Findings on Happiness and NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION
Subject Code: N07

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION0
N07aaPresumed livability 1
N07abApparent average livability1
N07ab01Average health of citizens 4
N07ab01aPrevalence of physical illness1
N07ab01bPrevalence of mental illness7
N07ab01cLife-expectancy in the nation14
N07ab02Average satisfaction of citizens 0
N07ab02aAppraisal of specific aspects of life1
N07ab02cOverall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness)2
N07ab02dSuicide rate7
N07acInequality in apparent livability 5
N07ab02bAverage mood5
N07ab01dDisability adjusted life expectancy3
N07ab04Worriedness1
N07ab03Stress1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N07
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Presumed livability
Subject code: N07aa

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelSocietal development
Page in Source 329,331
Our classificationPresumed livability , code N07aa
Operationalization
Human Development Index
- buying power per head in nation
- level of education
- life expectancy
Observed distributionM = 0.80, SD = 0.14,
Remarks
Data: Human Development Report 1994

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.52 p < .001
Average happiness by societal development in 42 
nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 ns
B controled for:
- overall competitiveness
- gender gap in competitiveness
- interaction of the above


Correlational finding on Happiness and Apparent average livability
Subject code: N07ab

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelNorm for expressing extreme opinions
Page in Source 383
Our classificationApparent average livability, code N07ab
Operationalization
Percentage of the sample scoring 10 on 1-10 step 
questions about life-satisfaction and job-satisfaction
- low
- high
Remarks
Cut-off point between low and high not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
% very happy in nations where:
- few people score 10:  31%
- many people score 10: 37%
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aGs=+.09
Gs controlled for:
- participation rate in voluntary organizations
- percentage scoring 10 on both life satisfaction 
and job-satisfaction
- support for the view that singles are less happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average health of citizens
Subject code: N07ab01

StudyKirkcaldy et al. (2005): study ZZ 1995
TitleHealth Care and Subjective Well-Being in Nations.
SourceAntoniou, A.S.;Cooper, C.L.;Eds.: "Research Companion to Organizational Health Psychology", Edward Elgar Publishers, 2005, UK, 393 - 412
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12763
PublicAdults, general public, 53 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelHealth level
Page in Source 21
Our classificationAverage health of citizens , code N07ab01
Operationalization
Performance of level of health
Remarks
Source: The World Health Report 2000, Geneva

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.64 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by Health level in 53 Nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.38 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bt.=-4.1 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acr=+.44 p < .01
Average life satisfaction by Health level in ?? 
Nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average health of citizens
Subject code: N07ab01

StudyKirkcaldy et al. (2005): study ZZ 1995
TitleHealth Care and Subjective Well-Being in Nations.
SourceAntoniou, A.S.;Cooper, C.L.;Eds.: "Research Companion to Organizational Health Psychology", Edward Elgar Publishers, 2005, UK, 393 - 412
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12763
PublicAdults, general public, 53 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelOverall health
Page in Source 21
Our classificationAverage health of citizens , code N07ab01
Operationalization
Overall ranking in health attainment, relative to 
resources used.
Remarks
Source: The World Health Report 2000, Geneva

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.67 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by Overall health in 53 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acr=+.47 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average health of citizens
Subject code: N07ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelState of health
Page in Source 14,15,21,36
Our classificationAverage health of citizens , code N07ab01
Operationalization
All in all, how would you describe your state of health 
these days?
4: Very good
3: Good
2: Fair
1: Poor

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.41 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL health in 
nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.69 p < .05
Stronger in nations with high proportion of people 
in poor health.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.21 ns
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE health

Beta's controlled for:
 - individual characteristics
   - income
   - poverty
   - employment status
   - education
   - sexe
   - age
   - divorced
   - number of children
 - national charactereristics
   - average perception of
   - income inequality in country
   - trustwortiness of people
   - unemployment rate
   - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average health of citizens
Subject code: N07ab01

StudyOuweneel & Veenhoven (1994): study ZZ 1980
TitleNation Characteristics and Average Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper, Department of Sociology, Erasmus University, 1994, Rotterdam, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 27 nations, ±1980
Sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelHealth condition in nation
Our classificationAverage health of citizens , code N07ab01
Operationalization
Index of:
- infant mortality rate 
- number of physicians per thousand - male life 
expectation 

Source:Estes, R.J.-The social progress        of 
nations (1984, N.Y., Praeger)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.63 p < .001
                Mt' Life           Health
                    Satisfaction   score

Australia           7.67           18  
Austria             7.10           18  
Belgium             7.07           18  
Brazil              7.03           11
Canada              7.60           18
Denmark             7.92           19
Finland             7.68           18
France              6.29           18
Germany             6.94           18
Greece              5.70           18
Great Britain       7.41           18
Italy               6.24           18
India               3.35            3
Ireland             7.58           18
Japan               6.20           19
Mexico              4.32           14
Netherlands         7.46           19
Norway              7.67           19
Philippines         6.60           12
Portugal            6.74           15
Singapore           7.12           17 
S.Africa            6.43            7
S.Korea             5.50           16
Spain               6.22           18
Sweden              7.80           19
Switzerland         8.60           19
United States       6.94           18
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ar=+.55 p < .01
                Mt' Happiness    Health score

Australia           7.75             18
Austria             6.68             18
Belgium             7.57             18
Brazil              7.22             11
Canada              7.76             18
Denmark             7.67             19
Finland             7.35             18
France              7.24             18
Germany             6.98             18
Greece              5.61             18
Great Britain       7.74             18
Italy               6.47             18
India               5.16              3
Ireland             7.82             18
Japan               6.94             19
Mexico              6.31             14
Netherlands         7.63             19
Norway              7.45             19
Philippines         6.47             12
Portugal            6.20             15
Singapore           7.24             17
S.Africa            7.03              7
S.Korea             6.21             16
Spain               6.84             18
Sweden              7.62             19
Switzerland         6.99             19
United States       7.55             18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of physical illness
Subject code: N07ab01a

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelHealth problem
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationPrevalence of physical illness, code N07ab01a
Operationalization
Self reported on a single question.
Do you have any health problems that prevent you from 
doing any of the things people your age normally can 
do?
1- Yes
0- No
Observed distributionM=0.24, Range from 0.4 (Georgia) to 0.10 (Singapore)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.43 p < .01
% Illness by AVERAGE happiness in 164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelDepression on individual land nation evel
Page in Source 264
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question. 
Did you experience these feeling a lot in the previous 
day?
Depression

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.17 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual depression
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.40
Nation level: AVERAGE happiness by % depressed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyBray & Gunnell (2006): study ZZ 1999
TitleSuicide Rates, Life Satisfaction and Happiness as Markers for Population Mental Health.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2006, Vol. 41, 333 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00127-0049-z
PublicAdults,, general public, Europe, Multiple nations, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34 %
Respondents N =32678

Correlate
Author's labelMental Disorder rate
Page in Source 335
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Index of :
a.  prescribing rate of anti-depressants
b. self-harm
c. psychiatric service activity data
d.suicide rates
Remarks
Suicide rate are calculated from the WHO Mortality 
Database for 1999 
rates of hospital discharges for mental and behavioural 
disorders are available from the WHO Reginal Office for 
Europe for 21 of the EVS coutries for 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ars=-.18
AVERAGE happines by rate of mental disorders in 12 
nations
CI95  [0.59, 0.56]
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ars=-.18
CI95 [0.59, 0.56]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyBray & Gunnell (2006): study ZZ 1999
TitleSuicide Rates, Life Satisfaction and Happiness as Markers for Population Mental Health.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2006, Vol. 41, 333 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00127-0049-z
PublicAdults,, general public, Europe, Multiple nations, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34 %
Respondents N =32678

Correlate
Author's labelMental Health Prevalence rate
Page in Source 335
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
How much of  the time...
1. were you a happy person
2. have you felt calm and peaceful 
3. have you been a vervous person
4. have you felt downhearted and blue
5. have you felt so down in the dumps that nothing 
could chear you up
Remarks
Mental Health Index MHI-5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ars=-.52
AVERAGE Happiness by Mental Health Prevelence in 
16 nation
CI95 [-0.81,-0.03]
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ars=-.55
CI95 [-0.83, -0.05]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Beck Depression Inventory
Observed distributionM(weighted by sample size)= 7.98, 8.81,3.67
Error EstimatesSD(weighted by sample size)= 6.50,6.88,3.68
Remarks
Combined 1961-version, 1978-version, and Short-version 
data set
The versions differs across nations.
Correlations across versions varies between +.94 and 
+.42 
Units are nation averages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.46 p < .05
Average happiness by average score on BDI in 24 
countries.
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ar=-.66 p < .01
Average happiness by average score on BDI in 23 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Psychoticism scale of Eysenk Personal 
Questionnaire(1975 version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.57 p < .01
Average happiness by average psychoticism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale of Eysenk Personal questionnaire(1975 
version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.14 ns
Average happiness by average neuroticism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prevalence of mental illness
Subject code: N07ab01b

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelDepression prevalence rate
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPrevalence of mental illness, code N07ab01b
Operationalization
Medical registration of Percentage of unipolar and 
bipolar depression sufferes in contries
Remarks
Source: World Health Organization (1999), data 1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.51 p < .05
Average happiness by percentage of medical 
reported depression in 24 countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyDeaton (2008): study ZZ 2006
TitleIncome, Health and Wellbeing around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2008, Vol. 22, 53 - 72
DOIDOI:10.1257/jep.22.2.53
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =132000

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectancy
Page in Source 61
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Life expectancy in 2005
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables version 6.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.01 ns
ALL countries, N=120

B (-.011)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.00 ns
Among POOR countries, income < $12.000, N=83

B (-.004)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.02 ns
Among NOT POOR countries, income > $12.000, N=37

B (+.018)

B's controled for:
- logarithm of income 2003
- growth rate of income 2000-2003


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyDeaton (2008): study ZZ 2006
TitleIncome, Health and Wellbeing around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2008, Vol. 22, 53 - 72
DOIDOI:10.1257/jep.22.2.53
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =132000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in life expectancy
Page in Source 61
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Change in life expectancy from 1990 to 2005
Observed distributionN=120
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables version 6.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.04 p < .01
Among ALL countries, N=120

B (+.044)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.04 p < .05
Among POOR countries, income < $12.000, N=83

B (+.036)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.06 ns
Among NOT POOR countries, income > $12.000, N=37

B (-.062)

B's  controled for:
- logarithm of income 2003
- growth rate of income 2000-2003


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectency
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Life expectency at birth (years).
Observed distributionM=69.8, Range from 46.2 (Sierra Leone) to 82.9 (Hong Kong)
Remarks
Life expectency data were obtained from the World Bank 
World Development Indicators.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.71 p < .01
AVERAGE Life expectations by AVERAGE happiness in 
164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyDownie & Koester (2008): study ZZ 2004
TitleWhy Faster, Higher, Stronger isn"t Necessarily Better.The Relations of Paralympian and Women's Soccer Teams' Performance to National Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 273 - 280
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1
PublicAdults, 90 countries, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelLife Expectancy
Page in Source 276
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Observed distributionlife-expectancy data of 178 nation was available for the year 2004
Remarks
data obtained from the World Bank database(2006)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.56 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by Life Expectancy in 90 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2007): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleDeterminanten des Glücks: Lebenszufriedenheit in Europa. (Determinants of Happiness: Life Satisfaction in Europe).
SourceWSI Mitteillungen, 2007, Vol. 7, 373 - 379
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU member states, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400000

Correlate
Author's labelLife-expectancy
Page in Source 377
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Expected life-expectancy at birth in years.
Observed distributionRange: 65-80
Remarks
Source: Eurostat yearbook 2005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
No statistics reported (see picure).
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectancy at birth
Page in Source 51
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
The number of years a newborn infant would live if 
prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its 
birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
Remarks
Derived from the World Development Index (WDI) of The 
World Bank (year unknown)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE life expectancy in 
country of residence

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelInfant mortality
Page in Source 132,138,160
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Infant mortality in nation
Remarks
Source: World Bank (2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Individual happiness (not average) by infant 
mortality in one's nation.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .05
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .10
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .01
females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .01
left voters
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .05
right voters
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .05
low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .01
middle income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 p < .10
high income

Beta's controlled for:
Area dummies and other cultural and human 
development variables:
- pimary schooling
- secondary schooling
- average IQ
- fertility
- life expectancy
- gender equality
- average temperature
- latitude
- longitude
- English speaking

Individual level variables:
- religion 
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyVeenhoven (2001): study ZZ 1990
TitleAre the Russians as Unhappy as They Say They Are? Comparability of Self-Reports Across Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2001, Vol. 2, 111 - 136
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8772
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1011587828593
PublicAdults, general public, 41 nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50000

Correlate
Author's labelLife-expectation
Page in Source 123
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Life expectancy at birth
Remarks
Source: Human Delopment Report

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Average life-satisfaction by life-expectation in 
1990 in 39 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectancy
Page in Source 7,17
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Life Expectancy at birth in years, averaged data for 
the 1990s.
Observed distributionM = 70,73; SD = 6,96; Range: 44,17 - 79,73.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.01 ns
Average happiness by Life Expectancy in 68 nations

B controlled for:(step 1)
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
B additionally controlled for: (step 2)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.01 p < .05
B addionally controlled for:(step 3)
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 p < .01
Average life-satisfaction by life-expectancy in 68 
nations

B controlled for:(step 1)
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .01
B additionally controlled for: (step 2)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .01
B addionally controlled for:(step 3)
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectation
Page in Source 164
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Life expectancy at birth in the country where one lives
Observed distributionRange 37-79, M= 70.95, SD= 7.09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .000
Individual happiness by average life-expectancy in 
nation

B controlled for:
- GDP growth
- inflation
- population of country
- infant mortality
- natality rate 
- quality of government 
- corruption
- suicide rate
- number of legal abortions
- share of GDP that a country spends on health
- dominant religious faiths in a given country
- latitude


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ 1980 /1
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 31 nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =45000

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectancy
Page in Source 47
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Life-expectancy at birth (in years)
Remarks
data: UN 1982, UN 1985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.53 p < .05
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelLife expectancy
Page in Source 29
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Average life expectancy at birth for males and females, 
measured in years.
Linear interpolation  used to obtain  life expectancies 
in 1975-76 for Ireland and 1975-1979 for Britain.
Remarks
Data: OECD Health Statistics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.03 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by life expectancy in the 
nation 
OPRC (+0.032) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 nations and regions, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelAverage life expectancy
Page in Source 152
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Average life expectancy per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.88 p < .001
                  Mt happiness   Average life
                                 expectancy
Australia             7.0             70.90
USA                   6.7             72.60
Canada                7.0             72.85
Great Britain         6.8             70.80
France                5.8             72.50
W-Germany             6.6             71.25
Italy                 5.6             71.95
Benelux               6.0             72.80
Scandinavia           7.6             73.75
Brasil                6.2             59.35
Mexico                6.2             64.70
Africa (South
of the Sahara)        4.6             41.60
India                 3.4             41.25
Japan                 5.8             73.75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-expectancy in the nation
Subject code: N07ab01c

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008b): study ZZ EU 15 1973
TitleAnalysing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973 - 2002.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 317 - 330
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9055-4
Public16+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1973-2002.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in life expectancy, absolute and relative
Page in Source 321
Our classificationLife-expectancy in the nation, code N07ab01c
Operationalization
Change in life-expectancy in years.
Observed distributionAverage change in life-expectancy in 195 periods +0,01%, SD 0,006 Average change in life expectancy relative to change in neighbouring countries in 180 periods +1,03%, SD 1,72
Remarks
Source: World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.12 ns
CHANGE in average happiness in 128 4-year-periods 
by CHANGE in Life expectancy in the same periods.

Beta controlled for:
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 2 
years before (2-year overlap)
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 4 
years before (no overlap)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.11 ns
CHANGE in average happiness in 116 4-year-periods 
by CHANGE in Life expectancy relative to life 
expectancy in preceding periods.

Beta additionally controlled for
-GDP-change in same periods
-GDP-change relative to change in preceding period


Correlational finding on Happiness and Disability adjusted life expectancy
Subject code: N07ab01d

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy life expectancy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationDisability adjusted life expectancy, code N07ab01d
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=58,95 SD=10,94
Remarks
Source: World Health Organization (2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.02 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by healthy life expectancy in 
154 nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=776).
- Without country fixed effects

A similar result is also obtained when a 
regression is conducted for 2005-2012 averages at 
the country level.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.06 ns
- With country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.09 p < .10
Countries with high delivery quality (greater than 
0) (n=336)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.03 ns
Countries with low delivery quality (lower than 0) 
(n=500)

b controls for:
- delivery quality
- democratic quality
- log GDP
- year fixed effects

Similar patterns are obtained when b additionally 
controls for:
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support
- Regional fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.07 ns
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE democratic quality in 
146 nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=696).

b controls for:
- Confidence in the national government (Gallup)
- Logged GDP
- Democratic quality
- Delivery quality
- Country fixed effects
- Year fixed effects
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support

Similar results are obtained when some controls 
are removed.

In sum: The effect of healthy life expectancy on 
life satisfaction is mixed. When significant, it 
only has a small effect, either positive or 
negative.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Disability adjusted life expectancy
Subject code: N07ab01d

StudySamanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999
TitleQuality of Government Makes People Happy.
SourceQoG Working Paper Serie 2010:1, The Quality of Government Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Göteborg, 2010, Sweden
Public18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy life expectancy
Page in Source 6, 16
Our classificationDisability adjusted life expectancy, code N07ab01d
Operationalization
Not reported.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: WHO (2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
AVERAGE happiness by healthy life expectancy in 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.22
All nations (N=90)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.42
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=.00
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.59
All nations (N=90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.46
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.44
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 p < .05
All nations (N=90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.07 ns
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 p < .05
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)

B controlled for
-Government Effectiveness
-GDP per capita
-Post-Materialism
-Importance of God
-Levels of Democracy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Disability adjusted life expectancy
Subject code: N07ab01d

StudyKirkcaldy et al. (2005): study ZZ 1995
TitleHealth Care and Subjective Well-Being in Nations.
SourceAntoniou, A.S.;Cooper, C.L.;Eds.: "Research Companion to Organizational Health Psychology", Edward Elgar Publishers, 2005, UK, 393 - 412
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12763
PublicAdults, general public, 53 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelDisability-adjusted life expectancy
Page in Source 21
Our classificationDisability adjusted life expectancy, code N07ab01d
Operationalization
DALE (disability-adjusted life expectancy) is estimated 
from the fraction of the population surviving to each 
age, calculated from the brth and death rate, incidence 
of each disability at each age and the weight assigned 
to each disability.
Remarks
Source: The World Health Report 2000, Geneva

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.79 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by Disability-adjusted life 
expectancy in 53 Nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acr=+.52 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Appraisal of specific aspects of life
Subject code: N07ab02a

StudyLeepin (1978): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleLe Monde Entier Interviewé. (The Entire World Interviewed).
SourceLa Baloise, Groupe des Assurances, 1978, Bâle, Switzerland
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 countries, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2659

Correlate
Author's labelBelief that life is interesting
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAppraisal of specific aspects of life, code N07ab02a
Operationalization
Percentage of people per country who 
think life is interesting. (As assessed by single 
direct survey question)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-br=+.94 p < .001
Average score per country.
                       % life         % happy
                       interesting
Switzerland            89             91
Germany                76             75
France                 74             88
Italy                  67             68
Benelux countries      85             92
Great Britain          82             92
Scandinavia            91             95
Japan                  73             65
India                  35             37


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average mood
Subject code: N07ab02b

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelSadness on individual and nation level
Page in Source 264
Our classificationAverage mood, code N07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question.
Did you experience these feeling a lot in the previous 
day?
Sadness.

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.16 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual sadness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.29 p < .001
Nation level: Average happiness by % sad in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average mood
Subject code: N07ab02b

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelDepression on individual land nation evel
Page in Source 264
Our classificationAverage mood, code N07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question. 
Did you experience these feeling a lot in the previous 
day?
Depression

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.17 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual depression
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.40
Nation level: AVERAGE happiness by % depressed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average mood
Subject code: N07ab02b

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelAnger: on individual land nation level
Page in Source 264
Our classificationAverage mood, code N07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question.
Did you experience these feeling a lot in the previous 
day?
Anger.

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.09 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual anger
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.25
Nation level: Average happiness by % angry


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average mood
Subject code: N07ab02b

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affect
Page in Source 65
Our classificationAverage mood, code N07ab02b
Operationalization
Average score in nation on Bradburn's(1965) Positive 
Affect Scale

Self report on 4 questions:
'During the past few weeks, did you ever feel…(yes/no)'
A excited 
B pleased
C on top of the world
D things are going your way.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.56 p < .01
Average happiness by average positive affect in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average mood
Subject code: N07ab02b

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelNegative Affect
Page in Source 65
Our classificationAverage mood, code N07ab02b
Operationalization
Average score in nation on Bradburn's(1965) Negative 
Affect Scale

Self report on 4 questions:
'During the past few weeks, did you ever feel…(yes/no)'
A restless
B lonely
C bored
D depressed
E upset.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.17 ns
Average happiness by average negative affect in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness)
Subject code: N07ab02c

StudyBaltatescu (2005): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleSubjective Well-Being of Immigrants in Europe and Their Evaluation of Societal Conditions. An Exploratory Study.
SourcePop, L.; Matiuta, C.; Eds.: "European Identity and Free Movement of Persons in Europe", 2005, University of Oradea Publishing House, Oradea, Romania, 128 - 143
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/baltatescu_sm_2005.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 13 nations in Europe, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28320

Correlate
Author's labelLife as a whole
Page in Source 11
Our classificationOverall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness), code N07ab02c
Operationalization
Average response to question:"
"All things considered, how satisfied are you with your 
life as a whole nowadays?
0   extremely satisfied
.
.
10 extremely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=+.92
Average happiness by average life satisfaction in 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness)
Subject code: N07ab02c

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelAffect Balance
Page in Source 65
Our classificationOverall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness), code N07ab02c
Operationalization
Bradburn's(1965) Affect Balance Scale
Selfreport on 10 questions: 

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?" 
(yes/no) 
A Particularly exited or interested in something? 
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? 
C Proud because someone complimented you on something 
you had done? 
D Very lonely or remote from other people? 
E Pleased about having accomplished something? 
F Bored? 
G On top of the world? 
H Depressed or very unhappy? 
I That things were going your way? 
J Upset because someone criticized you? 

Answer options and scoring: 
yes = 1 
no = 0 
Summation: 
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I 
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J 
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.64 p < .01
Average happiness by average score on Affect 
Balance in 19 countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyBray & Gunnell (2006): study ZZ 1999
TitleSuicide Rates, Life Satisfaction and Happiness as Markers for Population Mental Health.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2006, Vol. 41, 333 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00127-0049-z
PublicAdults,, general public, Europe, Multiple nations, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34 %
Respondents N =32678

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide
Page in Source 335
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Successful suicide attempts
Remarks
Suicide rates are calculated from the WHO  Mortality 
Database for 1999 (28 countries), for 4 countries 
recently published data were used from 1996 to 1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ars=-.44
AVRAGE happines by suicide rate in 32 nations
CI95 [-0.11 to -0.68]
Males suicide rates  -.54, rs = -0.24 to -0.75 
Female suicide rates -.31, rs = -0.12 to 0.64
15-44 yrs suic.rates -.31, rs = -0.04 to 0.59
45-64 yrs suic.rates -.47, rs = -0.15 to -0.70
65+ suicide rates    -.54  rs = -0.24 to -0.75
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ars=-.42
CI95 [-0.08 to -0.67]
Males suicide rates  -.49, rs = -0.16 to -0.72 
Female suicide rates -.26, rs = -0.10 to 0.56
15-44 yrs suic.rates -.14, rs = -0.23 to 0.47
45-64 yrs suic.rates -.45, rs = -0.11 to -0.69
65+ suicide rates    -.50 rs = -0.18 to -0.73


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rates
Page in Source 227
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Suicides per 100.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=.40
Average happiness by suicide rates in 52 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyVeenhoven (2001): study ZZ 1990
TitleAre the Russians as Unhappy as They Say They Are? Comparability of Self-Reports Across Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2001, Vol. 2, 111 - 136
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8772
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1011587828593
PublicAdults, general public, 41 nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50000

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rate
Page in Source 124
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Suicide rate per 100.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Average life-satisfaction by suicide rate in 1990 
in 33 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ 1980
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 27 nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide
Page in Source 45
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Number of suicides per million inhabitants
Remarks
data: WHO 1987, UN 1985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.03
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 member states, Western Europe, 1975
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12996

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rates
Page in Source 144
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Suicide ratio per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-3-ar=+.12 ns
                  M happiness    Suicide ratio
Great Britain        1.95             7.9
France               1.89            15.4
W-Germany            1.89            21.0
Italy                1.61             5.8
Belgium              2.27            14.9
The Netherlands      2.22             9.2
Luxembourg           2.03            10.6
Denmark              2.54            23.8
Ireland              1.88             3.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 nations and regions, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rates
Page in Source 144
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Suicide ratio per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.24 ns
                  Mt happiness      Suicide
Australia             7.0             11.7
USA                   6.7             12.7
Canada                7.0             12.7
Great Britain         6.8              7.9
France                5.8             15.4
W-Germany             6.6             21.0
Italy                 5.6              5.8
Benelux               6.0             11.5
Scandinavia           7.6             20.1
Brasil                6.2             no data 
Mexico                6.2              2.1
Africa (South
of the Sahara)        4.6             no data
India                 3.4             no data
Japan                 5.8             18.1

The more happiness, the higher the rate of 
suicide; there exists hardly any correspondence 
between average happiness and suicides.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Suicide rate
Subject code: N07ab02d

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelSuicide rate
Page in Source 65
Our classificationSuicide rate, code N07ab02d
Operationalization
Medical registration of death rates per 100,000 
inhabitants by suicide in contries
Remarks
From Demographic Yearbook 1987 by UN in 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.35 ns
Average happiness by suicide rates in 20 contries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Stress
Subject code: N07ab03

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelStress on individual and nation level
Page in Source 264
Our classificationStress, code N07ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about experienced stress 
in the previous day.

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.07 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual stress
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.20 p < .05
Nation level: Average happiness by % yes responses 
in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Worriedness
Subject code: N07ab04

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelWorry on individual land nation evel
Page in Source 264
Our classificationWorriedness, code N07ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question.
Did you experience these feeling a lot in the previous 
day?
Worry

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.12 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual worry
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.05
Nation level: AVERAGE happiness by % worried


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inequality in apparent livability
Subject code: N07ac

StudyGoff et al. (2016): study ZZ 2008
TitleThe Welfare Costs of WellBeing Inequality.
SourceNBER Working Paper, 2016, No. 21900, 1 - 30
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w21900
Public18+ aged, general public, 160 nations, 2008-2014
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1430000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome inequality
Page in Source 13,14, table 3
Our classificationInequality in apparent livability , code N07ac
Operationalization
Standard deviation of happiness (contentment) in 
nation, in a country/survey wave combination.
Observed distributionRange:0.86-3.22, M=1.94
Remarks
When multiple waves are available in a country the mean 
is used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.11 p < .01
AVERAGE contentment by INEQUALITY in contentment 
(SD) in nations.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.10 p < .01
Controlled for:
- log GDP
- gender
- age
- education
- marital status
- region dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.10 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income-inequality (GINI)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.05 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inequality in apparent livability
Subject code: N07ac

StudyGoff et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleThe Welfare Costs of WellBeing Inequality.
SourceNBER Working Paper, 2016, No. 21900, 1 - 30
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w21900
Public18+ aged, general public, 36 nations, 2006-2015
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =303858

Correlate
Author's labelInequality in life satisfaction
Page in Source 12,13,21, table 5
Our classificationInequality in apparent livability , code N07ac
Operationalization
Standard deviation of happiness ( life satisfaction) in 
nation.
Observed distributionRange 1,39-3,08 M=2,10
Remarks
When multiple waves are available in a country the mean 
is used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bar=-.35 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by INEQUALITY in happiness (SD) 
in nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.21 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- log GDP 
- gender
- age
- education
- marital status 
- region dummies

The reduction in magnitude is explained by the 
strong correlation between log GDP and SWL 
inequality.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.20 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income-inequality (GINI)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.22 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Average preference for low income inequality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.23 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inequality in apparent livability
Subject code: N07ac

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power per head
Page in Source 432+436
Our classificationInequality in apparent livability , code N07ac
Operationalization
Real GNP per capita in 1995
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report 1999, Table 1 (United 
Nations Development Program)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.66
LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by purchasing power per head in 
78 nations
Level of happiness measured with the average score
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=-.64
INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by purchasing power in 78 
nations
Inequality of happiness measured by the standard 
deviation
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.68
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by purchasing power 
per head in 78 nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using an 
index of average and standard deviation, as 
proposed by Kalmijn & Veenhoven (2005)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inequality in apparent livability
Subject code: N07ac

StudyGoff et al. (2016): study ZZ 1989
TitleThe Welfare Costs of WellBeing Inequality.
SourceNBER Working Paper, 2016, No. 21900, 1 - 30
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w21900
Public18+ aged, general public, 160 nations, 2008-2014
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1430000

Correlate
Author's labelInequality in life satisfaction
Page in Source 13, table 3
Our classificationInequality in apparent livability , code N07ac
Operationalization
Standard deviation of happiness (life satisfaction) in 
nation
Observed distributionRange 1,33-3,00, M=2,19
Remarks
In nations for which multiple waves are available the 
mean of the standard deviation was used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.22 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by INEQUALITY in happiness (SD) 
in nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.17 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- log GDP
- gender
- age
- education
- marital status
- region dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.17 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income-inequality (GINI)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.05 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- country dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Preference for income equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inequality in apparent livability
Subject code: N07ac

StudyVeenhoven (2005d): study ZZ EU 14 1970
TitleReturn of Inequality in Modern Society? Test by Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction across Time and Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 457 - 487
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7202
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-4
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 14 member states, 1973-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =374000

Correlate
Author's label1997 purchasing power p/c
Page in Source 479
Our classificationInequality in apparent livability , code N07ac
Operationalization
Real GNP per capita in 1997
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report 1998. (United Nations 
Development Program)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.68
INEQUALITY in happiness by purchasing power p/c in 
61 nations

Inequality in happiness in nations measured using 
the standard deviation (average over the 1990s
Set Image size:   



Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)
O-HL---sq-nt-11-bSelf report on single question

Various items using the term happiness

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale

Scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing

Scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not very happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HV---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Equivalent questions on overall happiness. (Slightly different items used in the various nations)

Scores transformed to common range 0 - 10 by means of Thurstone procedure (response options weighted by experts)

Weights for responses:
9.3 - very happy
6.7 - pretty happy
6.5 - fairly happy
4.1 - not too happy
3.7 - not very happy
2.7 - not happy
1.0 - not at all happy
0.6 - very unhappy
O-HV---sq-vt-3-aSelfreport on single questions

Six equivalent questions on overall happiness. (Slightly different items used in the various nations)
Scores transformed to common range 1 - 3, by recoding;

A "Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are;
would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy

B Taken all things together, how would you say things are these days; would you say you are ...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy

C Taken all together, would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 quite happy
1 not very happy
1 not at all happy

D Taken all together how would you say things are these days; would you say you are ...?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

E In general, how happy would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not very happy

F How happy do you feel as you live now? Please choose one item from this card that is closest to your feeling
3 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 neither happy nor unhappy
1 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole.

Scores transformed to scale 0-10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acSelfreport on single question:

If you consider all the aspects of your recent life, in what measure are you satisfied with it?
1 completely unsatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-Sum---mq-*-14-aSelfreport on two questions:

A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
life as-a-whole now?
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 dissatisfied

Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10

Name: Inglehart's combined score
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single questions:

This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale.

Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
GsPARTIAL GAMMA. See: GAMMA
Range: [-1, +1].
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N07ab01aPrevalence of physical illnessP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
N07ab01bPrevalence of mental illnessM07MENTAL HEALTH
N07ab01bPrevalence of mental illnessN03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
N07ab01cLife-expectancy in the nationP06aa03aLongevity (assessed in follow up)
N07ab02aAppraisal of specific aspects of lifeL04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS
N07ab02bAverage moodN03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
N07ab02bAverage moodM13MOOD
N07ab02cOverall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness)H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES
N07ab02cOverall evaluation of life-as-a-whole (happiness)N01abCurrent nation of residence
N07ab02dSuicide rateS14SUICIDE
N07ab02dSuicide rateN09ac07bSuicide in region
N07ab03StressL04ac01nRelaxed (vs stressful)
N07ab03StressL04ag01Life-stress inventories
N07ab03StressM13ac14Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
N07ab03StressP13abCurrent psycho-somatic complaints
N07ab04WorriednessW07ab01Amount of worrying
N07ab04WorriednessC08abCurrent concerns
N07acInequality in apparent livability H04abInequality of happiness in nations
N07acInequality in apparent livability N02abInequality of happiness in era
N07acInequality in apparent livability N04ahSocial equality in the nation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings