Italy,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response76/114
Respondents N =306

Correlate
Author's labelDevelopmental pathways
Our classificationCourse of development, code P02ac
Operationalization
Development since T1
A.Positive-stable
  from well-adapted to well-adapted  
B Negative-stable: 
  passing from ill-adapted to ill-adapted  
C Worsening:
  from well-adapted clusters to ill-adapted 
D Improvement:
  from ill-adapted clusters to well-adapted
Observed distributionT1: N(male, female) 1=93(37,56), 2=22(21,1), 3=54(23,31), 4=84(59,25), irregular=53 T2: N(male, female) 1=75(27,48), 2=12(only male), 3=40(17,23), 4=61(42,19) T3: N(male, female) 1=64(21,43), 2=9(only male), 3=29(14,15), 4=54(36,18)
Remarks
Adapted clusters are measured by  Prosocial behavior 
scale in self report and teacher rating, Emotional 
instability scale in self report and teacher rating, 
Physical and verbal aggression scale in self report and 
teacher rating, and social efficacy with peer 
nomination relative to popularity and refuse in the 
class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-?-0-aDM=+
T2 happiness        T3 happiness
A: M=1.47, SD=.83   M=1.56, SD=1.22
B: M=0.96, SD=.75   M=1.42, SD=1.03
C: M=0.80, SD=.91   M=1.13, SD=1.09
D: M=1.63, SD=.62   M=1.78, SD= .86
A-BW-?-mq-?-0-aBMCT= p < .01
At T2: A,B >C
A-BW-?-mq-?-0-aBMCT= ns
At T3


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I an't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last month
A-BW-?-mq-?-0-aSelfreport on 20 questions:
Lead item not reported.

A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exited
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS version not reported
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, would you say that you are:
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 happy
4 very happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGEM14aa02Change in motivation
P02aa02aChange in ambitiousnessP04abAmbitious
P02aa02bChange in approval seekingP04ahApproval seeking
P02aa02cChange in dominanceP04atDominant
P02aa02dChange in control orientationP04boInner locus of control
P02abCurrent stage of developmentP05acLater personality development
P02abCurrent stage of developmentP03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION
P02abCurrent stage of developmentM07ac07Personality disorders (f60-69)
P02abCurrent stage of developmentB03ab03Current stage of physical maturation
P02acCourse of developmentB03abPhysical development

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings