Findings on Happiness and NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE
Subject Code: N08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE1
N08aaAverage satisfaction with domains of life1
N08abAverage value preferences0
N08aa01Average satisfaction with job3
N08aa02Average satisfaction with finances2
N08aa03Average satisfaction with home life1
N08acAverage perceived freedom6
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE
Subject code: N08

StudyHills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9195.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 EU nations, 1973-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelValence of words used in books
Page in Source 4,5,14,17
Our classificationNATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE, code N08
Operationalization
2 step rating of positiveness of words used in books in 
a language in a year:

Step1:
Rating of Intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of 
words. Respondents were asked to value of common words, 
such as 'abandon'. 'abbey', 'ability'... etc.. The 
number of words valued varied per nation from 1003 
words in German to 1034 words in the UK and Spain. Each 
word was rated by 20 participants per nation on the 
following scale:
   -3:: Most negative association
   -2
   -1
    0
  +1
  +2
  +3: most positive association
Ratings were recoded afterwards to range 1-9 and a mean 
per nation was computed

Step 2:
Assesment of average valence of words used in books in 
the national language using Google Book database
Observed distributionM = 5,72, SD = 0,114
Error Estimates0.35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1.5 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness in nation by average valence of 
words used in books in 119 nation/year 
combinations 1973-2000
b controlled for:
- country fixed effects
- year fixed effects
- number of words covered
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR˛=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b additionally controled for GDP
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR˛=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b when years extended from 1973-2009
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR˛=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+2.2 p < .01
b without Spain and France (N nation/year 78).
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR˛=.95
(


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with domains of life
Subject code: N08aa

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelCompany satisfaction
Page in Source 328
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with domains of life, code N08aa
Operationalization
Five item company satisfaction index, illustrative 
items:
- I would recommend my company as a good place to work
- Taking everything into account, how satisfied are you 
with your company as an employer?

Assessed on a 4 point scale from 1 = disagree to 4 = 
agree
Remarks
Data: International Survey Research
The original dataset covered 33 nations of which 28 
overlapped this sample. 8 missing values were removed 
by assigning the average score of the other countries 
in its geographical or linguistic so that data were 
available for 36 nations, but not for the 5 arab 
countries and israel.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.52 p < .001
Average happiness by average company-satisfaction 
in 36 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with job
Subject code: N08aa01

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control (work)
Page in Source 14
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with job, code N08aa01
Operationalization
Freedom at work is based on a question from the World 
Values Survey that asks, "Thinking of your job, do you 
often or occasionally feel that you are being taken 
advantage of or exploited, or do you never have this 
feeling?" 1: often; 2: sometimes; 3: never. Another 
question asks, "How free are you to make decisions in 
your job?" 1: not at all; 10; a great deal.
Observed distributionFree in decision-making at work (1-10) North Europe M=7,4 Latin Europe M=6,5 Feel exploited at work (%) North Europe M=39 Latin Europe M=51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+.75
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perceived fate 
control in 26 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with job
Subject code: N08aa01

StudyOishi et al. (1999): study ZZ 1999
TitleCross-Cultural Variations in Predictors of Life Satisfaction: Perpectives from Needs and Values.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 25, 980 - 990
URLhttp://www.springerlink.com/content/q8437718033u2207/fulltext.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1991
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54446

Correlate
Author's labelJob satisfaction
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with job, code N08aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: "How satisfied are you 
with your job?"

Rated 1 (dissatisfied) to 10 (satisfied)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.35 p < .001
Average Happiness by Average Job satisfaction in 
39 nations

Unaffected by GNP per capita in nation
Unaffected by individualism in nation

B +.35 means that a 1 point difference in job 
satisfaction corresponds with 0.35 point 
difference in happiness on the same 1-10 point 
scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with job
Subject code: N08aa01

StudyTiedje et al. (1990): study US 1985
TitleWomen with Multiple Roles: Role-Compatibility Perceptions, Satisfaction, and Mental Health.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1990, Vol. 52, 63 - 72
PublicMarried women with a preschool child, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =158

Correlate
Author's labelJob satisfaction
Page in Source 66,67
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with job, code N08aa01
Operationalization
How often during the last month have you felt:
a happy
b satisfied
c frustrated or angry
d insecure
e unhappy 
in your job? 
Rated 1(never or almost never) to 5(always or almost 
always).
Observed distributionN = 156, M = 21,87, SD = 3,46, range = 12-30
Error Estimatesalpha = .81 (job)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.55 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with finances
Subject code: N08aa02

StudyOishi et al. (1999): study ZZ 1999
TitleCross-Cultural Variations in Predictors of Life Satisfaction: Perpectives from Needs and Values.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 25, 980 - 990
URLhttp://www.springerlink.com/content/q8437718033u2207/fulltext.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1991
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54446

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial satisfaction
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with finances, code N08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: "How satisfied are you 
with the financial situation of your household?"

Rated 1 (dissatisfied) to 10 (satisfied)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.35 p < .001
Average Happiness by Average financial 
satisfaction in 39 nations

Stronger in poorer nations
uneffected by individualism in nation

B +.35 means that a 1 point difference in 
financial satisfaction corresponds with 0.35 point 
difference in happiness on the same 1-10 point 
scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with finances
Subject code: N08aa02

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study US 1972
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged white males, United States, 1972-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14836

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with income
Page in Source p6 + Figure 5
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with finances, code N08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Would you say you are 
pretty well satisfied with your financial situation 
(3), more or less satisfied (2) or not satisfied at 
all?(1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Average satisfaction with home life
Subject code: N08aa03

StudyOishi et al. (1999): study ZZ 1999
TitleCross-Cultural Variations in Predictors of Life Satisfaction: Perpectives from Needs and Values.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 25, 980 - 990
URLhttp://www.springerlink.com/content/q8437718033u2207/fulltext.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1991
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54446

Correlate
Author's labelHome life satisfaction
Our classificationAverage satisfaction with home life, code N08aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question, question not reported

Rated 1 (dissatisfied) to 10 (satisfied)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.50 p < .001
Average Happiness by Average Home satisfaction in 
39 nations

Stronger in wealthier nations
uneffected by individualism in nation

B +.50 that a 1 point difference in home life 
satisfaction corresponds with 0.5 point difference 
in happiness on the same 1-10 point scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average perceived freedom
Subject code: N08ac

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control (work)
Page in Source 14
Our classificationAverage perceived freedom, code N08ac
Operationalization
Freedom at work is based on a question from the World 
Values Survey that asks, "Thinking of your job, do you 
often or occasionally feel that you are being taken 
advantage of or exploited, or do you never have this 
feeling?" 1: often; 2: sometimes; 3: never. Another 
question asks, "How free are you to make decisions in 
your job?" 1: not at all; 10; a great deal.
Observed distributionFree in decision-making at work (1-10) North Europe M=7,4 Latin Europe M=6,5 Feel exploited at work (%) North Europe M=39 Latin Europe M=51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+.75
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perceived fate 
control in 26 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average perceived freedom
Subject code: N08ac

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPerception of hierarchy
Page in Source 14
Our classificationAverage perceived freedom, code N08ac
Operationalization
Agreement to four statements:
a In this society, followers are expected to obey their 
leader without question
b In this society, power is concentrated at the top
c In this organization, subordinates are expected to 
obey their boss without question
d In this organization, a person's influence is 
primarily based on one's ability and contribution to 
the organization.

Agreement is on a numerical scale, ranging from little 
(1) to much (7) power distance.
Observed distributionNorth Europe M=4,28 Latin Europe M=5,41
Remarks
GLOBE study (House et al., 2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.45
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perception of 
hierachy in 19 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average perceived freedom
Subject code: N08ac

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control (life)
Page in Source 14
Our classificationAverage perceived freedom, code N08ac
Operationalization
Freedom in life is based on a question from the World 
Values Survey that asks, "Some people feel they have 
completely free choice and control over their lives, 
while other people feel that what they do has no real 
effect on what happens to them. Please use this scale 
where 1 means 'none at all' and 10 means 'a great deal' 
to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you 
feel you have over the way your life turns out."
Observed distributionNorth Europe M=6,9 Latin Europe M=6,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+.74
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perceived fate 
control in 40 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average perceived freedom
Subject code: N08ac

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelApproval of hierarchy
Page in Source 14
Our classificationAverage perceived freedom, code N08ac
Operationalization
Ratings on how it should be in society:
a In this society, followers are expected to obey their 
leader without question
b In this society, power is concentrated at the top
c In this organization, subordinates are expected to 
obey their boss without question
d In this organization, a person's influence is 
primarily based on one's ability and contribution to 
the organization.

Agreement is on a numerical scale, ranging from not 
desired (1) to much desired (7).
Observed distributionNorth Europe M=2,64 Latin Europe M=2,50
Remarks
GLOBE study (House et al., 2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.39
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE approval of hierarchy 
in 19 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average perceived freedom
Subject code: N08ac

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 15,36
Our classificationAverage perceived freedom, code N08ac
Operationalization
Self perceived view on freedom of choice and control on 
a 10-point scale:
1:     No choice at all
10:   A great deal of choice

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.19 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by NATIONAL freedom of choice
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.51 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 ns
AVERAGE happiness by NATIONAL freedom of choice

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - unemployment (ind.)
     - unemployment rates
     - education
  - air pollution in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average perceived freedom
Subject code: N08ac

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom and control
Page in Source 94
Our classificationAverage perceived freedom, code N08ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Please use this scale where 1 means 'none at all' and 
10 means 'a great deal' to indicate how much freedom of 
choice and control you feel you have over they way your 
life turns out."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.36 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL sense of 
freedom and control

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
In 74 nations separately.
Significantly positive in all 74 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=
Coefficient of 'freedom and control' in the life 
satisfaction regressions by GDP per capita.
Set Image size:   



Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aSelfreport on single question

Various questions on satisfaction with life as-a-whole, rated on 10 or 11 step numeral scales. 10 step variants stretched to range 0-10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R˛ = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R˛ = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATEA08ATTITUDES
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATEN03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATEN04agSocio-cultural conditions the nation
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATEN06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATEV03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
N08aa01Average satisfaction with jobW05WORK: ATTITUDES
N08aa01Average satisfaction with jobA07ad02Climate of attidudes to work
N08aa02Average satisfaction with financesI01af05Satisfaction with income\finances
N08aa03Average satisfaction with home lifeF02ag02Satisfaction with family
N08abAverage value preferencesV03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
N08acAverage perceived freedomF05ab03aAmount of restrictions perceived

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings