Findings on Happiness and NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION
Subject Code: N05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION0
N05aaCentral/peripherical in world system0
N05acInvolved in international conflict0
N05adReputation of the nation0
N05aeWealth: relative to neighour countries1
N05afSuccess in sports4
N05abGeographic location11
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelCentral and Eastern Europe dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: Central and Eastern Europe
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.95 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.96 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.67 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.69 p < .01
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: Average life satisfaction in Central and 
Eastern Europe is lower than in Western Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelCommonwealth of Independent States dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: Commonwealth of Independent States
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.50 ns
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.48 p < .10
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.33 ns
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.36 ns
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: There is no difference in the average life 
satisfaction in the Commonwealth of Independent 
States and in Western Europe under most 
specifications.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelSoutheast Asia dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: Southeast Asia
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.55 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.35 ns
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.43 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.55 p < .05
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: Average life satisfaction in Southeast 
Asia is lower than in Western Europe under most 
specifications.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelSouth Asia dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: South Asia
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.91 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.49 ns
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.24 ns
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.31 ns
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: There is no difference in the average life 
satisfaction in South Asia and in Western Europe 
under most specifications.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelEast Asia dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: East Asia
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.91 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.92 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.79 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.77 p < .01
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: Average life satisfaction in East Asia is 
lower than in Western Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelLatin America and the Carribean dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: Latin America and the Carribean
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.23 ns
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.25 ns
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.24 ns
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.20 ns
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: There is no difference in the average life 
satisfaction in Latin America and the Carribean 
and in Western Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelNorth America, Australia, and New Zealand dummy
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: North America, Australia, and New Zealand
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.29 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.34 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.20 p < .10
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.18 ns
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: Average life satisfaction in North 
America, Australia, and New Zealand is higher than 
in Western Europe under most specifications.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelMiddle East and North Africa
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
1: Middle East and North Africa
0: Western Europe

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.41 ns
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.49 p < .05
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.30 ns
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.36 p < .10
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: Average life satisfaction in the Middle 
East aand North Africa is lower than in Western 
Europe under some specifications.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelSub-Saharan Africa
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-1.3 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by region in 157 nations in the 
period 2005-2012 (n=836).

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- other regional dummies
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.70 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- log GDP per capita
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.48 ns
b additionally controls for:
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.59 p < .05
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- freedom to make life choices
- generosity
- social support
- other regional dummies

In sum: Average life satisfaction in Sub-Saharan 
is lower than in Western Europe under most 
specifications.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelLatin America dummy
Page in Source 529
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization
Remarks
9 Latin American countries.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ar=+.21
AVERAGE happiness by geographic location in 65 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.63 p < .01
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+1.5 p < ..01
b additionally controls for:
-Latin america dummy*years of openness

(b interaction=-.08, p<.05)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.22 ns
b additionally controls for:
-Eastern Europe dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.21
AVERAGE life satisfaction by geographic location 
in 76 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.99 p < .001
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.57 p < .05
b additionally controls for:
-openness (closed=0)
-Eastern Europe dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of 
military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-openness
-years of openness (the number of years a country 
has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern European dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate 
relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly 
on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes 
Eastern Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic location
Subject code: N05ab

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelEastern Europe dummy
Page in Source 530
Our classificationGeographic location, code N05ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.75 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by geographic location in 65 
nations

A similar result is obtained when b additionally 
controls for:
-years of openness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.45 p < .10
AVERAGE life satisfaction by geographic location 
in 76 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
-openness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.40 ns
b additionally controls for:
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness

(b interaction=-.85, p<.05)

Results are similar when b controls for:
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate 
relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly 
on exports)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wealth: relative to neighour countries
Subject code: N05ae

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita of neighbors
Page in Source 7
Our classificationWealth: relative to neighour countries, code N05ae
Operationalization
GDP per capita (USD-thousands)of neighbour nations; 
averaged data for the 1990s.
Observed distributionM = 10,55; SD = 7,40; Range: 0,95 - 27,90.
Remarks
Source: WDI, authors calculations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.01 ns
Average happiness by GDP per capita of neighbour 
nations in 68 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 ns
Average life-satisfaction by GDP per capita of 
neighbour nations in 68 nations.

B's controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Success in sports
Subject code: N05af

StudyDownie & Koester (2008): study ZZ 2004
TitleWhy Faster, Higher, Stronger isn"t Necessarily Better.The Relations of Paralympian and Women's Soccer Teams' Performance to National Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 273 - 280
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1
PublicAdults, 90 countries, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelSummer Olympics Performance in 2004
Page in Source 275, 276
Our classificationSuccess in sports, code N05af
Operationalization
Number of medals
Observed distribution73 countries earned medals
Remarks
Olympic medal counts obtained from International 
Olympic Committee's website (2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.08 ns
AVERAGE happiness by number of medals in 90 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Success in sports
Subject code: N05af

StudyDownie & Koester (2008): study ZZ 2004
TitleWhy Faster, Higher, Stronger isn"t Necessarily Better.The Relations of Paralympian and Women's Soccer Teams' Performance to National Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 273 - 280
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1
PublicAdults, 90 countries, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelSummer Paralympics Performance in 2004
Page in Source 275, 276
Our classificationSuccess in sports, code N05af
Operationalization
Number of medals
Observed distribution73 countries earned medals in the Paralympics 2004.
Remarks
Paralympic medal counts obtained from International 
Paralympic Committee (2004b)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.21 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by number of medals in 90 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Success in sports
Subject code: N05af

StudyDownie & Koester (2008): study ZZ 2004
TitleWhy Faster, Higher, Stronger isn"t Necessarily Better.The Relations of Paralympian and Women's Soccer Teams' Performance to National Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 273 - 280
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1
PublicAdults, 90 countries, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelSoccer Rankings Men in 2004
Page in Source 277, 278
Our classificationSuccess in sports, code N05af
Operationalization
Observed distribution207 participating men's teams in 2004
Remarks
soccer standings for the men's and women's national 
teams were obtained for the year end 2004 from 
FIFA(2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=-.18 ns
AVERAGE happiness by number of medals in 207 
participating nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Success in sports
Subject code: N05af

StudyDownie & Koester (2008): study ZZ 2004
TitleWhy Faster, Higher, Stronger isn"t Necessarily Better.The Relations of Paralympian and Women's Soccer Teams' Performance to National Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 273 - 280
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1
PublicAdults, 90 countries, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelSoccer Rankings Women in 2004
Page in Source 277, 278
Our classificationSuccess in sports, code N05af
Operationalization
number of medals
Observed distribution121 participating women's teams in 2004
Remarks
soccer standings for the men's and women's national 
teams were obtained for the year end 2004 from 
FIFA(2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=-.34 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by number of medals in 121 
participating nations


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy or unhappy?
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N05aaCentral/peripherical in world systemL09ab02cInternational life style
N05aaCentral/peripherical in world systemM12MODERNITY
N05aaCentral/peripherical in world systemN04anOverall development (modernity) of nation
N05acInvolved in international conflictW01WAR
N05aeWealth: relative to neighour countriesN04ac01Economic affluence
N05afSuccess in sportsS12SPORTS

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings