Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: HISTORY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: HISTORY
Subject Code: P01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY0
P01aaEarlier personality organization3
P01abEarlier personality traits5
P01ab02Earlier tendency to agree1
P01ab03Earlier anxiety1
P01ab05Earlier approval seeking1
P01ab06Earlier cleverness1
P01ab07Earlier conscientiousness1
P01ab10Earlier emotionality1
P01ab11Earlier fail-anxiety1
P01ab14Earlier independence2
P01ab15Earlier inhibition1
P01ab16Earlier inner-control9
P01ab18Earlier openness0
P01ab19Earlier optimism1
P01ab20Earlier persistence3
P01ab21Earlier positive thinking2
P01ab22Earlier resignation1
P01ab23Earlier need for self-actualization2
P01ab24Earlier self-confidence7
P01ab25Earlier self-disclosing1
P01ab27Earlier hurriedness1
P01ab29Earlier tolerance1
P01ab30Earlier trusting1
P01ab31Earlier vigor1
P01ab04Earlier assertiveness1
P01ab28Earlier stability1
P01ab08Earlier sense of coherence1
P01ab13Earlier genuiness0
P01ab26Earlier sociability1
P01ab12Earlier extraversion1
P01ab17Earlier neurotocism1
P01ab09Earlier efficacy0
P01ab01Earlier ambitiousness1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and PERSONALITY: HISTORY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality organization
Subject code: P01aa

StudyKahn et al. (1985): study US 1963
TitleRelations between Identity in Young Adulthood and Intimacy at Midlife.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 49, 1316 - 1322
PublicAllumni artschool followed 18 years, USA, 1963-81
Sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =71

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier Identity
Page in Source 1320
Our classificationEarlier personality organization, code P01aa
Operationalization
7-point bipolar choice semantic
differential, based on the Eriksonian
model.
Assessed at T1 (18 yrs ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+
Happiness assessed at T2
Females :  r = +.17  (ns)
Males   :  r = +.27  (01)





Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality organization
Subject code: P01aa

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier integration (around age 30)
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier personality organization, code P01aa
Operationalization
Ratings of Ss personality.
       
- Parent rating 
  a. in 1940

- Self rating
  b. in 1940
  c. in 1950
Remarks
Earlier integration (1940, 1950) by present happiness 
(1972). Subjects age in 1972 about 62.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating by 1977 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality organization
Subject code: P01aa

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelTraits around age 30 (
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier personality organization, code P01aa
Operationalization
Feelings of inferiority
a. parent rating 1940
b. self rating 1940
c. self rating 1950

Persistence
d. parent rating 1940
e. self rating 1940
f. self rating 1950

Integration
g. parent rating 1940
h. self rating 1940
i. self rating 1950
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1940, 1950) by present happiness 
(1972). Subjects age in 1972 about 62.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 parents rating of feelings of inferiority by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 self rating of feelings of inferiority by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating of inferiority by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating of persistence by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating of persistence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .05
1950 self rating of persistence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating of intergration by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating of intergration by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating of intergration by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality traits
Subject code: P01ab

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelGood conduct at adulthood
Page in Source 5,14,15,5,16,19,24,25,29,31,52
Our classificationEarlier personality traits, code P01ab
Operationalization
Number of crimes - Minus total times found guilty by a 
criminal court or formally cautioned at police station.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- Income
- Education
- Employed
- Has partner
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health(at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.06
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Intellectual performance(at age 5,10,16)
- Emotional health(at age 5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender(female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality traits
Subject code: P01ab

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelGood conduct in childhood
Page in Source 5,14,15,5,16,19,24,25,29,31,52
Our classificationEarlier personality traits, code P01ab
Operationalization
Childhood: Sum of mother's replies to 10 questions on 
aggression, obedience, restlessness and other 
behavioral characteristics at age 5, 10 and 16.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=
Good conduct assessed at:
- Age 5:   r=+.10
- Age 10:  r=+.13
- Age 16:  r=+.17
- Average: r=+.14
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.09
beta=+.085

When limiting good conduct up to:
- age 5:  beta=+.05
- age10:  beta=+.06

Indirect effect of childhood conduct:
Simulated:
beta= +.05

Subtraction of total variance in good conduct from 
childhood conduct:
beta= +.03
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance
- Emotional health
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Female

When limited to good conduct at age 5:
beta= +.04
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 10 and 16
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Both parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
10:
beta= +.036
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5 and 16
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
16:
beta= +.062
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5 and 10
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.05
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Income
- Employed
- Education
- Good conduct at age 16 and 34
- Self-perceived health
- Emotional health at age 26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality traits
Subject code: P01ab

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1930
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley, USA, 1930-70
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality
Page in Source 342
Our classificationEarlier personality traits, code P01ab
Operationalization
Both personality and happiness were assessed at age 30 
and age 70.
Ratings were made on 7 point scales by independant 
interviewers.
21 chracteristics were subjected to a factor analysis, 
from which the following three factors appeared:

- Stationairy or common factors at ages   30 and 70:
  1. Open minded, accurate thinking
  2. Unworried, satisfied, selfassured
  3. Exitable, energetic, talkative,      restless

- Factors unique to age 30:
  4. Interested in child, uncritical to      child, 
talkative
  5. Intelligence, interested in child

- Factors unique to age 70:
  6. Good use of language, worrysome,      restless, 
high self esteem
  7. Intelligent, interested in child,      uncritical 
of child
  8. Talkative, critical
Remarks
Guidance group only (N=58)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.05 ns
1
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.07 ns
1
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.33 ns
2
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.37 p < .05
2
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.31
3
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.17 ns
3
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.01 ns
4
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bSNR=
4             
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.11 ns
5
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=-.20 ns
5
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.10 ns
6
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.13 ns
6
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=-.29 ns
7
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.08 ns
7
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.23 ns
8
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=-.08 ns
8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality traits
Subject code: P01ab

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929 /1
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicGirls, followed from age 0 to 18, Berkely, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality in childhood (age 2 to 8)
Page in Source 107
Our classificationEarlier personality traits, code P01ab
Operationalization
Expert ratings on the basis of observation of behavior 
in various test-situations. Rated on bi-polar 7 point 
rating scales.
Subjects were rated 14 times between 27-96 months of 
age. Personality ratings were combined for the 
following perionds: 27+30 /33+36 /42+48 / 54+60 /
60+72 /78+84 /90+96.

1. Friendliness
   3 item index
   - initial response to situation
     (negative-friendly)
   - secondary response to situation
     (negative-friendly)
   - attitude to task
     (unwilling-eager)

2. Cooperativeness
   2 item index
   - variability in cooperation
     (variable-consistent)
   - attention to instructions
     (attentive-alert)

3. Attentiveness
   3 item index
   - external distraction
     (distractible-single minded)
   - association
     (flightly-controled)
   - maintenance of effort
     (easily discouraged-persistent)

4. Facility
   3 item index
   - comprehension of task
     (slow-swift)
   - verbal response
     (vague-definite)
   - method of [ferformance
     (random-systematic)

Remarks
Happiness as assessed in adolescence (age 12-18)


Personality as asseessed in childhood (age 2 -8)


month of          correlation with
personality       adolescent
assessment        happiness 

 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-amr=+.20
1. friendliness
   27-30           r=+.13 (ns)
   33-36           r=+.08 (ns)
   42-48           r=+.18 (ns)
   54-60           r=+.34 (ns)
   66-72           r=+.13 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.37 (ns)
   90-96           r=+.13 (ns)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-amr=+.04
1. friendliness
   27-30           r=-.11 (ns)
   33-36           r=-.22 (ns)
   42-48           r=-.04 (ns)
   54-60           r=+.11 (ns)
   66-72           r=+.05 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.27 (ns)
   90-96           r=+.22 (ns)
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-amr=-.01
2. Cooperativeness
   27-30           r=+.04 (ns)
   33-36           r=-.13 (ns)
   42-48           r=-.05 (ns)
   54-60           r=-.02 (ns)
   66-72           r=-.08 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.34 (ns)
   90-96           r=-.19 (ns)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-amr=-.18
2. Cooperativeness
   27-30           r=-.11 (ns)
   33-36           r=-.39 (ns)
   42-48           r=-.38 (ns)
   54-60           r=-.22 (ns)
   66-72           r=-.21 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.18 (ns)
   90-96           r=-.14 (ns)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-amr=-.17
3. Attentiveness
   27-30           r=-.09 (ns)
   33-36           r=-.36 (ns)
   42-48           r=-.41 (ns)
   54-60           r=-.26 (ns)
   66-72           r=-.16 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.19 (ns)
   90-96           r=-.08 (ns)
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-amr=+.06
3. Attentiveness
   27-30           r=+.30 (ns)
   33-36           r=-.18 (ns)
   42-48           r=-.17 (ns)
   54-60           r=+.08 (ns)
   66-72           r=+.08 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.47 (05)
   90-96           r=-.19 (ns)
  
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-amr=+.04
4. Facility
   27-30           r=-.12 (ns)
   33-36           r=-.01 (ns)
   42-48           r=-.04 (ns)
   54-60           r=+.06 (ns)
   66-72           r=+.04 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.24 (ns)
   90-96           r=+.08 (ns)
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-amr=+.17
4. Facility
   27-30           r=+.02 (ns)
   33-36           r=+.05 (ns)
   42-48           r=+.06 (ns)
   54-60           r=+.34 (ns)
   66-72           r=+.10 (ns)
   78-84           r=+.40 (ns)
   90-96           r=+.20 (ns)

 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier personality traits
Subject code: P01ab

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier personality
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier personality traits, code P01ab
Operationalization
- Intellectual traits.
  a. 1922
  b. 1928

- Volitional traits.
  c. 1922
  d. 1928
Remarks
Earlier traits (1922, 1928) by present happiness 
(1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 intellectual traits by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1928 intellectual traits by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 volitional traits by 1922 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1928 vlitional traits by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier ambitiousness
Subject code: P01ab01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelPerseverance
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier ambitiousness, code P01ab01
Operationalization
Combined parent and teacher ratings of perseverance and 
desire to exe.

Assessed in 1928.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .01
Earlier perseverance (1928) by present happiness 
(1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier tendency to agree
Subject code: P01ab02

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelInclination to answer positively
Page in Source 350
Our classificationEarlier tendency to agree, code P01ab02
Operationalization
3-item additive index revealing the inclinination to 
answer positively. Each rated on a 5-point scale.
Typical items are:
- If someone askes me something personal I reply 
straightforwardly.
- If someone startstalking to you, you 
  have to be as honest as possible
- It is a good thing that people say
  what they really feel.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.01 ns
T2 happiness by T2 yea-saying
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.10 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier anxiety
Subject code: P01ab03

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationEarlier anxiety, code P01ab03
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:24-242),
rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a 
lot':
1. "I am easily frightened"
2. "I often feel insecure"
3. "I tend to be nervous in new     situations"
4. "I have fewer fears than most people    my age" 
(reverse)"
5. "When I get scared, I panic"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.40 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Fear at T2. 

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.29  (001)
T2:  r = -.36  (001)
T3:  r = -.31  (001)
T4:  r = -.32  (001)
Sum: r = -.40  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.19
NAS: r(mean) = +.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier assertiveness
Subject code: P01ab04

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier ascendancy
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEarlier assertiveness, code P01ab04
Operationalization
Guilford-Martin Inventory of Factors: GAMIN-A scale.
This inventory reflects on characteristics of a 
positive self-concept.
This sub-scale in particular measures social 
assertiveness and has items reflecting a willingness to 
stand for one's rights and a lack of fearfullness of 
standing out in a acrowd, taking action in a 
troublesome situation or confronting disagreement.

Assessed at T1 (20 years before T5).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.23 p < .05
T1 ascendancy by T5 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier approval seeking
Subject code: P01ab05

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for social approval
Our classificationEarlier approval seeking, code P01ab05
Operationalization
31-item index of true/false statements
(Social Desirability Scale; see Crowne & Marlowe, 
1964). Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
T1 happiness:        tau = +.31  (001)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.27  (001)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.16  (001)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.19  (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier cleverness
Subject code: P01ab06

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationEarlier cleverness, code P01ab06
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 
30).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-20 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier conscientiousness
Subject code: P01ab07

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 23/24
Our classificationEarlier conscientiousness, code P01ab07
Operationalization
Index of closed questions answered by Ss and spouse. 
NEO Personality Inventory (Costa ea 1985). Typical 
characteristics of high scores are:
-organized, reliable
-neat
-ambitious, persevering
Assessed at T1(1979), T2(1981) and   T3(1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.21 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.18 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.24 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 self-rated
conscientiousness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .05
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.14 p < .05
T1 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.15 p < .05
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.03 ns
T2 happiness (ABS) by T3 spouse-rated
conscientiousness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sense of coherence
Subject code: P01ab08

StudySnekkevik et al. (2003): study SE 1993
TitleIs Sense of Coherence Stable after Multiple Trauma.
SourceClinical Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 17, 443 - 453
PublicRehabilitation patients, followed 2 years after trauma, Sweden 1993-1999
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelSense of coherence
Page in Source 106-107
Our classificationEarlier sense of coherence, code P01ab08
Operationalization
Selfreport on 13 questions:
a: Doing the things you do every day is…
b: Do you have very mixed-up feelings and ideas?
c: Does it happen that you have feelings inside you 
would rather not feel?
d: Many people- even those with a strong character- 
sometimes feel like sad sacks(losers) in certain 
situations. How often have felt this way in the past?
e: When sometthing happened, have you generally found 
that:
f: How often do you the feeling that there"s little 
meaning in the things you do in life?
g: How often do you have feelings that there's little 
meaning in the things you do in your daily life?
h: How often do you have feelings that you're not sure 
you can keep under control?
i: Do you have the feeling that you don't really care 
about what goes on around you?
j: Has it happened in the past that you were surprised 
by the behaviour of people whom you ought to know?
k: Has it happened that people whom you counted on 
disappoited you?
l: Until now, your life has had
m; Do you have the feeling that you're being treated 
unfairly?
n: Do yoy have the feeling that you are in an 
anfamiliar situation and don't know what to do?
Observed distributionRange; 25-91, median T1 63, T2 68, T3 65
Error EstimatesCronbach alphavaried from 0.86 to 0,89 T1 -T2 r = +.61, T2-T3 rs= +.59
Remarks
Abreviated Antonovsky Sense of Coherence Checklist 
(SOC-13)
Assesses at:
T1: Within one week after admission (median 35 days, 
range 6-80 days after injury)
T2:  Shortly before discharge ( median 161 days, range 
73-290 days after injure)
T3: at follow up (median24 months, range 12-41 months 
after injure)T1: ..

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cr= ns
T1 sense of coherence by T3 happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cr= ns
T2 sense of coherence by T3 happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-crpc=+.42 p < .05
T1 happiness (recalled before injury) by T1 sense 
of coherence
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-crpc=+.40 p < .005
T2 happiness by T2 sense of coherence
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-crpc=+.57 p < .05
T3 happiness by T3 sense of coherence

rpc's controled for current
- general health (GHQ-20)
- depression
- anxiety


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier emotionality
Subject code: P01ab10

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral emotionality
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationEarlier emotionality, code P01ab10
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242) rated on a 
5-point scale. Each item ranging from 'a little' to 'a 
lot':
1. "I frequently get upset"
2. "I am almost always calm - nothing 
   ever bothers me (reverse)"
3. "I get excited easily"
4. "I am somewhat emotional"
5. "I often feel like crying"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.33 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Emotionality at T2.

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.25  (001)
T2:  r = -.29  (001)
T3:  r = -.28  (001)
T4:  r = -.23  (001)
Sum: r = -.33  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.08
NAS: r(mean) = +.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier fail-anxiety
Subject code: P01ab11

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTest anxiety
Our classificationEarlier fail-anxiety, code P01ab11
Operationalization
A mean of 14 true/false items, adopted from the 
Mandler-Sarason Test Anxiety Questionnaire, measuring 
how anxious respondent gets about tests and exams. 
Scale: 1.00 = low; 2.00 = high test anxiety. Assessed 
at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- s
                  Test anxiety  
Happiness         T1             T2
T1          tau = -.17 (001)     -.11 (01)
T2          tau = -.13 (001)     -.18 (001)
T3          tau = -.12 (001)     -.17 (001)
T4          tau = -.15 (001)     -.19 (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier extraversion
Subject code: P01ab12

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1965
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 675
Our classificationEarlier extraversion, code P01ab12
Operationalization
Cattell (1973) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Assessed at T1 (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .05
Hedonic level assessed at T2
NAS: r = +.03  ns
PAS: r = +.23  (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier independence
Subject code: P01ab14

StudyKirchler (1984b): study AT 1983
TitleSechs Monate ohne Arbeit. (Six Months without Work).
SourceWISO (Wirtschafts und Sozialpolitische Zeitschrift des I.S.A.), 1984, Vol. 3, 66 - 81
PublicUnemployed, followed 6 months after job loss, Linz Austria, 1983
Sample
Non-ResponseDropout due to refusal 23%
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality structure
Page in Source 279
Our classificationEarlier independence, code P01ab14
Operationalization
Three types derived from scores on
German version of the Cattel 16 PF test
(Schneewind et al 1987)

Happiness assessed at four times after
falling unemployed:
T1  1 month
T2  2 month
T3  3 month
T4  6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-v-5-aDMt= p < .01
Happiness at T1
-Social sensitive dependents   Mt' = 7.94
-Self-assured dominants        Mt' = 8.51
-Insecure-submissive types     Mt' = 7.70

This pattern remains largely identical from T1
to T4, both among Ss who remain unemployed and
who find a job. After becoming re-employed 
insecure-submissive Ss improved most in happiness 
(Ms' = 9.15)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier independence
Subject code: P01ab14

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =152

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy need satisfaction
Page in Source 488,489
Our classificationEarlier independence, code P01ab14
Operationalization
T1 BASELINE AUTONOMY-NEED SATISFACTION
Selfreport on sigle question: "the extent to which you 
are having this type of experiences in your life, at 
present:
- feeling generally autonomous and choiceful in what I 
do"

Rated 1 (very little) to 7 (very much)

T2-T4 SEMESTER AUTONOMY-NEED SATISFACTION
Participants free listed the three activities they had 
spent the most time performing during the preceding 
24hr, excluding eating or sleeping

Rated why they did each activity in terms of 4 reasons: 

a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated on 1 (not at all for this reason) to 7 (very much 
for this reason)

Summation: Average of the 9 autonomy ratings, 
respectivly

Autonomy = (d+e)-(a+b)
Observed distributionBASELINE M=5.26, SD=1.29; SEMESTER M=4.29, SD=1.63
Error Estimates?=.77
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.46 p < .01
T1 happiness and T1 feeling of autonomy
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.32 p < .01
T5 happiness and T1 feeling of autonomy
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 feeling of autonomy
Beta controlled for:
- T1 competence
- T1 relatedness
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.37 p < .01
T1 happiness and T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
autonomy
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.47 p < .01
T5 happiness and T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
autonomy
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
T5 happiness by T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
autonomy
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester competence
- semester relatedness

T1 feelings of autonomy do not predict later 
change in happiness


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inhibition
Subject code: P01ab15

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelPoor inhibition of impulse
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationEarlier inhibition, code P01ab15
Operationalization
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242) rated on a 
5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a lot':
1. "I have trouble controlling my          impulses"
2. "Usually I can't stand waiting"
3. "I can tolerate frustration better      than most" 
(reverse)
4. "I have trouble resisting my            cravings 
(for food, cigarettes,        etc)"
5. "I like to spend my money right away     rather than 
save it for long-range     goods".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=-.22 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Poor inhibition of impulse at 
T2. 
Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.16  (001)
T2:  r = -.23  (001)
T3:  r = -.18  (001)
T4:  r = -.18  (001)
Sum: r = -.22  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.05
NAS: r(mean) = +.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelMastery
Page in Source 104-5
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions such as:
- I have little control over the things that happen to 
me
- I can do just anything I really set my mind to do

Pearlin and Schooler (1978) Mastery Scale. Range 7-35
Observed distributionRange: 7-35; T1: M = 22,6, SD = 5,1; T2: M = 21,2, SD = 4,7
Remarks
Assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 20 week 
rehabilitation program
T1-T2 change: ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.06 ns
T1 control belief by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.13 ns
Beta controled for:
- age, gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.24 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in control belief by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.33 p < .054
Beta controled for
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelSelf efficacy: control symptoms
Page in Source 104-105
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
Self report on six questions such as:
- How confident are you that you can control your 
breathlessness by taking your medications?

Subscale of Sullivan 1998 self efficacy scale
Observed distributionRange 0-24; T1: M = 17,8 SD = 3,2 T2: M = 19,7 SD = 2,9
Remarks
Assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 20 week 
rehabilitation program
T1- T2 change p<.002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.06 ns
T1 symptom control by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.15 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in symptom control by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.25 ns
Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelSelf efficacy: maintain function
Page in Source 104-105
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
Self report on three questions such as:
- How confident are you that you cab get regular 
excercise?

Maintain function subscale of Sullivan (1998) self 
efficacy scale
Observed distributionRange: 0-12; T1: M = 7,2, SD = 2,4; T2: M = 8,0, SD = 2,6
Remarks
Assessed before (T1) and after (T2) 20 week 
rehabilitation program
T1=T2 change ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.29 ns
T1 maintain function by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+32 p < .073
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.19 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in maintain function by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.27 ns
Betas controled for:
- age
- gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelInternal control
Page in Source 350,255,60
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
External vs internal control.
12-item a additive index rated on a 3-point scale. 
Shortened version of
Rotter(1966) Scale.
Typical questions are:
- Whether people like you or not is 
  something you can't influence.
- I seldom feel myself victim of
  circumstances.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.24 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 internal control
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.33 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 internal control

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=+.17
T2 happiness by T2 internal control.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, intimacy with 
partner, adequacy of coping and self- and 
externally induced burdens.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=+.28
T3 happiness by T3 internal control.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem and quality of 
life.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=+.21
T2 happiness by T2 internal control.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, unhappy 
childhood and traumatic childhood experiences.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyPalmore (1981): study US 1968
TitleSocial Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study.
SourceDuke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA
Public46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labelT1 internal control
Page in Source 103
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
Index containing four pairs of statements e,g, "some of 
the good and some of the bad things in my life have 
happened by chance" (external control).
"What happened to me has been my own doing" (internal 
control).
Each S was asked which one of each pair is more true 
for him.
(from the Internal-External Control of Reinforcement 
Scale; see Jesson at al. (1968).
0= external
1= internal
Scale 0-4.
Assessed at T1.
Observed distributionMales : M = 2,6: SD = 1,0 Females: M = 2,2; SD = 1,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+ p < .05
T1 internal control by T2 happiness
Males  : r =      (ns)
Females: r = +.14 (05)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+
Males  : r =      (ns)
Females: r = +.19 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelInternal control
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
A mean of items adapted from the Rotter internality 
scale (see Rotter, 1966)
Scale: 1.00 = low to 2.00 = high internal control. 
Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
             Internal control
Happiness    T1        T2        T3        T4
T1     tau = +.21      +.14      +.14      +.13
T2     tau = +.12 (01) +.21      +.19      +.19
T3     tau = +.10 (01) +.14      +.23      +.20
T4     tau = +.13      +.15      +.21      +.28
All tau's significant with (001), unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelInternal control
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
A mean of items adapted from the Rotter internality 
scale (see Rotter, 1966)
Scale: 1.00 = low to 2.00 = high internal control. 
Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
             Internal control
Happiness    T1        T2        T3        T4
T1     tau = +.21      +.14      +.14      +.13
T2     tau = +.12 (01) +.21      +.19      +.19
T3     tau = +.10 (01) +.14      +.23      +.20
T4     tau = +.13      +.15      +.21      +.28
All tau's significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 81
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
by Guilford et al 1976.
Defined by general activity, ascendance and 
sociability.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+ s
T1 extraversion by T1 happiness:
- young(18-49) : r= +.26 (001)
- old  (50-97) : r= +.12 (05)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.12 p < .01
T1 extraversion by T2 happiness (2-10 yrs later)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.26 p < .01
T1 extraversion by T3 happiness (10-17 yrs later)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P01ab16

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelThinking introversion
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P01ab16
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
by Guilford et al 1976.
Defined by restraint and thoughtfulness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+ ns
T1 thinking introversion by T1 happiness:
- young(18-49) : r= +.06 ns
- old  (50-97) : r= +.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier neurotocism
Subject code: P01ab17

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1965
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 675
Our classificationEarlier neurotocism, code P01ab17
Operationalization
Cattell (1973) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Assessed at T1 (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-ar=-.30 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T2
NAS: r = +.39  (001)
PAS: r = -.08  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier optimism
Subject code: P01ab19

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier optimism
Page in Source 116
Our classificationEarlier optimism, code P01ab19
Operationalization
Factor Optimism - Pessimism, based on indirect 
agree/disagree questionnaire items, e.g. chances of 
success in life, most endeavors are worthwhile, life 
consists of a procession of disillu- sionments, the 
future looks black as pitch. Assessed two years 
earlier.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.58 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier persistence
Subject code: P01ab20

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier persistence
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier persistence, code P01ab20
Operationalization
Ratings of Ss personality.
           
- Parents rating 
  in 1940
- Selfrating
  in 1940
  in 1950
Remarks
Earlier persistence (1940, 1950) by present happiness 
(1972).
             

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parents rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 selfrating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .05
1950 selfrating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier persistence
Subject code: P01ab20

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelPerseverance
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier persistence, code P01ab20
Operationalization
Combined parent and teacher ratings of perseverance and 
desire to exe.

Assessed in 1928.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .01
Earlier perseverance (1928) by present happiness 
(1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier persistence
Subject code: P01ab20

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelTraits around age 30 (
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier persistence, code P01ab20
Operationalization
Feelings of inferiority
a. parent rating 1940
b. self rating 1940
c. self rating 1950

Persistence
d. parent rating 1940
e. self rating 1940
f. self rating 1950

Integration
g. parent rating 1940
h. self rating 1940
i. self rating 1950
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1940, 1950) by present happiness 
(1972). Subjects age in 1972 about 62.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 parents rating of feelings of inferiority by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 self rating of feelings of inferiority by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating of inferiority by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating of persistence by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating of persistence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .05
1950 self rating of persistence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating of intergration by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating of intergration by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating of intergration by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier positive thinking
Subject code: P01ab21

StudyGoodhart (1985): study US 1983
TitleSome Psychological Effects Associated with Positive and Negative Thinking about Stressful Event Outcomes: Was Pollyanna Right?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 216 - 232
PublicStudents in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response1.7% dropout
Respondents N =173

Correlate
Author's labelNegative thinking
Page in Source 223
Our classificationEarlier positive thinking, code P01ab21
Operationalization
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the 
recent past and then complete a 46-item event-outcome- 
appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in 
the questionnaire described negative outcomes. 
Typical items are:
Self-relevant items:
1. I began to feel that I was doing
   little toward my life enjoyment or
   personal development.
2. I became more uncertain about who I
   am or want to become.
3. I began to doubt whether my present
   career plans are consistent with  
   true interests and skills.
Externally relevant items:
1. The event made it more difficult to
   carry out ordinary daily activities.
2. The event created a financial
   strain.
3. Others were unaware of or 
   insensitive to my difficulties.
Negative thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.44 p < .001
T1 negative thinking by T1 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking         ß=-.37 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking   ß=-.00 (ns)
ß's controlled for T1 positive thinking.

O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.33 p < .001
T1 negative thinking by T2 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking         ß=-.36 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking   ß=-.00 (ns)
ß's controlled for T1 positive thinking.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier positive thinking
Subject code: P01ab21

StudyGoodhart (1985): study US 1983
TitleSome Psychological Effects Associated with Positive and Negative Thinking about Stressful Event Outcomes: Was Pollyanna Right?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 216 - 232
PublicStudents in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response1.7% dropout
Respondents N =173

Correlate
Author's labelPositive thinking
Page in Source 223
Our classificationEarlier positive thinking, code P01ab21
Operationalization
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the 
recent past and then completed a 46-item event-outcome- 
appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in 
this questionnaire described positive outcomes. 
Typical items are:
Self-relevant items:
1. I developed greater trust in my
   judgments of situations or people.
2. I modified personal or career goals
   to more closely match my true
   interests, abilities or values.
3. By coping with events, I gained
   confidence in my ability to handle
   other difficulties.
Externally relevant items:
1. I learned to consider others' advice
   when planning career or personal
   development goals.
2. I discovered I could rely on others
   for help in getting through
   difficulties.
3. Others became more sympathetic
   toward my situation or difficulties.
Positive thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .001
T1 positive thinking by T1 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking:         ß=+.34 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking:   ß=+.00 (ns)     
ß's controlled for T1 negative thinking.

O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
T1 positive thinking by T2 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking:         ß=+.00 (ns)   
-Externally relevant thinking:   ß=+.14 (ns)
ß's controlled for T1 negative thinking.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier resignation
Subject code: P01ab22

StudyMoum (1988): study NO Nord-Trűndelag 1984
TitleYea-saying and Mood-of-the-Day Effects in Self-Reported Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 117 - 139
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00302458
Public20+ aged, general public, Noth Trondelag county, followed 2 years, Norway, 1984-1986
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =622

Correlate
Author's labelResignation
Page in Source 128
Our classificationEarlier resignation, code P01ab22
Operationalization
Index of 4 closed questions, having the
same content but phrased pairswise 
positively or negatively. 
1 If people stopped complaining about
  everything, everybody would be better
  of.
2 You have to learn how to let others
  know you're not satisfied, or else
  there'll be no improvements.
3 You have to content yourself with
  what you've got, otherwise you'll
  just be disappointed and bitter.
4 If you're not satisfied, it is
  important to let others know about
  it. 
Questions rated on a 5 point scale. 1: disagree 
completely,..5: agree completely. Scores of questions 2 
and 4 were then subtracted from the summed score of 
questions 1 and 3.
Administered at T3.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-ar=+
happiness at T1          r= +.14
happiness at T2          r= +.21
happiness at T3          r= +.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier need for self-actualization
Subject code: P01ab23

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for self- development
Our classificationEarlier need for self-actualization, code P01ab23
Operationalization
15-item index containing closed questions designed to 
measure the need for self-development. Scale: 1.00 = 
low; 5.00 = high need for self-develop- ment. Assessed 
at T1, T2, T3, and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ p < .001
                  Need for self-development
Happiness         T1      T2      T3      T4
T1         tau = +.34    +.19    +.20    +.15
T2         tau = +.21    +.33    +.24    +.22
T3         tau = +.18    +.18    +.32    +.21
T4         tau = +.13    +.15    +.22    +.30
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier need for self-actualization
Subject code: P01ab23

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for self- utilization
Our classificationEarlier need for self-actualization, code P01ab23
Operationalization
8-item index containing closed questions concerning use 
of one's existing skills and abilities. Scale:
1.00 = low; 5.00 = high need for 
self-utilization. Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
            Need for self-utilization
Happiness   T1        T2        T3      T4
T1        +.27      +.15      +.17    +.12 (01)
T2        +.14      +.26      +.20    +.15
T3        +.09 (05) +.12 (01) +.26    +.16
T4        +.07 (ns) +.11 (01) +.19    +.25
All tau's significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =152

Correlate
Author's labelCompetence need satisfaction
Page in Source 488,489
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
T1 BASELINE COMPETENCE-NEED SATISFACTION
Selfreport on sigle question: "the extent to which you 
are having this type of experiences in your life, at 
present:
- feeling generally competent and able in what I 
attempt"

Rated 1 (very little) to 7 (very much)

T2-T4 SEMESTER COMPETENCE-NEED SATISFACTION
Participants free listed the three activities they had 
spent the most time performing during the preceding 
24hr, excluding eating or sleeping

Rated feelings of competence while doing each activity 
using a 1 (not at all competent) to 7 (very competent) 
scale

Summation: Average of the 9 competence ratings
Observed distributionBASELINE M=5.30, SD=1.28, SEMESTER M=5.89, SD=.72
Error Estimates?=.69
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.51 p < .01
T1 happiness and T1 feeling of competence
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.31 p < .01
T5 happiness and T1 feeling of competence
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.29 p < .01
T1 happiness by T1 feeling of competence
Beta controlled for:
- autonomy need satisfaction
- relatedness need satisfaction
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.42 p < .01
T1 happiness and T2-T4 averaged feeling of 
competence
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.46 p < .01
T5 happiness and T2-T4 averaged feeling of 
competence
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.15 p < .05
T5 happiness by T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
competence
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester autonomy
- semester relatedness

T1 feelings of competence do not predict later 
change in happiness


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier self-esteem
Page in Source 117
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
Index of agree / disagree statements, indicative of a 
successful life, self- confidence, success in achieving 
goals, etc.
Assessed two years earlier.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.50 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier selfconfidence
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
Guilford-Martin Inventory of Factors: GAMIN-I scale.
This inventory reflects on characteristics of a 
positive self-concept.
This sub-scale in particular reflects lack on 
inferiority feelings. High scorers believe they can 
cope with most situations, and that people will treat 
them well. They feel worthy as individuals without the 
approval of others.

Assessed at T1 (20 years before T5).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.35 p < .01
T1 selfconfidence by T5 happiness

Later analysis of the full study-group (N=266) 
also showed a significantly positive correlation 
(BRAY 1983 p 303).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelUnworrisome; satisfied; self-assured
Page in Source 342
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 30) as 
well as in old age (T2: age 70). Correlation over this 
40-year-period is +.34  .

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.37 p < .05
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.33 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2 load similarly on 
this factor.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelTraits around age 30 (
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
Feelings of inferiority
a. parent rating 1940
b. self rating 1940
c. self rating 1950

Persistence
d. parent rating 1940
e. self rating 1940
f. self rating 1950

Integration
g. parent rating 1940
h. self rating 1940
i. self rating 1950
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1940, 1950) by present happiness 
(1972). Subjects age in 1972 about 62.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 parents rating of feelings of inferiority by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 self rating of feelings of inferiority by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating of inferiority by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating of persistence by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating of persistence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .05
1950 self rating of persistence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parent rating of intergration by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating of intergration by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating of intergration by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier inferiority (around age 30)
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
Ratings of Ss feeling of inferiority.

Parent rating 
a. in 1940

Self ratings
b. in 1940
c. in 1950
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1940, 1950) by present happiness 
(1972). Subjects age in 1972 about 62.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 parent rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- p < .00
1940 self rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ=- p < .00
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ=- p < .03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-confidence
Subject code: P01ab24

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier self-confidence (around age 30)
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier self-confidence, code P01ab24
Operationalization
      
Self rating
a. in 1940
b. in 1950

Parent rating 
c. in 1928
Remarks
Earlier selfconfidence (1928, 1940, 1950) by present 
happiness (1972). Subjects age in 1972 about 62.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 self rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 self rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1928 parent rating by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-disclosing
Subject code: P01ab25

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance degree
Page in Source 350
Our classificationEarlier self-disclosing, code P01ab25
Operationalization
8 item additive index about willingness to discuss 
delicate matters.Each rated on a 5-point scale.
Typical items are:
- It is incomprehensable that people
  reveal their marriage problems.    
- These days people talk easily about
  their problems.
- You have to solve your own problems
  without complaining.
Assessed at T2(1976) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.03 ns
T2 happiness by T2 tolerance degree
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.12 p < .05
T3 happiness by T2 tolerance degree


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sociability
Subject code: P01ab26

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /1
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =152

Correlate
Author's labelRelatedness need satisfaction
Page in Source 488,489
Our classificationEarlier sociability, code P01ab26
Operationalization
T1 RELATEDNESS AUTONOMY-NEED SATISFACTION
Selfreport on sigle question: "the extent to which you 
are having this type of experiences in your life, at 
present:
- feeling generally related and connected to the people 
I spend time with"

Rated 1 (very little) to 7 (very much)

T2-T4 SEMESTER RELATEDNESS-NEED SATISFACTION
Participants free listed the three most time consuming 
social contacts during the preceding 24hr

Answered for each contact the question  "To what extent 
did you feel related and connected to the person(s) you 
were interacting with?"

Rated on 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much)

to form a composite score the nine ratings were 
averaged
Observed distributionBASELINE M=5.35, SD=1.38 SEMESTER M=5.49, SD=.87
Error Estimates?= 0.70
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.51 p < .05
T1 happiness and T1 feeling of relatedness
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.34 p < .05
T5 happiness and T1 feeling of relatedness
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.34 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 feeling of relatedness
Beta controlled for:
- T1 competence
- T1 autonomy
- T1 relatedness
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.38 p < .05
T1 happiness and T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
relatedness
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.45 p < .05
T5 happiness and T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
relatedness
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
T5 happiness by T2-T4 averaged feelings of 
relatedness
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester competence
- semester autonomy

T1 feelings of relatedness do not predict later 
change in happiness


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier hurriedness
Subject code: P01ab27

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelTempo
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationEarlier hurriedness, code P01ab27
Operationalization
5-item indexes from the EASI-III Tempe-
rament Survey (Buss & Plomin, 1975:241-242)
1. I usually seem to be in a hurry 
2. For relaxation I like to slow down
   (rev)
3. I like to be off, as soon as I wake 
   up
4. I like to keep busy all the time
5. My life is fast paced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=+.13 p < .01
Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 
month-intervals). Tempo at T2.

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = +.08  (05)
T2:  r = +.10  (001)
T3:  r = +.08  (05)
T4:  r = +.10  (01)
Sum: r = +.13  (01)

PAS: r(mean) = +.18
NAS: r(mean) = +.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier stability
Subject code: P01ab28

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier emotional stability
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEarlier stability, code P01ab28
Operationalization
Guilford-Martin Inventory of Factors GAMIN-N scale, 
This inventory reflects on characteristics of a 
positive self-concept.
This sub-scale in particular contains items reflecting 
lack of nervousness and possession of a steady 
temperament.

Assessed at T1 (20 years before T5).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=+.31 p < .01
T1 emotional stability by T5 happiness.

Later analysis of full study-group show also a 
significantly positive correlation. (BRAY 1983: 
302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier tolerance
Subject code: P01ab29

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSocial distance
Our classificationEarlier tolerance, code P01ab29
Operationalization
A mean of three items asking the respondent how much he 
would mind having close contact with people of a 
different race. A high score indicates a large social 
distance. Assessed at T3, T4 and T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
                Social distance
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1        tau = -.05      -.01      -.02
T2        tau = -.04      -.01      -.03
T3        tau = -.07      -.02      -.04
T4        tau = -.08 (05) -.06      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier trusting
Subject code: P01ab30

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Our classificationEarlier trusting, code P01ab30
Operationalization
6-item index of closed questions on trust in people, 
assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4. Scale: 1.00 = low trust 
to 2.00 = high trust

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ s
          Trust in people
Happiness T1        T2        T3        T4
T1      +.16      +.14      +.08 (05) +.08 (05)
T2      +.13      +.23      +.21      +.17
T3      +.12 (01) +.15      +.19      +.15
T4      +.08 (05) +.10 (01) +.14      +.21
All significant with (001) unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier vigor
Subject code: P01ab31

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelVigor
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationEarlier vigor, code P01ab31
Operationalization
5-item indexes from the EASI-III Tempe- rament Survey 
(Buss & Plomin, 1975:241-242)
1. I like to wear myself out
2. I often feel sluggish (rev)
3. I often feel busting with energy
4. When I do things I do them   vigorously
5. My movements are forceful and   emphatic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=+.28 p < .001
Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = +.19  (001)
T2:  r = +.20  (001)  
T3:  r = +.18  (001)
T4:  r = +.24  (001)
Sum: r = +.28  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = +.25
NAS: r(mean) = -.07


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-mi-sqr-v-5-aSelfreport on single question in diary, filled in 6 times a day during 40 days in a 6 month period.

Is my mood at the moment
2 clearly positive
1 rather positive
0 indifferent
-1 rather negative
-2 clearly negative
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 10 questions, repeated four times at 3 months intervals:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?" (yes/no)

A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often



Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on10 questions asked 4 times a year at 3 month intervals.

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" (yes/no)
A Particularly exited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone critized you?

Scoring: yes = 1, no is = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible: range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-aSelfreport in focused interview:

Rating of cheerfulness by interviewer on the basis of an extensive interview.

Rating options:
7 cheerful
6
5
4
3
2
1 gloomy
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4 usually good-humored air
3
2
1 dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
C-A-h-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about what you have accomplished in life...?
3 well satisfied
2 reasonable satisfied
1 dissatisfied:
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A Selfreport on life satisfaction on five questions
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on mood on 20 questions
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answered: 1 not at all …… 7 very frequently
(Watson's Positive And Negative Affect Scale PANAS)

Summation: First computation of z-scores of A (life-satisfaction), Ba-k (negative affect) and Bl-t (positive affect). Next zA + zBl-t -zBa-k

Answer options:
a 1 very slightly or not at all
b 2 a little
c 3 moderately
d 4 quite a bit
e 5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past few weeks' version)
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-aClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center.

Rater instruction:
"To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?"
1 low
2
3 average
4
5 high
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bSelfreport in focused interview

Two independent interviews. Each interviewer rated `satisfaction with lot' on the same scale.
1 tremendously satisfied
2
3
4 average
5
6
7 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a scale from 0 to 10. om it, "0" means that you are completely dissatisfied and "10 " means that you are completely satisfied. Please ring ONE number to show just how dissatisfied or satisfied you are about the way your life has turned out so far
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied are you with your life currently?"
0 Not at all
1
2
3
4 neutral
5
6
7
8 A great deal
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cSelf report on single question:

My life as a whole is ..
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 rather satisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
1 very dissatisfying
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-aClinical rating.

Ratings by four judges on the basis of notes from observations and interviews between age 12-18.

Ratings were made on the following dimensions:
A. discontented
B. unhappy
C. dissatisfied
D. complaints

Rating options:
1 not at all true
2
3
4 average
5
6
7
8 extremely true

Summation: not reported


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
ChiČCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
ChiČ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
ChiČ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
ZZZZZGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORYA04aa02Stage of life
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORYM14aa01Earlier motivantion
P01aaEarlier personality organizationP03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION
P01aaEarlier personality organizationP05aaLater personality organization
P01abEarlier personality traitsP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
P01abEarlier personality traitsP05abLater personality traits
P01ab01Earlier ambitiousnessP04abAmbitious
P01ab02Earlier tendency to agreeP04aeAgreeing, yea-saying
P01ab03Earlier anxietyP04afAnxious
P01ab04Earlier assertivenessP04agAssertive
P01ab04Earlier assertivenessP04blIndependent
P01ab05Earlier approval seekingP04ahApproval seeking
P01ab06Earlier clevernessP04amClever
P01ab07Earlier conscientiousnessP04aoConscientious
P01ab08Earlier sense of coherenceP03abPersonality integration
P01ab08Earlier sense of coherenceP04apCoherence (sense of)
P01ab09Earlier efficacyC10aa01Earlier coping
P01ab09Earlier efficacyP04auEfficacious, productive
P01ab10Earlier emotionalityP04axEmotional
P01ab11Earlier fail-anxietyP04baFail anxious
P01ab11Earlier fail-anxietyP05ab02Later fail-anxiousness
P01ab12Earlier extraversionP04ayExtraverted
P01ab13Earlier genuinessP04bdGenuine
P01ab14Earlier independenceP04blIndependent
P01ab15Earlier inhibitionP04bnInhibited
P01ab16Earlier inner-controlP04boInner locus of control
P01ab16Earlier inner-controlP05ab03Later locus of control
P01ab17Earlier neurotocismM07ac05cNeurotic (f48)
P01ab17Earlier neurotocismP04caNeurotic
P01ab18Earlier opennessP04cbOpen
P01ab19Earlier optimismP04ccOptimistic
P01ab20Earlier persistenceP04cfPersistent
P01ab21Earlier positive thinkingP04cgPositive reacting
P01ab22Earlier resignationP04ciResigned
P01ab23Earlier need for self-actualizationP04cpSelf-actualization (need for)
P01ab23Earlier need for self-actualizationP05ab06Later need for self-actualisation
P01ab24Earlier self-confidenceP05ab07Later self-confidence
P01ab24Earlier self-confidenceP04csSelf-confidant
P01ab25Earlier self-disclosingP04ctSelf-disclosing
P01ab26Earlier sociabilityP04cwSociable
P01ab27Earlier hurriednessP04cySpeedy, hurried
P01ab28Earlier stabilityP04czStable
P01ab29Earlier toleranceP05ab10Later tolerance
P01ab29Earlier toleranceP04deTolerant
P01ab30Earlier trustingP04dgTrusting
P01ab30Earlier trustingP05ab11Later trusting
P01ab30Earlier trustingT05aaTrust career
P01ab31Earlier vigorP04diVigorous

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings