Findings on Happiness and NATION: REGION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: REGION
Subject Code: N09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N09aaArea in nation (geographic region)6
N09aa01Earlier area of residence3
N09aa02Current area of residence7
N09aa02gRegion in Israel1
N09aa02jRegion in Nigeria2
N09aa02kRegion in Norway3
N09aa02mRegion in Usa10
N09NATION: REGION1
N09aa02dRegion in Denmark4
N09aa02eRegion in Germany24
N09aa02bRegion in Australia5
N09aa02cRegion in Canada3
N09aa02fRegion in Italy1
N09aa02lRegion in UK2
N09aa02hRegion in Netherlands4
N09acCharacteristics of region1
N09ac03aEconomic affluence in region4
N09ac03cUnemployment in region6
N09ac02aNature in region1
N09ac01bDivorced in region1
N09ac01cWidowed in region1
N09ac01aAge composition in region1
N09ac07bSuicide in region4
N09abAttitude climate in region1
N09ac01Demographic composition of region0
N09ac03Economic situation in region3
N09ac02Ecological situation in region0
N09ac06Education in region1
N09ab01Happiness in region2
N09ab02Hope in region0
N09ab03Satisfaction in region0
N09ac04Political conditions in region1
N09ac04bPolitical violence4
N09ac03bIncome inequality in region2
N09aa02iRegion in New Zealand1
N09aa02aRegion in China3
N09aa02nRegion in Belgium1
N09ac01ePopulation size in region1
N09ac04aDominant political ideology0
N09ac05Socio-economic regime in region0
N09ac05bRegional Welfare Effort1
N09ac05aEconomic freedom in region0
N09ac01fEthnic composition of region1
N09ac08Socio-cultural conditions in the region2
N09ac01dMarried in region0
N09ac03abGDP in region4
N09ac03aaRegional Income3
N09ac08aSocial participation in region1
N09ac08bClose relations in region1
N09ac07Apparent quality of life in region0
N09ac07aAverage health in region1
N09ac04cSize of regional government1
N09ac03acEconomic growth in region1
N09ac09Inequality in quality of life in region0
N09ac09aInequality in happiness in region1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: REGION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: REGION
Subject code: N09

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelResident of KwaZulu -Natal
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationNATION: REGION, code N09
Operationalization
Resident of KwaZulu-Natal (vs not)
Observed distribution21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=
% happy   39  (sample mean 52%)
% unhappy 48  (sample mean 36%)

Happiness of Ss not Resident of KwaZulu-Natal not 
reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Area in nation (geographic region)
Subject code: N09aa

StudyYounis et al. (2003): study IQ 2001
TitleQuality of Life among College Students in Iraq.
SourceQuality of Life Newsletter, 2003, Vol. 30, 3 - 4
PublicUniversity students, Iraq, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =579

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic regions of Iraq
Page in Source 3
Our classificationArea in nation (geographic region), code N09aa
Operationalization
a Baghdad
b Diala
c Thi-Qar
Observed distributionN = a: 181, b: 198, c: 200

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cw-sq-v-5-bChi²=+25 p < .01
     M     Mt     CI95
a:   3.12  5.30   4.90-5.71
b:   3.23  5.33   5.47-6.17
c:   2.86  4.63   4.27-5.05
Multiple comparison shows b>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Area in nation (geographic region)
Subject code: N09aa

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelResidence
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationArea in nation (geographic region), code N09aa
Operationalization
a. Rome
b. Genoa
c. Milan (reference)
Observed distributiona. M = .32; SD = .01; b. M = .18; SD = .01; c. M = .49; SD = .01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.61 p < .01
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

Living in Rome  (vs living in Milan)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.31 p < .01
Living in Genoa (vs living in Milan)

OLRC's controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-gender

Similar results when additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.93 p < .01
SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

Living in Rome  (vs living in Milan)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+1.3 p < .01
Living in Genoa (vs living in Milan)

OLRC's controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-gender

Different results when additionally controlled 
for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.90 p < .01
CLASS FIXED EFFECTS

Living in Rome  (vs living in Milan)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.89 p < .01
Living in Genoa (vs living in Milan)

OLRC's controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-gender

Similar results when additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends


Correlational finding on Happiness and Area in nation (geographic region)
Subject code: N09aa

StudyMitchell (1972): study ZZ 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 4 big cities South East Asia, 1967-1968
Sample
Non-Responseranges from 7.6% to 44%
Respondents N =6827

Correlate
Author's labelCountry and city
Page in Source 24
Our classificationArea in nation (geographic region), code N09aa
Operationalization
Taipei/Malaysia/Singapore/Bangkok

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aD%=
% 'quite'or 'very' happy                     
Taipei                  85
Malaysia                89
Singapore               92
Bangkok                 92


Correlational finding on Happiness and Area in nation (geographic region)
Subject code: N09aa

StudyChang & Nayga Jr. (2010): study TW 2001
TitleChildhood Obesity and Unhappiness: the Influence of Soft Drinks and Fast Food Consumption.
SourceJournal of Happines Studies, 2010, Vol. 11, 261 - 275
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9139-4
PublicUnder 12 aged, children, Taiwan, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold regional location
Page in Source Table 2 & Table 3
Our classificationArea in nation (geographic region), code N09aa
Operationalization
Interviewers coding:
a. Center
b. South
c. East
d. North (reference)

1: yes
0: no
Observed distributiona: M = .39; SD = .49; b: M = .25; SD = .43; c: M = .04; SD = .20
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ar=+.05 ns
Center(vs North)
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ar=+.00 ns
r = +.003
South (vs North)
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ar=+.23 ns
East  (vs North)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Area in nation (geographic region)
Subject code: N09aa

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of residence
Page in Source 2
Our classificationArea in nation (geographic region), code N09aa
Operationalization
a: South England (reference)
b: Midlands
c: North England
d: Scotland

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=+/- p < .01
Midlands (vs. South):     OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.905-0.935] 
North England (vs. South):OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.920-0.949] 
Scotland (vs. South):     OR= 1.2 
CI99[1.116-1.185] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Area in nation (geographic region)
Subject code: N09aa

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in the United States
Page in Source 3
Our classificationArea in nation (geographic region), code N09aa
Operationalization
a: Southern
b: Western
c: Mid-Western
d: Eastern

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
a: Southern      52%
b: Western       49%
c: Mid-Western   45%
d: Eastern       41%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier area of residence
Subject code: N09aa01

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelLog of average rural income in province of origin
Page in Source 116
Our classificationEarlier area of residence, code N09aa01
Operationalization
Income average reported in 2002 national household 
survey
Observed distributionM=7.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.08 p < .NS
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Household income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier area of residence
Subject code: N09aa01

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 16
Our classificationEarlier area of residence, code N09aa01
Operationalization
Country of origin:
a) Turkey (reference category)
b) Yugoslavia (ex)
c) Italy
d) Spain
e) Rest of Europe
f) Rest of World

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.29 p < .01
b) Ex-Yugoslavia (vs Turkey)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.29 p < .01
c) Italy (vs. Turkey)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.57 p < .01
d) Spain (vs. Turkey
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.30 p < .01
e) Rest of Europe (vs. Turkey)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.69 p < .01
f) Rest of World (vs. Turkey)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier area of residence
Subject code: N09aa01

StudyKilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study US 1955
TitleSelf-Anchoring Scaling: A Measure of Individuals' Unique Reality Worlds.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1960, Vol. 16, 158 - 173
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 195?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelCategories of adult Americans
Page in Source 164
Our classificationEarlier area of residence, code N09aa01
Operationalization
a Negroes
b Immigrants
c Farmers
d Junior executives
e College teachers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=
Negroes              M=4,9
Immigrants           M=7,0
Farmers              M=7,3 
Junior executives    M=7,6
College teachers     M=7,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires (Argentina), 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelVillage
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
A: Villa de Mayo district
B: S. Brigida district
Remarks
A and B: two poor neighborhoods in Buenos Aires.

The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.38 ns
VILLA DE MAYO

B controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.21 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

Positive when OPRC additionally controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
S. BRIGIDA

B controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- credit cycle

Positive when B additionally controlled for:
microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.02 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when OPRC controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- credit cycle

Positive when OPRC additionally controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present or past)
- credit cycle (included dropouts)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelRegional variation
Page in Source 5, 10,11
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
Regional variation
a. Atlantic provinces
b. Quebec
c. Ontario
d. Prairie provinces
e. British Columbia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%= ns
% most happy:
a: Atlantic Provinces 26% 
b: Quebec             33% 
c: Ontario            28% 
d: Prairie Provinces  27% 

Girls N=1680, boys N= 1690
e: British Columbia   27%
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .110
girls, Atlantic Canada
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.04 p < .485
boys, Atlantic Canada
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.03 p < .565
girls, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .037
boys, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .079
girls, Prairie provences
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.08 p < .183
boys, Prairie provences
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.07 p < .288
girls, British Columbia
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.00 p < .958
boys, British Columbia
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.16 p < .040
Children with religious affiliation only: (Boys 
N=1178, girls N=1192)

girls, Atlantic Canada

girls
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.11 p < .169
boys, Atlantic Canada
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.12 p < .052
girls, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .088
boys, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .140
girls, Prairie Provinces
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.03 p < .625
boys, Prairie Provinces
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.05 p < .568
girls, British Columbia
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.12 p < .162
boys, British Columbia

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelBudapest dummy
Page in Source 183
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
1: Lives in Budapest
0: Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.07 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.19 p < .10
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .10
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyDiener et al. (1995a): study ZZ East-West pairs 1991 /1
TitleNational Differences in Reported Subjective Well-Being: Why do They Occur?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 7 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078966
PublicCollege students, South Korea, China, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =208

Correlate
Author's labelNational differences
Page in Source 21
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
a China
b South Korea
c USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-cDM=
a China         M = 4,5
b South Korea   M = 4,6
c USA           M = 5,2

a
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bDM=
a China         M = 2,1
b South Korea   M = 0,8
c USA           M = 2,5

a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyDiener et al. (1995a): study ZZ East-West pairs 1991
TitleNational Differences in Reported Subjective Well-Being: Why do They Occur?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 7 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078966
PublicCollege students, South Korea, Japan, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2711

Correlate
Author's labelNational differences
Page in Source 13
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
a Japan
b South Korea
c USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaDM=
a Japan        M = 4,09
b South Korea: M = 4,23
c USA          M = 5,28

a
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaDMa=
Residuals after controling national income in 38 
nation set
a Japan          Ma = -0,97
b South Korea    Ma = -0,54
c USA            Ma = +0.28
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aDM=
b Japan        M = 4,50
b South Korea: M = 4,39
c USA          M = 5,26

a
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aDMa=
Residuals after controling national income in 38 
nation set
a Japan          Ma = -0,50
b South Korea    Ma = -0,33
c USA            Ma = +0.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelLives in England
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Where do you live?
1: lives in England
0: elsewhere
  a in Wales
  b in Scotland
  c in Northern Ireland

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-ab=-.23 p < .05
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -British/Irish White
-Family conposition
 -number of biological parents in household
 -number of children in household
 -household income
-Standard of living
 -Household material deprivation index
 -Child material deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence
Subject code: N09aa02

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold location
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationCurrent area of residence, code N09aa02
Operationalization
Interviewers coding:
a. SE Wales
b. Mid and West Wales
c. North Wales (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.04 p < .01
SE Wales           (vs North Wales)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.07 p < .01
Mid and West Wales (vs North Wales)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China
Subject code: N09aa02a

StudyZhang et al. (2009): study CN 2009
TitleMeasuring Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of China and the USA.
SourceAsian Journal of Social Psychology, 2009,, Vol. 12, 221 - 225
URLhttp://blogs-journal.ccpn-global.org/2014/07/958/
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2009.01287.x
PublicUniverities students, China, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =348

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in China
Page in Source 224
Our classificationRegion in China, code N09aa02a
Operationalization
a  Beijing
b  Xi'an

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gDM=.75
Beijing:    M=1.23
Xi'an:      M=0.48
-difference M=0.75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China
Subject code: N09aa02a

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in China
Page in Source 7. 8
Our classificationRegion in China, code N09aa02a
Operationalization
Region in China:
- Eastern
- Central
- Western (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 p < .01
EASTERN (vs western)
Full sample               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.02 ns
First-generation migrants (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.08 p < .05
New-generation migrants   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 p < .05
Urban locals              (N=2738)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.01 ns
CENTRAL (vs western)
Full sample
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.01 ns
First-generation migrants (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.06 ns
New-generation migrants   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 ns
Urban locals              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China
Subject code: N09aa02a

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in China
Page in Source 1193, 1195
Our classificationRegion in China, code N09aa02a
Operationalization
Region in China:
a) Middle of China
b) West of China
c) South or East of China (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.04 ns
MIDDLE OF CHINA (vs South or East of China)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.05 ns
WEST OF CHINA   (vs South or East of China)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Marital status
  l) Housing area
- City characteristics
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) GDP per capita
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Between-group inequality
  r) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia
Subject code: N09aa02b

StudyCummins et al. (2004d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Special Report on Cities.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelCapital city
Page in Source 6
Our classificationRegion in Australia, code N09aa02b
Operationalization
a: Canberra
b: Darwin
c: Sydney
d: Melbourne
e: Brisbane
f: Adelaide
g: Perth
h: Hobart
Observed distributionN = a: 175, b: 31, c: 1107, d: 983, e: 572, f: 393, g: 4127 h: 70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,71; SD = 1,51
b Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,45
c Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,69
d Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,73
e Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,51
f Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,72
g Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,63
h Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,53
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caF=1,51 p < .158


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia
Subject code: N09aa02b

StudyCummins et al. (2001b): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 2, Report 2. Special Report on Income and Geographic Location.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 36
Our classificationRegion in Australia, code N09aa02b
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
Victoria
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,91, N = 104
1 Mt = 7,79, SD = 1,89, N =  58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
New South Wales
0 Mt = 7,80, SD = 1,99, N = 130
1 Mt = 7,53, SD = 1,99, N = 100
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
Queensland
0 Mt = 7,76, SD = 2,13, N = 123
1 Mt = 7,69, SD = 2,20, N = 61
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
South Australia
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,90, N = 109
1 Mt = 7,57, SD = 1,84, N = 58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
West Australia
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,74, N = 112
1 Mt = 7,24, SD = 3,37, N =  71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia
Subject code: N09aa02b

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Australia
Page in Source 427, 436, 438, 441
Our classificationRegion in Australia, code N09aa02b
Operationalization
States and territories in Australia:
a) New South Wales
b) Victoria
c) Queensland
d) South Australia
e) Western Australia
f) Tasmania
g) Northern territory
h) ACT (Canberra)
Observed distributiona) 31%, b) 26%, c) 19%, d) 10%, e) 9%, f) 3%, g) 2%, h) 1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
                  Males   Females   Total
New South Wales   7.89    8.03      7.96
Victoria          7.96    8.00      7.98
Queensland        7.84    7.96      7.90
South Australia   7.98    8.15      8.07
Western Australia 7.82    7.99      7.91
Tasmania          8.03    8.22      8.13
Northern Territory7.90    7.84      7.87
ACT (Canberra)    7.84    7.64      7.74
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.04(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.07(.1)    -.08(.05)      
South Australia   +.02(ns)    +.06(ns)      
Western Australia -.06(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.07(ns)    +.13(ns)      
Northern Territory-.08(ns)    -.32(.05)      
ACT (Canberra)    -.04(ns)    -.20(.05)

OPRC's controlled for:
- remoteness of place of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English 
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.06(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.06(ns)    -.08(.1)      
South Australia   +.06(ns)    +.07(ns)      
Western Australia -.04(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.10(ns)    +.14(.1)      
Northern Territory-.00(ns)    -.29(.1)     
ACT (Canberra)    +.02(ns)    -.19(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- 3 additional neighbourhood characteristics
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.05(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.05(ns)    -.07(.1)      
South Australia   +.06(ns)    +.07(ns)      
Western Australia -.04(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.08(ns)    +.14(.1)      
Northern Territory-.00(ns)    -.29(.1)     
ACT (Canberra)    +.01(ns)    -.19(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- duration of living in residence
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females   
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.05(ns)    +.04(ns)      
Queensland        -.04(ns)    -.08(.1)      
South Australia   +.01(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Western Australia -.09(ns)    -.09(.1)     
Tasmania          +.10(ns)    +.12(ns)      
Northern Territory-.22(ns)    -.40(.01)     
ACT (Canberra)    -.08(ns)    -.21(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia
Subject code: N09aa02b

StudyCummins et al. (2005): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Report 12.1. Special report on City and Country Living.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2005, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =24000

Correlate
Author's labelCapital City
Page in Source 33+44
Our classificationRegion in Australia, code N09aa02b
Operationalization
a: Darwin
b: Sydney
c: Canberra
d: Melbourne
e: Brisbane
f: Adelaide
g: Perth
h: Hobart

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,59; N =  100
b Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,71; N = 3271
c Mt = 7,63; SD = 1,61; N =  388
d Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,70; N = 2719
e Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,69; N = 1349
f Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,81; N = 1015
g Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,63; N = 1193
h Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,65; N =  240
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caE²=.001
partial eta² controled for
- income
- age
- gender
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia
Subject code: N09aa02b

StudyCummins et al. (2005): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Report 12.1. Special report on City and Country Living.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2005, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =24000

Correlate
Author's labelState Regional Areas
Page in Source 50
Our classificationRegion in Australia, code N09aa02b
Operationalization
a: Northern Territory
b: New South Wales
c: Victoria
d: Queensland
e: South Australia
f: Western Australia
g: Tasmania

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,58; N =   72
b Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,79; N = 3206
c Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,72; N = 1035
d Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,83; N = 2419
e Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,69; N =  547
f Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,72; N =  562
g Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,69; N =  355
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
all differences n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada
Subject code: N09aa02c

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Canada, code N09aa02c
Operationalization
0 All
1 Specific region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.01 ns
Maritimes
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.07 p < .05
Quebec
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=-.02 ns
Ontario
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=.00 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.02 ns
Prairies
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=-.07 p < .05
British Columbia
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=-.07 p < .05


rpc's controled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada
Subject code: N09aa02c

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Canada, code N09aa02c
Operationalization
0 All
1 Specific region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.09 p < .01
Maritimes
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=-.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.05 ns
Quebec
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.10 p < .01
Ontario
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.01 ns
Prairies
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.01 ns
British Columbia
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=+.11 p < .01

rpc's controled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada
Subject code: N09aa02c

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Canada, code N09aa02c
Operationalization
0: All
1: Specific region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=.00 ns
Maritimes
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .01
Quebec
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=-.07 p < .05
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
Ontario
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
Prairies
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
Britis Columbia
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.03 ns

rpc's controled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark
Subject code: N09aa02d

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelcounty of residence
Page in Source 76,78
Our classificationRegion in Denmark, code N09aa02d
Operationalization
counties in Denmark
a: Kobenhavns Amt
b: Frederiksborg Amt
c: Roskilde Amt
d: Vetsjaellands Amt
e: Storstroms Amt
f: Fyns Amt
g: Bornholms Amt
h: Sonderjyllands Amt
i: Ribe Amt
j: Vejle Amt
k: Ringkobing Amt
l: Viborg Amt
m: Arhus Amt
n: Nordjyllands Amt
Observed distributionN: all:4095, a:2312; b:485; c:3411; d:61; e:145; f: 162; g:19; h:37; i:39; j:107; k:55; l:61; m:158; n:113

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.76
b: Mt=7.80
c: Mt=7.94
d: Mt=7.83
e: Mt=7.93
f: Mt=7.71
g: Mt=7.10
h: Mt=7.98
i: Mt=7.63
j: Mt=7.43
k: Mt=7.78
l: Mt=7.83
m: Mt=7.49
n: Mt=7.39
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.40
b: Mt=7.61
c: Mt=7.56
d: Mt=7.63
e: Mt=7.63
f: Mt=7.38
g: Mt=7.24
h: Mt=7.64
i: Mt=7.11
j: Mt=7.13
k: Mt=7.86
l: Mt=7.63
m: Mt=7.15
n: Mt=7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.01
b: Mt=7.11
c: Mt=7.36
d: Mt=6.80
e: Mt=7.21
f: Mt=6.94
g: Mt=6.98
h: Mt=7.16
i: Mt=7.05
j: Mt=6.75
k: Mt=7.64
l: Mt=6.80
m: Mt=6.71
n: Mt=6.69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark
Subject code: N09aa02d

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelresidence (country/town)
Page in Source 74
Our classificationRegion in Denmark, code N09aa02d
Operationalization
Single question:
Where do you live ?
1: In the country
2: In a small town
3: In a large town or suburb
4: In Copenhagen
Observed distributionN: all:4538, 1:323 2:565, 3:1919, 4:1731,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 p < .09
1: Mt=7.91
2: Mt=7.73
3: Mt=7.79
4: Mt=7.68
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.05 p < .00
1: Mt=7.68
2: Mt=7.51
3: Mt=7.48
4: Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.05 p < .00
1: Mt=7.26
2: Mt=7.08
3: Mt=7.08
4: Mt=6.91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark
Subject code: N09aa02d

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelcounty of residence
Page in Source 72, 74
Our classificationRegion in Denmark, code N09aa02d
Operationalization
counties in Denmark
a: Kobenhavns Amt
b: Frederiksborg Amt
c: Roskilde Amt
d: Vetsjaellands Amt
e: Storstroms Amt
f: Fyns Amt
g: Bornholms Amt
h: Sonderjyllands Amt
i: Ribe Amt
j: Vejle Amt
k: Ringkobing Amt
l: Viborg Amt
m: Arhus Amt
n: Nordjyllandsmt
Observed distributionN: a:333, b:107, c:65, d:104, e:69, f:118, g:11, h:59, i:48, j;88, k:69, l:104, m:150, n:111,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Kobenhavns Amt      Mt=7.66    
b: Frederiksborg Amt   Mt=7.74
c: Roskilde Amt        Mt=7.58
d: Vetsjaellands Amt   Mt=7.84
e: Storstroms Amt      Mt=8.26 
f: Fyns Amt            Mt=7.81
g: Bornholms Amt       Mt=6.59
h: Sonderjyllands Amt  Mt=7.63
i: Ribe Amt            Mt=7.98  
j: Vejle Amt           Mt=7.61
k: Ringkobing Amt      Mt=8.19 
l: Viborg Amt          Mt=7.84 
m: Arhus Amt           Mt=7.74
n: Nordjyllandsmt      Mt=7.86 
All                    Mt=7.77
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Kobenhavns Amt      Mt=7.23
b: Frederiksborg Amt   Mt=7.45 
c: Roskilde Amt        Mt=7.35
d: Vetsjaellands Amt   Mt=7.26
e: Storstroms Amt      Mt=7.61
f: Fyns Amt            Mt=7.44  
g: Bornholms Amt       Mt=6.14
h: Sonderjyllands Amt  Mt=7.46
i: Ribe Amt            Mt=7.40
j: Vejle Amt           Mt=7.35
k: Ringkobing Amt      Mt=8.11
l: Viborg Amt          Mt=7.26
m: Arhus Amt           Mt=7.45
n: Nordjyllandsmt      Mt=7.56
All                    Mt=7,40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Kobenhavns Amt      Mt=6.78
b: Frederiksborg Amt   Mt=7.05
c: Roskilde Amt        Mt=6.65
d: Vetsjaellands Amt   Mt=6.85
e: Storstroms Amt      Mt=7.25
f: Fyns Amt            Mt=6.91
g: Bornholms Amt       Mt=5.45
h: Sonderjyllands Amt  Mt=6.86
i: Ribe Amt            Mt=7.19
j: Vejle Amt           Mt=6.94
k: Ringkobing Amt      Mt=7.54 
l: Viborg Amt          Mt=6.85
m: Arhus Amt           Mt=6.78
n: Nordjyllandsmt      Mt=7.16 
All                    Mt=6,93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark
Subject code: N09aa02d

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelresidence(country/town)
Page in Source 70
Our classificationRegion in Denmark, code N09aa02d
Operationalization
Single question:
"Where do you live?"
1:In the country
2:In a small town 
3:In a large town or suburb         
4:In Copenhagen
Observed distributionN: 1:260, 2:703, 3:330, 4:173

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
 1: Mt=7.98
 2: Mt=7.81
 3: Mt=7.79
 4: Mt=7.48
All Mt=7.76
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 p < .02
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
  1:Ms=7.59
  2:Ms=7.48
  3:Ms=7.55
  4:Ms=6.99
All Mt:7.44
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
  a:Ms=7.13
  b:Ms=6.94
  c:Ms=7.01 
  d:Ms=6.61
All Mt=6.94
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.06 p < .03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelEast Germany
Page in Source 20
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
1 East Germany
0 West Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.62
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.57
females

B's conrolled for
-Umenployment
-Age (three dummies)
-German nationality
-Marital Status
-Univeristy graduate
-Reported activities (Attending culural event, 
entertainment, sport, voluntary work, church 
service, visiting friends and family)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyHabich & Noll (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleObjektive Lebensbedingungen und subjektives Wohlbefinden im vereinten Deutschland. (Objective Living Conditions and Subjective Wellbeing in United Germany).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 2004", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2004, Bonn, Gemany, 457 - 575
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16698

Correlate
Author's labelpopulation group
Page in Source 561
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
A people from western part of Germany (former BRD)
B people from eastern part of Germany (former GDR)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1991             %unsatisfied   %satisfied
- West Germany      6             89
- East Germany     14             67
Difference        + 8            -22
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1995             
- West Germany     6              85
- East Germany     8              79
Difference        +2             - 6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1999             
- West Germany     6              88
- East Germany     6              84
Difference        ±0             - 4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
2002             
- West Germany     4              85
- East Germany     7              80
Difference        +3             - 5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEastern- western Germany
Page in Source 25n
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0 Western Germany
1 Eastern Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.75 p < .01
Eastern Germany less happier than Western Germany
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.50


B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Germany
Page in Source Table 4, 5
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0: West Germany (reference)
1: East Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.37 p < .001
EAST GERMANY (vs West Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.30 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures(ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.28 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.27 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures(ln)
-Household net income(ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.27 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures on 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Employment status
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyKnies (2012): study DE 2004
TitleIncome Comparisons among Neighbours and Satisfaction in East and West Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 471 - 489
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID1611632_code940076.pdf?abstractid=1611632&mirid=1
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9818-5
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004+2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelWest and East Germany
Page in Source 21,22
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
a West Germany
b East  Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
West Germany M = 6.91
East Germany M = 6.26
- difference     0.65


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyDelken (2008): study DE 2004
TitleHappiness in Shrinking Cities in Germany.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 213 - 218
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9046-5
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelparts of germany
Page in Source 34
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
a: East-Germany (former German Democratic Republic)
b: West-Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
a: former East-Germany   6.5 CI95[6.42-6.52]
b: former West-Germany   7.1 CI95[7.10-7.15]
- difference             0.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, Nürnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 29
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
a West Germany
b East Germany (former communist DDR)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.62 p < .00
East (vs West)

B controlled for: 
- Employment status, social assistence
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Germany
Page in Source 575+ 432
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0: Western Germany
1: Former communist Eastern Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
West: M=7,6
East: M=6,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelTerritory of former West Germany
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
Living in the territory of former West Germany
Observed distributionM =0,0.684 (68%), SD = 0,465

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
probit result= 0,213
CI95=[ 0.03  0,40]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,285
CI95=[ 0,09  0,48]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Germany
Page in Source 124
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0: West Germany
1: East Germany
Observed distributionA: N=725; B: N=721

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-fDM=+
0:West Germany    M = +1,0
1:East Germany    M = +1,1
Difference:           +0,1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baDM=- p < .001
0: West Germany    M= 7,7; SD=1,9
1: East Germany    M= 7,0; SD=2,3
Difference           -0,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyLang (1999): study DE 1997
TitleOstdeutsche Befindlichkeiten ein Jahrzehnt nach der Wende - Ambivalente Spuren des Umbruchs. (Attitudes in East Germany 10 Years after Reunification).
SourceWirtschaft im Wandel, 1999, Vol. 16, 4 - 9
URLhttp://www.iwh-halle.de/d/publik/wiwa/16-99-3.pdf
Public20-24 and 40-44 aged, Germany, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1639

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 9
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0 all
1 unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
           Happiness in West Germany   
            %low    %middle  %high
age 20-24:
- all          3     45       52
- unemployed  14     47       39 
age 40-44:   
- all          6      52      42
- unemployed  19      58      23
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
            Happiness in East Germany   
            %low    %middle  %high
age 20-24:
- all          3     60       37
- unemployed  10     73       17 
age 40-44:   
- all         12      68      20
- unemployed  32      57      11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyWeick (1997): study DE 1995
TitleLebensbedingungen und Bewertungen. (Living Conditions and Evaluations).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 1997", Verlag Bonn Aktuell, 1997, Germany, 468 - 480
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1997.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEast and West Germany
Page in Source 477
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
a. West Germany
b. East Germany
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
West-Germany   7,0
East-Germany   6,4
difference    -0,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in East Germany
Page in Source 7,8,21
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0 West Germany
1 East Germany
Observed distributionM = 0,22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.58 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelWest/East Germany
Page in Source 1116
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
Place of residence:
1: West-Germany
0: East-Germany
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR). West-Germany entails the 
former Bundes Republik Deutschland (BDR). They were 
reunited in 1990 into Germany.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .-1
B controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Country of birth
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyWeick (1994a): study DE 1993
TitleFamilie. (Family).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Eds.: "Datenreport 1994", Bundeszentrale für politische Bilding, 1994, Germany, 508 - 520
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1994A.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1993
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEast and West
Page in Source 513
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
a. West Germany
b. East Germany
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fDM=1,0
West M = 7,9
East M = 6,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelEast germany
Page in Source 295
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
1) East-Germany
0) West-Germany
Observed distributionM=0.248; SD=0.432

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .01
b controlled for:
- age
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelLiving on the border of East/West Germany
Page in Source 735
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
Living near the east/west border of Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.57
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.11
Women only

Beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of children
- disability
- employment status
- household income
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyIsengard & Schneider (2002): study DE 1991
TitleDie Lebenssituation von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen in Deutschland. (The Living Conditions of Youngsters and Young Adults in Germany).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt; Eds.: "Data Report 2002", 2002, Bonn, Germany, 541 - 550
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 1991,1995,1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin of youngsters
Page in Source 548
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
A: West German youngsters
B: East German youngsters
C: Foreign youngsters (Western Germany)
Remarks
17-25 aged West Germany only

Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1991
T2: 1995
T3: 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
                     1991     1995     1999
% happy
A: West German        89       84       89
B: East German        66       81       84
C: Foreign            85       80       84

% unhappy
A: West German         6        6        5
B: East German        15        7        6
C: Foreign             4        9        7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in West Germany
Page in Source 20, 34, 35
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.78 sd=0.41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.16 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMoved to West/East Germany following reunification
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.44  Beta=+.40
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.20  Beta=-.26

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMoved home within East/West Germany in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.08  Beta=-.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.04  Beta=-.07

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelLive on the border of East and West Germany
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.05  Beta=+.26
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=±
West: Beta=-.01  Beta=+.01

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelWest-Germany
Page in Source 16
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
0: East-Germany; 1: West-Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+1.1 p < .01
West-Germany

OPRC controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany
Subject code: N09aa02e

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =294528

Correlate
Author's labelEast- vs. West-Germany
Page in Source Appendix A (p.35), 435
Our classificationRegion in Germany, code N09aa02e
Operationalization
a) West-Germany
b) East-Germany
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR). West-Germany entails the 
former Bundes Republik Deutschland (BDR). They were 
reunited in 1990 into Germany.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dAoV=+ p < .01
West-Germany: M=7.08
East-Germany: M=6.32
Difference:     0.76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Italy
Subject code: N09aa02f

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelArea
Page in Source 7
Our classificationRegion in Italy, code N09aa02f
Operationalization
1: North-West
2: North-East
3: Centre
4: South

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
% satisfied
1: 86,1 
2: 85,5 
3: 84,3 
4: 77,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Israel
Subject code: N09aa02g

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Israel
Page in Source 369
Our classificationRegion in Israel, code N09aa02g
Operationalization
Coop. settlement / new urban / long settled urban / Tel 
Aviv, Haifa / Jerusalem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Coop. settlement    : Mt = 5.3
New urban           : Mt = 4.5
Long settled urban  : Mt = 5.5
Tel-Aviv, Haifa     : Mt = 5.5
Jerusalem           : Mt = 5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands
Subject code: N09aa02h

StudyVan Dongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter.
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicPhysicians, Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response60%
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 7
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands, code N09aa02h
Operationalization
a: in the middle and northern part of the Netherlands 
and  South-Holland
b: the eastern part of the Netherlands and part of 
North-Holland.
c: North-Brabant and North- Limburg

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+
M=
a: 7,8
b: 7,1 -7,2
c: 7,3
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands
Subject code: N09aa02h

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelProvinces
Page in Source 144
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands, code N09aa02h
Operationalization
a. Flevoland
b. Z. Holland
c. Zeeland 
d. Friesland
e. N. Holland
f. Gelderland
g. Groningen
h. Limburg
i. N. Brabant
j. Utrecht
k. Overijssel
l. Drenthe
Observed distributionAantal respondenten per provincie: a. Flevoland 52 b. Z. Holland 449 c. Zeeland 70 d. Friesland 52 e. N. Holland 352 f. Gelderland 227 g. Groningen 76 h. Limburg 102 i. N. Brabant 342 j. Utrecht 153 k. Overijssel 130 l. Drenthe 61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-a
a. Flevoland     7,3
b. Z. Holland    7,4
c. Zeeland       7,4
d. Friesland     7,6
e. N. Holland    7,7
f. Gelderland    7,7
g. Groningen     7,7
h. Limburg       7,7
i. N. Brabant    7,8
j. Utrecht       7,8
k. Overijssel    7,8
l. Drenthe       8,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands
Subject code: N09aa02h

StudyKromhout (2004): study NL 2004
TitleHet Verdriet van Den Haag. (The Sorrow of The Hague).
SourceHaags Straatnieuws, 2004, December, 3
PublicHomeless in cities, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =66

Correlate
Author's labelDwelling
Page in Source 1
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands, code N09aa02h
Operationalization
A: Arnhem
B: Apeldoorn
C: Nijmegen
D: Tilburg
E: Utrecht
F: Den Haag
Remarks
Ordered by size of the population (from low to high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-aDM=-
Small: A Arnhem          M=6,1
       B Apeldoorn       M=6,3
       C Nijmegen        M=6,1
       D Tilburg         M=5,2
       E Utrecht         M=6,0
Big:   F Den Haag        M=5,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands
Subject code: N09aa02h

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelSize of city
Page in Source 134
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands, code N09aa02h
Operationalization
1: four largest cities 
2: 21 smaller towns/ cities 
3: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Education
 -Employment
 -Age
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity
 -Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in New Zealand
Subject code: N09aa02i

StudyMorrison (2011): study NZ 2004
TitleLocal Expressions of Subjective Well-Being: The New Zealand Experience.
SourceRegional Studies, 2011, Vol. 45, 1039 - 1058
DOIDOI:10.1080/00343401003792476
Public15+ aged, urban areas, New Zealand, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6308

Correlate
Author's labelCity's New Zealand
Page in Source 1047-52
Our classificationRegion in New Zealand, code N09aa02i
Operationalization
a: Auckland (reference category)
b: Christchurch
c: Manukau 
d: North Shore
e: Waitakere
f: Wellington
g: Hamilton
h: Dunedin
i: Tauranga
j: Hutt
k: Rodney
l: Porirua
Observed distributiona: 386196; b: 332329; c: 306082; d: 195213; e: 177597; f: 171646; g: 122085; h: 116512; i: 97269; j: 96588; k: 82870; l: 47958

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ccb=
Raw:              Controlled:
b: +0.13 (01)     b: +0.11 (05)
c: +0.03 (ns)     c: +0.05 (ns)
d: +0.12 (05)     d: +0.05 (ns)
e: +0.27 (01)     e: +0.26 (01)
f: +0.23 (01)     f: +0.12 (ns)
g: +0.12 (ns)     g: +0.16 (05)
h: +0.16 (05)     h: +0.07 (ns)
i: +0.27 (01)     i: +0.20 (01)
j: +0.11 (ns)     j: +0.00 (ns)
k: +0.41 (01)     k: +0.36 (01)
l: +0.17 (ns)     l: +0.07 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ncb=
b: +0.09 (ns)     b: +0.09 (ns)
c: +0.01 (ns)     c: +0.04 (ns)
d: +0.17 (01)     d: +0.09 (ns)
e: +0.15 (05)     e: +0.15 (05)
f: +0.15 (01)     f: +0.04 (ns)
g: +0.11 (ns)     g: +0.14 (05)
h: +0.12 (ns)     h: +0.01 (ns)
i: +0.24 (01)     i: +0.17 (01)
j: +0.17 (05)     j: +0.07 (ns)
k: +0.30 (01)     k: +0.18 (05)
l: +0.15 (ns)     l: +0.09 (ns)
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-cb=
b: -0.06 (ns)     b: -0.04 (ns)
c: -0.10 (ns)     c: -0.05 (ns)
d: +0.08 (ns)     d: -0.03 (ns)
e: +0.02 (ns)     e: +0.02 (ns)
f: +0.15 (05)     f: -0.02 (ns)
g: -0.03 (ns)     g: +0.01 (ns)
h: +0.16 (05)     h: +0.09 (ns)
i: +0.16 (05)     i: +0.12 (ns)
j: +0.07 (ns)     j: +0.01 (ns)
k: +0.19 (05)     k: +0.10 (ns) 
l: +0.10 (ns)     l: +0.06 (ns)

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-ethnicity
-health
-education
-work status
-income
-household type
-tenure
-accessibility
-social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Nigeria
Subject code: N09aa02j

StudyPeil (1988): study NG 1984
TitlePersonal Communication.
SourceLetter 18 - 4 - 1988, University of Birmingham, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/peil_m_1988.pdf
Public60+ aged, towns, Nigeria, 1984
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =436

Correlate
Author's labelTown in Nigeria
Page in Source 1
Our classificationRegion in Nigeria, code N09aa02j
Operationalization
A: Port Harcourt: capital of Rivers State.Ethnically 
heterogenous, industrial city, +- 900.000 inhabitants.

B: Abeakuta, capital of Ogun stase, ethnically 
homogenous Yoruba, little industry, low opportunity for 
educated people, +- 500.000 inhabitants.

C: Ijebu Ode, ethnically homogenous Yoruba, center of 
marketing and education, +- 250.000 inhabitants.
Observed distributionN = a: 53: b: 191, c:192

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDM=
Port Harcourt   M = 4,6
Abeokuta        M = 6,4
Ijebu Ode       M = 4,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Nigeria
Subject code: N09aa02j

StudyCantril (1965): study NG 1963
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1962-63
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Nigeria
Page in Source 371
Our classificationRegion in Nigeria, code N09aa02j
Operationalization
West, East, North

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
West    : Mt = 4.1
East    : Mt = 3.6
North   : Mt = 5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Norway
Subject code: N09aa02k

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelCounty in Norway
Page in Source 406/407
Our classificationRegion in Norway, code N09aa02k
Operationalization
All Norwegian counties represented as a dummy variable.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aR²=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dR²=+.02 ns
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aR²=003 ns
0,3% increase in variance explained when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, marital status, degree of 
urbanization).
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dR²=002 ns
0,2% increase in variance explained when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, marital status, degree of 
urbanization).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Norway
Subject code: N09aa02k

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelCounty in Norway
Page in Source 406/407
Our classificationRegion in Norway, code N09aa02k
Operationalization
All Norwegian counties represented as a dummy variable.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aR²=002 ns
0,2% increment in explaned variance when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (education, income, age, sex, 
household size, number of friends, occupational 
active, marital status and size oftown).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Norway
Subject code: N09aa02k

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelCounty (region) in Norway
Page in Source 406/407
Our classificationRegion in Norway, code N09aa02k
Operationalization
All Norwegian counties represented as a dummy variable.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dR²=007 ns
0,7% increment in variance explained when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (age, sex, income, education, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, number of friends and 
marital status). 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK
Subject code: N09aa02l

Study~BBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 2
Our classificationRegion in UK, code N09aa02l
Operationalization
a: North
b: Midlands
c: South
Observed distributiona: N=369; b: N=300; c: N=331

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=
a: M=3,21 CI95=3,13-3,28
b: M=3,31 CI95=3,24-3,39
c: M=3,22 CI95=3,15-3,30
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=
a: M=7,28 CI95=7,11-7,46
b: M=7,43 CI95=7,24-7,62
c: M=7,31 CI95=7,11-7,51
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK
Subject code: N09aa02l

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelRegions
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationRegion in UK, code N09aa02l
Operationalization
Region within the UK:
a) London
b) Scotland
c) Wales
d) Northern Ireland
e) England, excluding London (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.04 ns
London (vs. England excluding London)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
Scotland (vs. England excluding London)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.09 ns
Wales (vs. England excluding London)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.08 ns
Northern Ireland (vs. England excluding London)

b controlled for:
- absolute income
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- unemployed
- number of children
- religious participation
- health

Based upon fixed effects analysis; similar results 
for pooled OLS, Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelArea of Residence
Page in Source 37
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
a. Sunbelt Resident
b. Not Sunbelt Resident

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=+ p < .05
% Very Happy
-Sunbelt        37%
-Not Sunbelt    32%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 278
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
Interviewer's assessment:
a) West
b) North
c) East
d) South (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.07 ns
WEST  (vs south)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.12 p < .01
NORTH (vs south)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.05 ns
EAST  (vs south)


OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- race
- working full-time
- marital status
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudySullivan et al. (1991): study US 1988
TitleQuality of Life of Seriously Mentally Ill Persons in Mississippi.
SourceHospital and Community Psychiatry, 1991, Vol. 42, 752 -755
PublicFormer inpatients of mental hospital, Mississipi, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelLiving area
Page in Source 753
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
a Missisippi
b Los Angeles
c Maryland
Observed distributionN: a=101, b=278, c=66
Remarks
samples b and c from Lehman(1983,1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=
Missisippi   M=5.3
Los Angeles  M=4.4
Maryland     M=5.2
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²= ns
a>b
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²= ns
a>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelSouthern
Page in Source 701
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
0 = non Southern [including: Northeast, North Central, 
and West]
1 = Southern
Observed distributionT1: M = 0,54, SD = 0,50 T2: M = 0,56, SD = 0,50
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.06 ns
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.01 ns
T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 420
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
Solid South
Border South
Mountains
Pacific

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSNR= ns
Controlled for sex, age and education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyCampbell et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleThe Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions.
SourceRussel Sage Foundation, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 450/451
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
0 North 
1 South

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
Geographic region of respondent at T1: west, north 
central, northeast, or south region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
Region: west 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = -.00 (ns)   
T2 happiness:    tau = +.01 (ns)   
T3 happiness:    tau = +.02 (ns)   
T4 happiness:    tau = +.01 (ns)   
      
Rgion:north central 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = -.04 (ns)
T2 happiness:    tau = -.02 (ns)
T3 happiness:    tau = -.05 (ns)
T4 happiness:    tau = -.04 (ns)

Region: north east 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = -.02 (ns)
T2 happiness:    tau = -.05 (ns)
T3 happiness:    tau = -.01 (ns)
T4 happiness:    tau = -.01 (ns)

Region: south 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = +.07 (ns)
T2 happiness:    tau = +.05 (ns)
T3 happiness:    tau = +.05 (ns)
T4 happiness:    tau = +.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyCantril & Roll (1971): study US 1964
TitleHopes and Fears of the American People.
SourceUniverse Books, 1971, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1964-1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1588

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 71
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
East
Midwest
South
West

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
East    Mt = 5.9 (1964)  5.8 (1971)
Midwest Mt = 6.1 (1964)  5.8 (1971)
South   Mt = 6.0 (1964)  5.7 (1971)
West    Mt = 5.7 (1964)  6.0 (1971)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 207/230
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
South, Northest, Midwest, or Far West

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Usa
Subject code: N09aa02m

StudyManning-Gibbs (1972): study US 1946
TitleRelative Deprivation and Self-Reported Happiness of Blacks: 1946-1966.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, 1972, Austin, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/manning-gibbs_ba_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25617

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 53
Our classificationRegion in Usa, code N09aa02m
Operationalization
0 Non-south 
1 South

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cG=±
G' based on proportion very happy.
Response formats of happiness question very 
slightly over the years.

1946: blacks: G' = -.01 (ns)
      whites: G' = +.00 (ns)
1956: blacks: G' = +.14 (ns)
      whites: G' = -.02 (ns)
1966: blacks: G' = +.13 (ns)
      whites: G' = -.06 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Belgium
Subject code: N09aa02n

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelRegions
Page in Source 42
Our classificationRegion in Belgium, code N09aa02n
Operationalization
Residing in:
a) Brussels
b) Wallonia
c) Flanders (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.47 p < .001
BRUSSELS (vs Flanders)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.22 p < .001
WALLONIA (vs Flanders)

B's controlled for:
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Survey year
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.24 p < .05
BRUSSELS (vs Flanders)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
WALLONIA (vs Flanders)

B's when additionally controlled for:
- Language spoken at home


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude climate in region
Subject code: N09ab

StudyLalive & Stutzer (2010): study CH 2000
TitleApproval of Equal Rights and Gender Differences in Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Popululation Economics, 2010, Vol. 23, 933 - 962
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-009-0257-4
PublicSalaried workers, Switzerland, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6203

Correlate
Author's labelApproval of equal rights
Page in Source 7,8,9,21,22,27
Our classificationAttitude climate in region, code N09ab
Operationalization
% votes in community for equal rights amendment in 1975 
referendum:
0 Low: < 60% 
1 High:> 60%
Observed distributionAll 0: N = 3175, 1 = 3906; Women 0: N = 1494, 1: N= 1965; Men 0: N= 1681, 1: N= 1941
Remarks
Equal rights amendment(december 1975):
"Men and women have equal rights. Legislation shall 
ensure legal equality, particularly in the areas of 
family, education and work. Men and women shall have 
the right to equal pay for work of equal value."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
All
0 Low    M =  8,18
1 High   M =  7,96
difference = -0.22
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
Women only
0 Low    M =  8,24
1 High   M =  7,96
difference = -0.28
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
Men only
0 Low    M =  8,13
1 High   M =  7,95
difference = -0.16
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.00 ns
All
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.10 p < .001
Interaction effect of gender and approval of equal 
rights 
Beta = -.10 means that women in communities with a 
high percentage approval of equal rights are .10 
points less happy on a happiness scale 0-10.

Beta's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age 
- Education
- Marital status
- Nationality
- Employment status
- Household income 
- Household size

Ordered Probit analysis (OPRC) yields similar 
results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in region
Subject code: N09ab01

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source nn
Our classificationHappiness in region, code N09ab01
Operationalization
a: Japan
b: India
Observed distributionN= a:337, b:354

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
Japan    M = 5,80 [CI95 5,60-5,99] SD 1,83
India    M = 3,43 [CI95 3,20-3,66] SD 2,21
-difference +2,37 [CI95 2,07-2,67]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
Japan    M = 1,85 [CI95 1,79-1,91] SD 0,58
India    M = 1,43 [CI95 1,37-1,49] SD 0,36
-difference +0,42 [CI95 0,33-0,51]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
Japan    M = 6,03 [CI95 5,84-6,22] SD 1,73
India    M = 3,45 [CI95 3,23-3,66] SD 2,04
-difference +2,58 [CI95 2,30-2,87]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in region
Subject code: N09ab01

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness for the next generation
Page in Source 109
Our classificationHappiness in region, code N09ab01
Operationalization
How happy do you think the next generation will be with 
the Netherlands?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 neither unhgappy nor happy
4 happy
5 very happy
- DK/NA
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .05
Individual happiness by individual expected 
happiness with the Netherlands for the next 
generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .05
Average happiness in zipcode area by average 
expected happiness in zipcode area with the 
Netherlands for the next generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .05
Average happiness in communities by average 
expected happiness in communities with the 
Netherlands for the next generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.51 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average expected 
happiness in provinces with the Netherlands for 
the next generation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of region
Subject code: N09ac

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2010): study ZZ 1996
TitleGeography of European Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 435 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9671-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelhappiness in neighbouring regions
Page in Source 438-440
Our classificationCharacteristics of region, code N09ac
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bMI=.66 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness in region or residence by 
AVERAGE happiness in neighboring regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age composition in region
Subject code: N09ac01a

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 143
Our classificationAge composition in region, code N09ac01a
Operationalization
% Aged in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.27 p < .05
%Aged < 5
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.46 p < .05
%Aged 10-15
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.42 p < .05
%Aged 5-10
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.18 ns
%Aged > 80
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.17 ns
%Aged 20-25
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.41 p < .05
%Aged 15-20
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.48 p < .05
%Aged 65-80
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.39 p < .05
%Aged 45-65
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.26 ns
%Aged 25-45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Divorced in region
Subject code: N09ac01b

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced
Page in Source 143
Our classificationDivorced in region, code N09ac01b
Operationalization
% Divorced in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.54 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Widowed in region
Subject code: N09ac01c

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelWidowed
Page in Source 143
Our classificationWidowed in region, code N09ac01c
Operationalization
% Widowed in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.45 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population size in region
Subject code: N09ac01e

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelState population
Page in Source 898, 900-902
Our classificationPopulation size in region, code N09ac01e
Operationalization
State population (thousands of persons)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.00 p < .000
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by state population in 48 US 
states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.00 p < .000
INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS by state population in 48 US 
states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic composition of region
Subject code: N09ac01f

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelRacial diversity
Page in Source 900,902
Our classificationEthnic composition of region, code N09ac01f
Operationalization
Ratio of minority to white population

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.13 p < .122
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by racial diversity in 48 US 
states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.26 p < .088
INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS by racial diversity in 48 US 
states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nature in region
Subject code: N09ac02a

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelForests and nature
Page in Source 143
Our classificationNature in region, code N09ac02a
Operationalization
% Forests and nature in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.37 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic situation in region
Subject code: N09ac03

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2012): study ZZ EU 25 1996
TitleIncome and Well-Being Across European Provinces.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 371 - 392
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-011-9812-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelregional income AND regional disposable income
Our classificationEconomic situation in region, code N09ac03
Operationalization
A: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current market 
prices, Purchasing Power Standard, euro per inhabitant.

B: Disposable income based on final consumption, 
Purchasing Power Standard based on final consumption 
per inhabitant.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .05
A, B: controlled for:
-person-level:
 -personal income
 -community size
 -unemployment
 -finished education at 15 or earlier
 -married
 -age
 -income
-national level:
 -national income
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic situation in region
Subject code: N09ac03

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2012): study ZZ EU 25 1996
TitleIncome and Well-Being Across European Provinces.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 371 - 392
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-011-9812-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelregional disposable income
Our classificationEconomic situation in region, code N09ac03
Operationalization
Disposable income based on final consumption, 
Purchasing Power Standard based on final consumption 
per inhabitant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .01
controlled for:
-person-level:
 -personal income
 -community size
 -unemployment
 -finished education at 15 or earlier
 -married
 -age
 -income
-national level:
 -national income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic situation in region
Subject code: N09ac03

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelState income
Page in Source 900,902
Our classificationEconomic situation in region, code N09ac03
Operationalization
per capita personal income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.00 p < .000
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by per capita personal income in 
48 US states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.00 p < .000
INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS by per capita personal income 
in 48 US states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence in region
Subject code: N09ac03a

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelLog of average per capita income in city of current residence
Page in Source 116
Our classificationEconomic affluence in region, code N09ac03a
Operationalization
Income average reported in 2002 national household 
survey
Observed distributionM=8.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.13 ns
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Household income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city

Effect is significantly positive at 90% CI for 
those who migrated longer ago.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence in region
Subject code: N09ac03a

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelAverage wealth in neighbourhood
Page in Source 109
Our classificationEconomic affluence in region, code N09ac03a
Operationalization
Average wealth in neighbourhood.
(source/scale?)
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.09 ns
Individual happiness by average wealth in zipcode 
areas.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.27 p < .05
Average happiness in zipcode area by average 
wealth in zipcode area.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.32 p < .05
Average happiness in communities by average wealth 
in zipcode areas in communities.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.41 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average wealth 
in zipcode areas in provinces.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence in region
Subject code: N09ac03a

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 110
Our classificationEconomic affluence in region, code N09ac03a
Operationalization
Household income (question/scale?)
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .05
Individual happiness by individual 
householdincome.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.32 p < .05
Average happiness in zipcode areas by average 
household income in zipcode areas.

Figure 1 shows relationship between average 
happiness (vertically) and average wealth 
(horizontally) in 25% rich zipcode areas; 25% poor 
zipcode areas and all zipcode areas.
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.40 p < .05
Average happiness in communities by average 
household income in communities.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.28 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average 
household income in provinces.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence in region
Subject code: N09ac03a

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelAverage income
Page in Source 144
Our classificationEconomic affluence in region, code N09ac03a
Operationalization
Average income in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Regional Income
Subject code: N09ac03aa

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationRegional Income, code N09ac03aa
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16391; SD:3217
Remarks
Significance level based upon asterisks (p-values 
report different significance)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .104
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.70 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (t-2 to t-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Regional Income
Subject code: N09ac03aa

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 24 years,1984-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =318346

Correlate
Author's labelRegional GDP
Page in Source 30
Our classificationRegional Income, code N09ac03aa
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 24941; SD: 5420

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GDP/captia
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/Capital 
(t-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.31 ns
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Regional Income
Subject code: N09ac03aa

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 12 years,1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125095

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 32
Our classificationRegional Income, code N09ac03aa
Operationalization
GVA: Gross Value Added (GDP minus taxes on producs plus 
subsidies on products)
Observed distributionMean: 15443; SD: 3527

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.20 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GVA/captial 
(ln)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.26 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GVA/capita
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.28 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-1 to T)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.68 p < .10
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-2 to T-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region
Subject code: N09ac03ab

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP per capita
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationGDP in region, code N09ac03ab
Operationalization
Inflation adjusted gdp per capita in 1.000 yuan.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.00 ns
Individual happiness by provincial GDP per capita.

OPRC (-0,00289) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
 -Household income (quartiles)
 -Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region
Subject code: N09ac03ab

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationGDP in region, code N09ac03ab
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16391; SD:3217
Remarks
Significance level based upon asterisks (p-values 
report different significance)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .104
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.70 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (t-2 to t-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region
Subject code: N09ac03ab

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 24 years,1984-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =318346

Correlate
Author's labelRegional GDP
Page in Source 30
Our classificationGDP in region, code N09ac03ab
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 24941; SD: 5420

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GDP/captia
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/Capital 
(t-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.31 ns
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region
Subject code: N09ac03ab

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 12 years,1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125095

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 32
Our classificationGDP in region, code N09ac03ab
Operationalization
GVA: Gross Value Added (GDP minus taxes on producs plus 
subsidies on products)
Observed distributionMean: 15443; SD: 3527

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.20 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GVA/captial 
(ln)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.26 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GVA/capita
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.28 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-1 to T)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.68 p < .10
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-2 to T-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth in region
Subject code: N09ac03ac

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelCapital Formation Rate
Page in Source 138, 146
Our classificationEconomic growth in region, code N09ac03ac
Operationalization
capital formation as % GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.00 ns
Individual happiness by provincial capital 
formation.

OPRC (+0,000919) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income inequality in region
Subject code: N09ac03b

StudyGoff et al. (2016): study US 2008
TitleThe Welfare Costs of WellBeing Inequality.
SourceNBER Working Paper, 2016, No. 21900, 1 - 30
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w21900
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008-2011
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1400000

Correlate
Author's labelInequality in life satisfaction
Page in Source 7,14,Table 5
Our classificationIncome inequality in region, code N09ac03b
Operationalization
Standard deviation of happiness in US states. Happiness 
(contentment ) measured with question C-BW-c-sq-l-11.
Observed distributionRange: 1,68-2,39
Remarks
Average across waves per state used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.06 p < .01
AVEREAGE happiness in state by standard deviation 
of happiness in state.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.05 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Log GDP
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.06 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Income inequality (GINI)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- State dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income inequality in region
Subject code: N09ac03b

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study US 1981
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, United States, 1981-1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19895

Correlate
Author's labelInequality
Page in Source 2019, 2023, 2025
Our classificationIncome inequality in region, code N09ac03b
Operationalization
Income inequality in US states in Gini coefficients 
(after-transfer, after-tax monetary income)
Observed distributionN=491, M=0,337, SD=0,032, Range=0,271-0,446
Remarks
Data from: Wu, Perloff and Golan (2002). Other measures 
of inequality gave insignificant results in the 
observed associations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
STATE inequality by INDIVIDUAL happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.9 p < .05
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.4 p < .05
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.1 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.8 ns
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.9 p < .05
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled for personal 
characteristics:
- employment satus
- gender
- age 
- educational level
- marital status
- number of children
- income 
- race
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.1 p < .10
Additionaly controled for unemployment rate at 
state level, all individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.4 ns
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.3 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.3 ns
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.8 p < .05
Rich individuals

All OLRC's remain the same when additionally 
controlled for crime rate. 

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that the negative 
effect is larger among rich and political right 
individuals. Comparisons of OLRC's are only 
possible if the same control variables are used in 
the regressions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region
Subject code: N09ac03c

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study US 1976
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees public and private sector, USA, 1976-2002.
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19530

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed in public sector
Page in Source 15,16
Our classificationUnemployment in region, code N09ac03c
Operationalization
0: Private sector (reference group)
1: Public sector
Observed distribution16192 individuals working in private sector 1338 individuals working in public sector

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
DIFFERENCE (not level) in average happiness of 
enployed people in public and private sector by 
regional unemployment-rate.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.05 ns
a. Public sector compared to private sector. 
difference is greater at higher rates of 
unemployment.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+06 ns
b. Interaction unemployment x public sector.

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-white/non-white
-number of children
-working full-time/part-time
-income quartile
-household size
-education
-marital status
-size of town (dummies)
-year and state (fixed effects)

Unemployment has more impact on happiness in 
private sector than in public sector.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region
Subject code: N09ac03c

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study US 1976
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees public and private sector, USA, 1976-2002.
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19530

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment at state level
Page in Source 15,30
Our classificationUnemployment in region, code N09ac03c
Operationalization
Rate of unemployment in state where one lives
Remarks
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
HAPPINESS IN YEAR BY UNEMPLOYMENT-RATE IN YEAR
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.03 p < .05
All sectors
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.04 p < .05
Private sector
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.07 ns
Public sector

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-white/non-white
-number of children
-working full-time/part-time
-income quartile
-household size
-education
-marital status
-size of town (dummies)
-year and state (fixed effects)

Unemployment rate has more (negative) impact on 
happiness in private sector.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region
Subject code: N09ac03c

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees, private and public sector. West-Germany, 1984-2004.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20764

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in regional unemployment
Page in Source 10, 28
Our classificationUnemployment in region, code N09ac03c
Operationalization
Mean adjusted annual unemployment rate in 
Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland 1984-2004 (weighted by 
their populations)
Observed distributionRange in unemployment rate: 6-11%
Remarks
Source: GSOEP 1984-2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Figure 1: more unemployment, lower average 
happiness in private and public sector.
(Germany, Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland).
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
Average happiness of employees in year by 
unemployment rate in region in year.

B controlled for:
-actual working hours
-individual and household income
-persons in household
-having children 
-head of household
-age squared/100
-years of education
-working full-time/part-time
-partner employed/unemployed
-marital status
-state and year (dummies)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region
Subject code: N09ac03c

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelState unemployment rate
Page in Source 7
Our classificationUnemployment in region, code N09ac03c
Operationalization
Unemployment rate in regioin (Land) in Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
  n) gender
- Environmental characteristic:
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and 
    interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region
Subject code: N09ac03c

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 142
Our classificationUnemployment in region, code N09ac03c
Operationalization
% Unemployment in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region
Subject code: N09ac03c

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study US 1981
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, United States, 1981-1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19895

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 2019, 2023, 2025
Our classificationUnemployment in region, code N09ac03c
Operationalization
Unemployment rates in US states
Observed distributionN=491, M=0,067, SD=0,023, Range=0,024-0,180
Remarks
Data: Bureau of Labor Statistics US Department of Labor

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
STATE unemployment rate by INDIVIDUAL happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.3 p < .10
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.9 p < .05
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.2 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-4.2 p < .05
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-0.3 ns
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled income inequality at state 
level and personal characteristics: 
- employment satus
- gender
- age 
- educational level
- marital status
- number of children
- income 
- race 

All OLRC's remain the same when additionally 
controlled for crime rate.

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that the negative 
effect is larger among rich and political right 
individuals. Comparisons of OLRC's are only 
possible if the same control variables are used in 
the regressions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political conditions in region
Subject code: N09ac04

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelDemocratic party control
Page in Source 900,902
Our classificationPolitical conditions in region, code N09ac04
Operationalization
State legislature controlled by Democratic Party  (%),  
(cumulative average)
Remarks
Data: Klarner n.d.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.01 p < ..009
AVERAGE happiness in state by democratic party 
control in 48 US states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.01 p < ..007
INDIVIDUAL happiness by democratic party control 
in 48 US states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence
Subject code: N09ac04b

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study FR 1973
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, France, 1973-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =38062

Correlate
Author's labelTerrorist attacks
Page in Source 331-338
Our classificationPolitical violence, code N09ac04b
Operationalization
Number of attacks in region 

Only attacks due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Paris: 0-66 South-East: 0-17 Rest: 0-18 Mean = Paris: 13,04 South-East: 3,35 Rest: 3,46 SD = Paris: 13,80 South-East: 4,15 Rest: 3,94
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
B (-.0022)controled for:
-income
-personal characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

B (-.0024) unaffected when additionaly controled 
for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Almost no effect (B -.0002) when an individual 
lives in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .01
Larger effect (B -0.0109) for Agnostics

B means that a terroristic attack decreases mean 
happiness by .0022 points (0,073 %) on the 
happiness scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence
Subject code: N09ac04b

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study FR 1973
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, France, 1973-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =38062

Correlate
Author's labelTerrorist fatalities
Page in Source 331-338
Our classificationPolitical violence, code N09ac04b
Operationalization
Number of fatalities in region 

Only fatalities due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Paris: 0-18 South-East: 0-10 Rest: 0-9 Mean = Paris: 3,58 South-East: 0,70 Rest: 1,42 SD = Paris: 4,73 South-East: 2,07 Rest: 2,32
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .05
B (-.0050)controled for:
-income
-personal characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

B (-.0050) unaffected when additionaly controled 
for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
B (-.0031) when living in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 ns
Larger effect (B -0.013) for Agnostics

B means that a terroristic fatality decreases mean 
happiness by .005 points (0,16 %) on the happiness 
scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence
Subject code: N09ac04b

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study ZZ Various nation sets 1975
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, United Kingdom and Ireland, 1975-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =62320

Correlate
Author's labelTerroristic attacks
Page in Source 331-339
Our classificationPolitical violence, code N09ac04b
Operationalization
Number of attacks in region 

Only attacks due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Ireland: 0-5 Great Britain: 0-37 Northern Ireland: 232-3336 Mean = Ireland: 1.08 Great Britain: 13.12 Northern Ireland: 1035.88 SD = Ireland: 1,47 Great Britain: 9,97 Northern Ireland: 709,57
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
B (-.000076)controled for:
-income
-individual characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

B (-.000080) unaffected when additionaly controled 
for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
Smaller effect B (-.000060) when an individual 
lives in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.000138) for Agnostics
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.000108) for Catholics

B means that a terroristic attack decreases mean 
happiness by .00076 points (0,0025 %) on the 
happiness scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence
Subject code: N09ac04b

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study ZZ Various nation sets 1975
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, United Kingdom and Ireland, 1975-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =62320

Correlate
Author's labelTerrostic fatalities
Page in Source 331-339
Our classificationPolitical violence, code N09ac04b
Operationalization
Number of fatalities in region 

Only fatalities due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Ireland: 0-9 Great Britain: 0-16 Northern Ireland: 7-287 Mean = Ireland: 2,16 Great Britain: 3,8 Northern Ireland: 80,84 SD = Ireland: 2,46 Great Britain: 3,95 Northern Ireland: 62,99
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
B (-.00064)controled for:
-income
-personal characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

Larger effect B (-.00076) when additionaly 
controled for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
Smaller effect (B -.00045) when an individual 
lives in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.00121) for Agnostics
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.00096) for Catholics

B means that a terroristic fatality decreases mean 
happiness by .00064 points (0,0213 %) on the 
happiness scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of regional government
Subject code: N09ac04c

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment Size
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationSize of regional government, code N09ac04c
Operationalization
government consumption as % GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.01 p < .05
Individual happiness by size of provincial 
government.

OPRC (-0,0103) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Regional Welfare Effort
Subject code: N09ac05b

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment medical expenses
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationRegional Welfare Effort, code N09ac05b
Operationalization
Per capita expenditure on public health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.00 p < .01
Individual happiness by provincial expenditures on 
public health.

OPRC (+0,00211) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if additionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Education in region
Subject code: N09ac06

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 110
Our classificationEducation in region, code N09ac06
Operationalization
Individual level of education.
(question/scale?)
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.13 ns
Individual happiness by individual level of 
education.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 ns
Average happiness in zipcode area by average level 
of education in zipcode area.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .05
Average happiness in community by average level of 
education in community.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.23 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average level of 
education in provinces.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average health in region
Subject code: N09ac07a

StudySubramanian et al. (2003): study US 2000
TitleHealth and Happiness in US Communities: A Multivariate Multilevel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Epidemiology Community Health, 2005, Vol. 59, 664 - 669
DOIDOI:10.1136/jech.2004.025742
Public18-85 aged, general public, United States, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21572

Correlate
Author's labelPoor health (self rating)
Page in Source 10,16
Our classificationAverage health in region, code N09ac07a
Operationalization
Self rating of poor health:
1 - Yes
0 - No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-er=+.72 p < .01
AVERAGE unhappiness by % of poor health in the 
region.
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.91 p < .01
rpc controlled for:
- age
- gender
- race
- marital status.
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.76 p < .01
rpc additionally controlled for:
- education level
- income
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-er=+.20 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by self rated health.
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.19 p < .01
rpc controlled for:
- gender
- race 
- marital status
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.16 p < .01
rpc additionally controlled for:
- education level
- income
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide in region
Subject code: N09ac07b

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rate in prefecture
Page in Source 94
Our classificationSuicide in region, code N09ac07b
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=-.31 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide in region
Subject code: N09ac07b

StudyDaly et al. (2011): study ZZ Western nations 2005
TitleDark Contrasts: The Paradox of High Rates of Suicide in Happy Places.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2011, Vol. 80, 435 - 442
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.04.007
PublicAdults, general public, Western Countries, 2005-2008
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rates in Western countries
Page in Source 436
Our classificationSuicide in region, code N09ac07b
Operationalization
Suicide rates per 100000 per year
Remarks
Suicide rates from the World Health Organization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.36
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide in region
Subject code: N09ac07b

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's label% Suicide
Our classificationSuicide in region, code N09ac07b
Operationalization
% Suicide in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide in region
Subject code: N09ac07b

StudyDaly et al. (2011): study US 2005
TitleDark Contrasts: The Paradox of High Rates of Suicide in Happy Places.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2011, Vol. 80, 435 - 442
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.04.007
Public18-85 aged, general public, United States, 2005-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rates across U.S. states
Page in Source 438, 439, 440
Our classificationSuicide in region, code N09ac07b
Operationalization
Suicides per 100000 per year
Remarks
crude suicide rates taken from the report "Ranking 
America's Mental Health: An Analysis of Depression 
Across the States"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.25
AVERAGE happiness by suicide rate in 50 states: 
both unadjusted
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-erspc=+.26
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.13
AVERAGE happiness by suicide rate in 50 states: 
both adjusted
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-erspc=+.27
rpc's and rspc's controlled for:
- Income
- Education
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Employment status
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-cultural conditions in the region
Subject code: N09ac08

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014): study US 2004
TitleSocial Capital and Well-Being in Times of Crisis.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 145 - 162
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9441-z
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9441-z
Public18+ aged general public, urban areas, USA, 2008-2011
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =952433

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Capital average of all indicators (SC)
Page in Source 153
Our classificationSocio-cultural conditions in the region, code N09ac08
Operationalization
A. Index of:
a. average voting rate in 2004 and 2008 elections
b. percentage of residents who volunteered for or 
through religious groups
c. average number of groups volunteered for or through.
d. average hours volunteered in year (2004-2008)
e. percentage of residents who donated more than $25 to 
charitable or religious organizations.

B. Percentage of population or residents:
f. in multi-member households with common dinners 
everyday
g. who had more than 3 close friends
h. who talks with neighbors a few times per week
i. who did favors with neighbors once a month
j. who volunteered for or through religious 
organizations.

Computation: (A+B)/2
Remarks
No effect of interaction unemployed x SC

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.02 p < .10
B controled for
- change in local employment
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - marital status
  - ethnicity
  - household income (absolute)
  - incomebrackets (relative)
- regional characteristics
  - average household income
  - country population density
  - share of urban populstion
  - share of owner-occupied housing
  - share of minorities
  - longitude and latitude of country centres
- average of all social capital indicators
- interaction between regional unemployment and 
social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-cultural conditions in the region
Subject code: N09ac08

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial capital
Page in Source 900,9002
Our classificationSocio-cultural conditions in the region, code N09ac08
Operationalization
Comprehensive Social Capital Index, Overall state level 
of social capital
Remarks
Data: Putnam (2000) Social Capital Index from "Bowling 
alone"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.04 p < .026
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by social capital in 48 US 
states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.02 p < .024
INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS by social capital in 48 US 
states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social participation in region
Subject code: N09ac08a

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014): study US 2004
TitleSocial Capital and Well-Being in Times of Crisis.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 145 - 162
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9441-z
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9441-z
Public18+ aged general public, urban areas, USA, 2008-2011
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =952433

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Capital broad engagement (SC1)
Page in Source 148,151
Our classificationSocial participation in region, code N09ac08a
Operationalization
Index of :
a. average voting rate in 2004 and 2008 elections
b. percentage of residents who volunteered for or 
through religious groups
c. average number of groups volunteered for or through.
D. average hours volunteered in year (2004-2008)
e. percentage of residents who donated more than $25 to 
charitable or religious organizations.
Remarks
No effect of interaction unemployment x SC1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=.00 ns
B controled for
- change in local employment
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - marital status
  - ethnicity
  - household income (absolute)
  - incomebrackets (relative)
- regional characteristics
  - average household income
  - country population density
  - share of urban populstion
  - share of owner-occupied housing
  - share of minorities
  - longitude and latitude of country centres
- social capital
  - broad engagement
  - intimate engagement
- interaction between regional unemployment and 
social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Close relations in region
Subject code: N09ac08b

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014): study US 2004
TitleSocial Capital and Well-Being in Times of Crisis.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 145 - 162
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9441-z
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9441-z
Public18+ aged general public, urban areas, USA, 2008-2011
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =952433

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Capital close engagement (SC2)
Page in Source 148,151
Our classificationClose relations in region, code N09ac08b
Operationalization
Percentage of population or residents:
a. in multi-member households with common dinners 
everyday
b. who had more than 3 close friends
c. who talks with neighbors a few times per week
d. who did favors with neighbors once a month
e. who volunteered for or through religious 
oranizations.
Remarks
No effect of interaction unemployment x SC2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.02 p < ..05
B controled for
- change in local employment
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - marital status
  - ethnicity
  - household income (absolute)
  - incomebrackets (relative)
- regional characteristics
  - average household income
  - country population density
  - share of urban populstion
  - share of owner-occupied housing
  - share of minorities
  - longitude and latitude of country centres
- social capital
  - broad engagement
  - intimate engagement
- interaction between regional unemployment and 
social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inequality in happiness in region
Subject code: N09ac09a

StudyGoff et al. (2016): study US 2008
TitleThe Welfare Costs of WellBeing Inequality.
SourceNBER Working Paper, 2016, No. 21900, 1 - 30
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w21900
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008-2011
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1400000

Correlate
Author's labelInequality in life satisfaction
Page in Source 7,14,Table 5
Our classificationInequality in happiness in region, code N09ac09a
Operationalization
Standard deviation of happiness in US states. Happiness 
(contentment ) measured with question C-BW-c-sq-l-11.
Observed distributionRange: 1,68-2,39
Remarks
Average across waves per state used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.06 p < .01
AVEREAGE happiness in state by standard deviation 
of happiness in state.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.05 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Log GDP
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.06 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Income inequality (GINI)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- State dummies


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-fSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past year?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past year' version)
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('in general' version)
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-aRating by mother in response to single question:

How often does your child feel unhappy, sad or depressed?
1 often
2 selden
3 never
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking; how would you say, you are these days.....?
1 very happy
2 pretty happy
3 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel that your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nSelfreport on single question:

In general, I am happy with how things are in my life right now
1 disagree strongly
2 disagree
3 agree
4 strongly agree
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question;

In general, are you…?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are on the whole?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ccSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 neutral
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy or unhappy?
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration: do you consider yourself happy or unhappy?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Verbal labels not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hSelfreport on single question

Generally speaking, how do you personally feel about your life?

1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 so-so
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1 very unhappy
2
| unhappy
3
4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
| happy
6
7 very happy
no opinion
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-QOL-cw-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

The following questions ask about how satisfied you have felt about various aspects of your life over the last 2 weeks..

How would you rate your overall quality of life?
1 very poor
2 poor
3 neither poor nor good
4 good
5 very good

Item 81 in WHOQOL-100
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-cselfreport on single question:

Would you say that your overall quality of life is..
1 extremely poor
2 poor
3 neutral
4 good
5 extremely good
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to rate themselves on an 1 - 10 rating ladder in terms of their self-perceived life satisfaction.
(Full question not reported).
[ 10 ] +
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] --

(labels of scale extremes not reported)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life so far, the course of your life?
0 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 fully satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question

'Taken all together, how satisfied are you with the life you currently lead? Please indicate on this scale. 10 means that you are completely satisfied and 1 means that you are completely dissatisfied.'
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitively disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitively agree
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how happy would you say you are....."?

Response options not reported
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, to what extend are you satisfied with your life?
0 the minimum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the maximun
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

".......satisfaction with life-as-a-whole......"
(Full question not reported.)
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Now taking everything about your life into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life today?"
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6

5
4

3
2
1
0 dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are very unsatisfied, please tick '0'. When you are partly satisfied, tick '5', and when you are very satisfied please tick '10'.
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5 partly satisfied
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Let's think about your life as a whole: would you say that you are with your life right now
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ncSelfreport on single question:
Taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general these days?
1 very disssatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-cSelfreport on single question asked twice:

"Considering how you feel these days, are you generally satisfied with your life or are you generally dissatisfied?"
7 extremely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 both satisfied and dissatisfied
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

Would you say that in general you are .. with your life so far
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which of these faces describe bast how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 not at all happy
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a seven step quality of life ladder was marked with a smiling face and marked ''GOOD'. The bottom marked with a frowning face and the word 'BAD'
[ 7 ] Good, picture of smiling face
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Bad, picture of frowning face
(Pictures not reproduced here)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Please look at this satisfaction scale and tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your life as a whole
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 Dissatisfied

Numbers were presented in different order (1 satisfied… 10 dissatisfied).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how do you judge your quality of life?
4 very satisfactory
3 sufficiently satisfactory
2 not too satisfactory
1 unsatisfactory
- don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MIMORAN's I
Type: test statistic
Measurment level: Correlate
Range: [-1,1]
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rspcPARTIAL SPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
HOTELLING's T² statistic is the MANOVA equivalent of an F-statistic in an ANOVA situation.
Type: asymmetric test statistic
(one or more correlates; two or more happiness measures at the interval level of measurement)


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N09aaArea in nation (geographic region)E03aaEthnic status in specific nations
N09aaArea in nation (geographic region)L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT
N09aa01Earlier area of residenceM09aa01Earlier residential mobility
N09abAttitude climate in regionA08ATTITUDES
N09ab01Happiness in regionH07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES
N09ab01Happiness in regionN09ac07bSuicide in region
N09ab02Hope in regionH12HOPE
N09ac01aAge composition in regionA04AGE
N09ac01aAge composition in regionN04aa03Population composition
N09ac01bDivorced in regionN04al02aDivorce rate
N09ac01cWidowed in regionM02ab02Widowed
N09ac01cWidowed in regionN04aa03Population composition
N09ac01dMarried in regionM02aa01Married vs never married
N09ac01ePopulation size in regionN04aa04Population size
N09ac01fEthnic composition of regionE03aa14Ethnic status in the USA
N09ac01fEthnic composition of regionN04ag04Cultural pluralism
N09ac02aNature in regionL10aiLocal nature
N09ac02aNature in regionN04abGeographic condition of the nation
N09ac03aEconomic affluence in regionL10acLocal economic prosperity
N09ac03aEconomic affluence in regionN04ac01Economic affluence
N09ac03aaRegional IncomeN04ac01Economic affluence
N09ac03abGDP in regionN04ac01aGnp per capita (raw)
N09ac03abGDP in regionN04ac01bPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
N09ac03abGDP in regionN04ac01cGross National Product
N09ac03acEconomic growth in regionN04ac02Economic growth/decline
N09ac03bIncome inequality in regionN04ah03Income inequality
N09ac03cUnemployment in regionN04ac04Unemployment
N09ac03cUnemployment in regionL10acLocal economic prosperity
N09ac03cUnemployment in regionE02ab03Unemployed involuntary
N09ac04Political conditions in regionN04afPolitical conditions in the nation
N09ac04aDominant political ideologyN04af08Dominant political ideology
N09ac04bPolitical violenceN04af02bPolitical violence
N09ac04cSize of regional governmentN04af06Size of government
N09ac05Socio-economic regime in regionN04aeSocio-economic regime in the nation
N09ac05aEconomic freedom in regionN04ao03Economic freedom
N09ac05bRegional Welfare EffortN04ae01State welfare effort
N09ac07Apparent quality of life in regionN07abApparent average livability
N09ac07aAverage health in regionN07ab01Average health of citizens
N09ac07aAverage health in regionP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
N09ac07bSuicide in regionS14SUICIDE
N09ac07bSuicide in regionN09ab01Happiness in region
N09ac07bSuicide in regionN07ab02dSuicide rate
N09ac08Socio-cultural conditions in the regionN04agSocio-cultural conditions the nation
N09ac08aSocial participation in regionL10afLocal social cohesion
N09ac08aSocial participation in regionN04al03Social cohesion in nation
N09ac08aSocial participation in regionS07abCurrent organizational participation
N09ac08bClose relations in regionS06abCurrent contacts
N09ac08bClose relations in regionN04alPattern of intimacy in nation
N09ac08bClose relations in regionL10af02Local social contacts
N09ac09Inequality in quality of life in regionN09ac03bIncome inequality in region
N09ac09aInequality in happiness in regionH04abInequality of happiness in nations
N09ac09aInequality in happiness in regionN04ah07aInequality in happiness

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings