Findings on Happiness and NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION
Subject Code: N04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION2
N04aaDemographic condition1
N04aa01Population density1
N04aa02Population growth2
N04aa03Population composition2
N04abGeographic condition of the nation2
N04ab01Size of the nation0
N04ab02Habitability of land2
N04ab03Climate17
N04ab04Urbanization4
N04acEconomic condition of the nation12
N04ac01Economic affluence14
N04ac01aGnp per capita (raw)29
N04ac01bPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc)52
N04ac02Economic growth/decline36
N04ac03Inflation20
N04ac04Unemployment37
N04adStandard of living in the nation3
N04ad01Purchasing power of average citizen2
N04ad02Quality\quantity of facilities in nation2
N04ad02bHousing2
N04ad02cHealth care0
N04ad02dSchools3
N04ad03Prevalence of below-standard living in nation0
N04ad03aHomelessness1
N04ad03bMalnutrition9
N04ad03cPoverty4
N04aeSocio-economic regime in the nation14
N04ae01State welfare effort19
N04ae01aPublic education9
N04ae01bPublic health12
N04ae01cPublic housing0
N04ae01dSocial security40
N04ae02State control of economy3
N04afPolitical conditions in the nation24
N04ao02Political freedom20
N04ao02aFreedom of press6
N04af01Political democracy19
N04af01aInterest democracy (interest-groups)3
N04af01bParliamentary democracy3
N04af02Political participation3
N04af02aPolitical protest1
N04af02bPolitical violence7
N04af03Civil war8
N04af04Political role of armed forces2
N04af04aDefense-spending3
N04agSocio-cultural conditions the nation4
N04ag01Literacy and schooling18
N04ag02bMedia attendance15
N04ag03Religiousness20
N04ag04Cultural pluralism6
N04ahSocial equality in the nation5
N04ah02Gender inequality (women emancipation)21
N04ah03Income inequality34
N04ah04Presence of minority groups0
N04ah06Status differentiation (stratification)3
N04ah07Inequality in (apparent) quality of life0
N04ah07aInequality in happiness14
N04ah07bInequality in health0
N04ajJustice in the nation8
N04aj02Crime 6
N04aj03Human-rights protection13
N04akValue climate in the nation44
N04ak01Prevalence of post-materialistic values4
N04ak02Prevalence of hedonistic values5
N04ak03Prevalence of individualistic values8
N04alPattern of intimacy in nation2
N04al01Friendship density1
N04al02Marriage pattern3
N04al02aDivorce rate4
N04al02b% living alone0
N04anOverall development (modernity) of nation8
N04apSummed nation characteristics11
N04ac05Working hours6
N04al03Social cohesion in nation15
N04amSafety in the nation0
N04am01Lethal accicidents5
N04am02Infant mortality2
N04aj01Corruption19
N04ad02eAccess to clean water1
N04an01Industrialization4
N04an02Informatization4
N04an03Individualization7
N04am03Maternal mortality0
N04aoFreedom in nations11
N04ao01Private freedom in nations10
N04ao03Economic freedom26
N04aa05Birth control in the nation6
N04af05Quality of government30
N04ac06Openness of economy19
N04af06Size of government25
N04af07Centralization6
N04ag05Pace of life2
N04ab05Environmental quality11
N04ag01a% higher educated1
N04an04Specialization2
N04ag03aShare of particular denominations10
N04ai01Inter generational mobility4
N04ai02Intra generational mobility0
N04aiSocial mobility0
N04ai03Perceived social mobility0
N04ab06Ecological footprint2
N04ao01eFreedom of religion1
N04ao01dFreedom of procreation5
N04ao01cFreedom of sex5
N04ao01bFreedom of family2
N04ao01aFreedom of suicide4
N04ah05Perceived discrimination1
N04ah01Education inequality0
N04ag01binequality in education0
N04ac01cGross National Product5
N04af08Dominant political ideology1
N04aa04Population size2
N04ag02cNumber of TV channels2
N04ag02Mass media1
N04af09Trade union membership2
N04ac01dAverage income in nation11
N04aa06Birth rate2
N04ac07Informal economy, black market2
N04ac08Investment price level4
N04ae03Collective wage bargening1
N04ac09Work conditions1
N04aa07Age composition2
N04ag01cTeaching practices2
N04ag01dSpending on education1
N04ao04Valuation of freedom2
N04ao05Effect of freedom on happiness0
N04al03aHelping3
N04ac10Global competitiveness1
N04ac01daAverage income of similar people1
N04ag02aInternet connections1
TMP6566Electricity0
N04ae01dajob protection0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION
Subject code: N04

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ World samples 1985
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicUniversity students, 39 nations around 1985
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18032

Correlate
Author's labelExplained variance
Page in Source 54
Our classificationNATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION, code N04
Operationalization
- nutrition
- real income per capita
- social security
- gender equality
- income equality
- freedom of press
- political democracy
- education
- media attendence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-aR²=+.57
Explained variance in 20 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION
Subject code: N04

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ 1980
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicAdults, general public, 32 countries, around 1980
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelExplained variance
Page in Source 54
Our classificationNATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION, code N04
Operationalization
- nutrition
- real income per capita
- social security
- gender equality
- income equality
- freedom of press
- political democracy
- education
- media attendence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-aR²=+.78 p < .05
Explained Variance in 24 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demographic condition
Subject code: N04aa

StudyOuweneel & Veenhoven (1994): study ZZ 1980
TitleNation Characteristics and Average Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper, Department of Sociology, Erasmus University, 1994, Rotterdam, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 27 nations, ±1980
Sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelDemographic characteristics of nation
Our classificationDemographic condition, code N04aa
Operationalization
Index of:
- population size
- birth rate
- death rate
- rate of population increase
- % of population under 15 years

Source:Estes, R.J.-The social progress        of 
nations (1984, N.Y., Praeger)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ar=-.55 p < .01
                Mt' Happiness  Demographic score

Australia           7.75           18
Austria             6.68           20
Belgium             7.57           20
Brazil              7.22            6
Canada              7.76           18
Denmark             7.67           20
Finland             7.35           20
France              7.24           19
Germany             6.98           20
Greece              5.61           18
Great Britain       7.74           16
Italy               6.47           19
India               5.16           -9
Ireland             7.82           16
Japan               6.94           17
Mexico              6.31            5
Netherlands         7.63           19
Norway              7.45           20
Philippines         6.47            5
Portugal            6.20           17
Singapore           7.24           16 
S.Africa            7.03            7
S.Korea             6.21           11
Spain               6.84           17
Sweden              7.62           21
Switzerland         6.99           22
United States       7.55           12
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.74 p < .001
                Mt' Life           Demographic
                    Satisfaction   score

Australia           7.67           18  
Austria             7.10           20  
Belgium             7.07           20  
Brazil              7.03            6
Canada              7.60           18
Denmark             7.92           20
Finland             7.68           19
France              6.29           19
Germany             6.94           20
Greece              5.70           19
Great Britain       7.41           16
Italy               6.24           19
India               3.35           -9
Ireland             7.58           16
Japan               6.20           17
Mexico              4.32            5
Netherlands         7.46           19
Norway              7.67           20
Philippines         6.60            5
Portugal            6.74           17
Singapore           7.12           16 
S.Africa            6.43            7
S.Korea             5.50           11
Spain               6.22           17
Sweden              7.80           21
Switzerland         8.60           22
United States       6.94           12


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population density
Subject code: N04aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelInhabitants per km2
Page in Source 46
Our classificationPopulation density, code N04aa01
Operationalization
Inhabitants per km2 taken from civil registration
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.03
Happy Life Years by Inhabitants per km2 in 42 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.04
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population growth
Subject code: N04aa02

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTime in years to double population
Page in Source 46
Our classificationPopulation growth, code N04aa02
Operationalization
Time in years to double population taken from civil 
registration
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.16
Happy Life Years by Time to double population in 
39 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.07
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population growth
Subject code: N04aa02

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelNatality rate in the country where one lives
Page in Source 164
Our classificationPopulation growth, code N04aa02
Operationalization
Number of life births per year per 1000 people
Observed distributionRange 10-45, M= 18.52, SD= 7.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 p < .000
Individual happiness by birth natality rate in 
nation 

B controlled for: 
- GDP growth
- inflation
- population of country
- infant mortality
- life expectation 
- natality rate 
- quality of government 
- corruption
- suicide rate
- number of legal abortions
- share of GDP that a country spends on health
- dominant religious faiths in a given country
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 ns
B additionally controlled for latitude


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population composition
Subject code: N04aa03

StudyVeenhoven (2004b): study ZZ 1995
TitleVeiligheid en Geluk. (Safety and Happiness).
SourceMuller, E.R.; Ed.: "Veiligheid Studies over Inhoud, Organisatie en Maatregelen", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 153 - 185
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8678
PublicAdults, general public, 65 nations, 1995 and 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelPercentage of immigrants in population)
Page in Source 166
Our classificationPopulation composition, code N04aa03
Operationalization
Percentage of immigrants/foreigners in population
Remarks
Source: World Culture Report, 1998, UNESCO, Paris

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.32
AVERAGE happiness by percentage of immigrants in 
population in 43 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population composition
Subject code: N04aa03

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelPopulation aging
Page in Source 7
Our classificationPopulation composition, code N04aa03
Operationalization
% older than 65.
Observed distributionM = 9,70; SD = 4,74; Range: 2,27 - 17,55.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.05 p < .01
Average happiness by Population Aging in 68 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.14 p < .01
Average life-satisfaction by Population Aging in 
68 nations.

B's controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population size
Subject code: N04aa04

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelSize of the city
Page in Source 60
Our classificationPopulation size, code N04aa04
Operationalization
Number of inhabitants
1)20,000 or less
2)20,001- 100,000
3)100,001 or more (reference)
Remarks
Data: World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.07 p < .01
<20,000 habitants (     (vs > 100,000)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.05 p < .01
20,000-100,000 habitants (vs > 100,000)

OPRC controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
-Individual Level:
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - maximum inflation rate experienced(age 18+)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Population size
Subject code: N04aa04

StudyDownie et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitlePolitical Support for Self-determination, Wealth, and National Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMotivation and Emotion, 2007 , Vol. 31, 174 - 181
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11031-007-9070-0#
DOIDOI::10.1007/s11031-007-9070-0
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations 1995-2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelPopulation
Page in Source 178
Our classificationPopulation size, code N04aa04
Operationalization
Number of individuals in nation.
Remarks
Source: World Bank (2006)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
AVERAGE happiness by population size in 90 
nations.

Beta controls for:
-GDP
-political self-determination
-interaction: GDP*political self-determination
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aBeta=-.08
Beta controls for:
-GDP 
-value self-determination
-interaction: GDP*value self-determination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth control in the nation
Subject code: N04aa05

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelApproval of hierarchy
Page in Source 14
Our classificationBirth control in the nation, code N04aa05
Operationalization
Ratings on how it should be in society:
a In this society, followers are expected to obey their 
leader without question
b In this society, power is concentrated at the top
c In this organization, subordinates are expected to 
obey their boss without question
d In this organization, a person's influence is 
primarily based on one's ability and contribution to 
the organization.

Agreement is on a numerical scale, ranging from not 
desired (1) to much desired (7).
Observed distributionNorth Europe M=2,64 Latin Europe M=2,50
Remarks
GLOBE study (House et al., 2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.39
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE approval of hierarchy 
in 19 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth control in the nation
Subject code: N04aa05

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibility of sterilisation
Page in Source 42
Our classificationBirth control in the nation, code N04aa05
Operationalization
Possibility of sterilisation given by law and/or 
existing in practice as estimated by experts
Remarks
Data: International Planned Parenthood Federation: 
Wallchart distributed with People magazine, vol 17, no 
4, October 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.17
Happy Life Years by Possibily of sterilisation in 
42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.09
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth control in the nation
Subject code: N04aa05

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibilty of contraception
Page in Source 42
Our classificationBirth control in the nation, code N04aa05
Operationalization
Use of contraceptives as assessed in survey studies
Remarks
Data: Population Action International, 1995, 
Washington, USA: 'Reproductive Risk'. 
Number of countries 35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.29
Happy Life Years by use of contraception in 35 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.04
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth control in the nation
Subject code: N04aa05

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibilty of abortion
Page in Source 42
Our classificationBirth control in the nation, code N04aa05
Operationalization
Possibility of abortion in laws and practice as 
estimated by experts.
Remarks
Data: Population Action International, 1995, 
Washington, USA: 'Reproductive Risk'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.32
Happy Life Years by possibility of abortion in 38 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.07
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth control in the nation
Subject code: N04aa05

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelabortion available
Page in Source 22
Our classificationBirth control in the nation, code N04aa05
Operationalization
Expert rating of restricting policies
Remarks
Source: PAI 1995

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13
Average happiness by abortion available in 37 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.12
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth control in the nation
Subject code: N04aa05

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelsterilization available
Page in Source 22
Our classificationBirth control in the nation, code N04aa05
Operationalization
Expert rating of limitations and services
Remarks
Source: IPPF 1995

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18
Average happiness by sterilization available in 37 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.27
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth rate
Subject code: N04aa06

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labelHigh birth rate
Page in Source 14
Our classificationBirth rate, code N04aa06
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Data: Eurostat

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness, by birth rate.
Positive association, coefficient not reported
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth rate
Subject code: N04aa06

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 12,14,15
Our classificationBirth rate, code N04aa06
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.02 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE number of children 
in nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.03 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE number of children

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - income
     - poverty
     - self rated health
     - employment status
     - education
     - trust in people
     - friends
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorce
  - national characteristics
     - national unemployment rate
     - air pollution
     - freedom of choice
     - national corruption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age composition
Subject code: N04aa07

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 12,14,15
Our classificationAge composition, code N04aa07
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.02 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.02 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE age in nation

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - income
     - poverty
     - self rated health
     - employment status
     - education
     - freedom of choice
     - trust in people
     - friends
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national characteristics
     - national unemployment rate  
     - air pollution
     - national corruption
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.03 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL age SQUARED
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE age SQUARED

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - income
     - poverty
     - self rated health
     - employment status
     - education
     - trust in people
     - friends
     - sexe
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national characteristics
     - national unemployment rate
     - air pollution
     - freedom of choice 
     - national corruption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age composition
Subject code: N04aa07

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 12,14,15
Our classificationAge composition, code N04aa07
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.02 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE number of children 
in nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.03 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE number of children

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - income
     - poverty
     - self rated health
     - employment status
     - education
     - trust in people
     - friends
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorce
  - national characteristics
     - national unemployment rate
     - air pollution
     - freedom of choice
     - national corruption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ab

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelLatitude of the country where one lives
Page in Source 166
Our classificationGeographic condition of the nation, code N04ab
Operationalization
The absolute value of the latitude of each country (the 
geographical center of the country)
Remarks
Data CIA World Factbook

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 p < .001
Individual happiness by latitude of the country
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+0.0 p < .010
Latitude's squared

B's controlled for:
- GDP growth
- inflation
- population of country
- infant mortality
- life expectation 
- natality rate 
- quality of government 
- corruption
- suicide rate
- number of legal abortions
- share of GDP that a country spends on health
- dominant religious faiths in a given country


Correlational finding on Happiness and Geographic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ab

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972
TitleClimate and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2005, Vol. 52, 111 - 125
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelLatitude
Page in Source 118
Our classificationGeographic condition of the nation, code N04ab
Operationalization
Absolute latitude of capital city in degrees
Observed distributionM=44,69, SD=12,95, Range=4,63-64,14
Remarks
Data: World Gazetteer

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
B (+.00142) controlled for:
- economic variables
  - GDP per capita
  - Annual economic growth
  - shortfall in income compared to previous high
  - unemployment rate
- cultural variables
  - % religious dominations (Bhudist, Christian, 
Hindu, Muslim) 
  - % religious orthodox
  - personal freedom
- demographic variables
  - life expectancy
  - population density
  - % over 65 aged
  - % under 15 aged 

- Climatic variables
  - temperature coldest/hottest month
  - rainfall in driest/wettest month
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
B (-0.00159) alternatively controlled for: 
- number of hot and cold months (instead of 
temperature)
- high and low precipitation months (instead of 
rainfall)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
B (-.00347) alternatively controlled for:
- average and average squared temperature
- average and average squared precipitation 
(instead of number of months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Habitability of land
Subject code: N04ab02

StudyVeenhoven (2009b): study ZZ 2000
TitleWell-Being in Nations and Well-Being of Nations. Is There a Conflict Between Individual and Society?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 91, 5 - 21.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14878
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9323-7
PublicAdults, general public, 91 nations, early 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =140000

Correlate
Author's labelBiological capacity
Page in Source 14
Our classificationHabitability of land, code N04ab02
Operationalization
Area units per capita, for human use
Remarks
Source: Living Planet Report 2000; table 2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.34
Average Happy Life Years by biological capacity in 
77 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.27
rpc controlled for wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Habitability of land
Subject code: N04ab02

StudyOuweneel & Veenhoven (1994): study ZZ 1980
TitleNation Characteristics and Average Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper, Department of Sociology, Erasmus University, 1994, Rotterdam, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 27 nations, ±1980
Sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic characteristics of nation
Our classificationHabitability of land, code N04ab02
Operationalization
Index of:
- % arable land mass
- number of natural disasters - lives lost in natural 
disasters per   million population

Source:Estes, R.J.-The social progress        of 
nations (1984, N.Y., Praeger)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ar=-.01 ns
                Mt' Happiness    Geographic score

Australia           7.75             14
Austria             6.68             12
Belgium             7.57             13
Brazil              7.22              6
Canada              7.76              5
Denmark             7.67             16
Finland             7.35              5
France              7.24             14
Germany             6.98             13
Greece              5.61             12
Great Britain       7.74             15
Italy               6.47             15
India               5.16              6
Ireland             7.82             16
Japan               6.94              1
Mexico              6.31             11
Netherlands         7.63             13
Norway              7.45              6
Philippines         6.47              7
Portugal            6.20             13
Singapore           7.24              9
S.Africa            7.03             18
S.Korea             6.21              1
Spain               6.84             15
Sweden              7.62              6
Switzerland         6.99             14
United States       7.55            -21
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.10 ns
                Mt' Life           Geographic
                    Satisfaction   score

Australia           7.67           14  
Austria             7.10           12  
Belgium             7.07           13  
Brazil              7.03            6
Canada              7.60            5
Denmark             7.92           16
Finland             7.68            5
France              6.29           14
Germany             6.94           13
Greece              5.70           12
Great Britain       7.41           15
Italy               6.24           15
India               3.35            6
Ireland             7.58           16
Japan               6.20            1
Mexico              4.32           11
Netherlands         7.46           13
Norway              7.67            6
Philippines         6.60            7
Portugal            6.74           13
Singapore           7.12            9 
S.Africa            6.43           18
S.Korea             5.50            1
Spain               6.22           15
Sweden              7.80           19
Switzerland         8.60           14
United States       6.94          -21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelRegional sunshine
Page in Source 38
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
YEARLY AVERAGE of daily cloud cover, in states
Remarks
Data: European climate Assessment Dataset

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.11
OLRC controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
  - number of children
  - gender
  - household size
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelClimate
Page in Source 22.23.26
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
"July max temperature" mean of daily max. temperature 
in July (°C)
"Jan min temperature" mean of daily min. temperature in 
January (°C)
"Mean annual precipitation" Annual mean precipitation 
(mm)
Observed distributionJuly max temperature: Mean=24.01; SD=4.01; Min=5.67; Max=35 Jan min temperature: Mean=-1.94; SD=4.99; Min=-43; Max=10 Mean annual precipitation: Mean=2.26; SD=0.90; Min=0; Max=6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.00 ns
July maximal temperature
	b(0.00270) controlled for 
- without health status
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (Jan min 
temperature. Mean annual precipitation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.01 ns
	b(0.00732) controlled for 
- without health status 
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (Jan min 
temperature. Mean annual precipitation)
- unemployment rate
- GDP per capita
- population density
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.00 ns
b(0.00122) controlled for 
- without health status
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (Jan min 
temperature. Mean annual precipitation)
- unemployment rate
- GDP per capita
- population density
- unemployment rate
- average income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.01 ns
January minimal temperature
b(-.00788) controlled for 
- without health status
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Mean annual precipitation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.01 ns
	b(-.00823) controlled for 
- without health status 
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Mean annual precipitation)
- unemployment rate
- GDP per capita
- population density
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.01 ns
b(-.0106) controlled for 
- without health status
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Mean annual precipitation)
- unemployment rate
- GDP per capita
- population density
- unemployment rate
- average income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.07 p < .01
Mean annual precipitation
b(0.0687) controlled for 
- without health status
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Jan min temperature)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.06 p < .05
b(0.0621) controlled for 
- without health status 
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Jan min temperature)
- unemployment rate
- GDP per capita
- population density
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.07 p < .001
	b(0.0690) controlled for 
- without health status
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Jan min temperature)
- unemployment rate
- GDP per capita
- population density
- unemployment rate
- average income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelCloud cover
Page in Source 6
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
% clouds per month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.00 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by cloud cover in the nation
b(0.001) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelPrecipitation
Page in Source 6
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Precipitation in mm

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-6.7 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by precipitation in the 
nation
b(-6.7E) controlled for
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelDiurnal temperature range
Page in Source 6
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Diurnal temperature range in degrees Celcius

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.00 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by temperature range  in the 
nation
b(0.004) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelMean temperature
Page in Source 6
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Average temperature in degrees Celcius

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by average temperature in the 
nation
b(0.014) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelVapor pressure
Page in Source 6
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Vapor pressure in hPa

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by vapor pressure in the 
nation
b(-0.027) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972
TitleClimate and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2005, Vol. 52, 111 - 125
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage temperature of coldest/hottest month
Page in Source 118
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Average temperature °C in mayor city (or cities) of:
a Coldest month
b Hottest month
Observed distributionM=a:2,51 b:20,45 SD=a:8,58 b:3,78 Range= a:-12- 25,5 b: 11,5-31,3
Remarks
Data: Landsberg (1969), Pearce and Smith (1994) and 
Internet sources

For some cities the data were population-weighed to 
obtain one record per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+
Relationship between temperature in the coldest 
month and average happiness
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.01 p < .01
Coldest month

B (+.0139)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.02 p < .05
Hottest month

B (-.0181) 

B's controlled for:
- economic variables
  - GDP per capita
  - Annual economic growth
  - shortfall in income compared to previous high
  - unemployment rate
- cultural variables
  - % religious dominations (Bhudist, Christian, 
Hindu, Muslim) 
  - % religious orthodox
  - personal freedom
- demographic variables
  - life expectancy
  - population density
  - % over 65 aged
  - % under 15 aged 

- climatic variables
  - latitude
  - rainfall in driest/wettest month


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972
TitleClimate and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2005, Vol. 52, 111 - 125
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage rain in drieest/wettest month
Page in Source 118
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Average precipitation in mm. in mayor city (or cities) 
of:
a Drieest month
b Wettest month
Observed distributionM=a:36,04 b:112,44 SD=a:17,62 b:73,46 Range= a:0- 79 b: 8,0-515,4
Remarks
Data: Landsberg (1969), Pearce and Smith (1994) and 
Internet sources

For some cities the data were population-weighed to 
obtain one record per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
Rain in drieest month

B (+.000705) controlled for:
- economic variables
  - GDP per capita
  - Annual economic growth
  - shortfall in income compared to previous high
  - unemployment rate
- cultural variables
  - % religious dominations (Bhudist, Christian, 
Hindu, Muslim) 
  - % religious orthodox
  - personal freedom
- demographic variables
  - life expectancy
  - population density
  - % over 65 aged
  - % under 15 aged 

- climatic variables
  - latitude
  - temperature coldest/hottest month
  - rainfall in wettest month
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
Rain in wettest month

B (+.000705) alternatively controlled for:
- rainfall in drieest month


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972
TitleClimate and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2005, Vol. 52, 111 - 125
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of cold and hot months
Page in Source 118
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Number of months when average temperature is
a Below 0ºC
b Above 20ºC
Observed distributionM=a:1,31 b:2,18 SD=a:1,61 b:3,35 Range= a:0- 5 b:0-12
Remarks
Data: Landsberg (1969), Pearce and Smith (1994) and 
Internet sources

For some cities the data were population-weighed to 
obtain one record per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.03 ns
Months below 0ºC

B (-.0250)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
Months above 20ºC

B (+.000937) 

B's controlled for:
- economic variables
  - GDP per capita
  - Annual economic growth
  - shortfall in income compared to previous high
  - unemployment rate
- cultural variables
  - % religious dominations (Bhudist, Christian, 
Hindu, Muslim) 
  - % religious orthodox
  - personal freedom
- demographic variables
  - life expectancy
  - population density
  - % over 65 aged
  - % under 15 aged 
- climatic variables
  - latitude
  - number of dry/wet months


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972
TitleClimate and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2005, Vol. 52, 111 - 125
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual temperature
Page in Source 118
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Annually averaged mean temperature ºC
Observed distributionM=11,59, SD=5,64, Range=3,9-27,2
Remarks
Data: Landsberg (1969), Pearce and Smith (1994) and 
Internet sources

For some cities the data were population-weighed to 
obtain one record per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
B (+.000474) Mean temperature
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
B (-.0000408) Temperature squared

B's controlled for:
- economic variables
  - GDP per capita
  - Annual economic growth
  - shortfall in income compared to previous high
  - unemployment rate
- cultural variables
  - % religious dominations (Bhudist, Christian, 
Hindu, Muslim) 
  - % religious orthodox
  - personal freedom
- demographic variables
  - life expectancy
  - population density
  - % over 65 aged
  - % under 15 aged 
- climatic variables
  - latitude
  - annual averaged rainfall


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972
TitleClimate and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2005, Vol. 52, 111 - 125
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual rain
Page in Source 118
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Annually averaged mean precipitation
Observed distributionM=66,99, SD=27,83, Range=3,6-181,2
Remarks
Data: Landsberg (1969), Pearce and Smith (1994) and 
Internet sources

For some cities the data were population-weighed to 
obtain one record per country.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
B (+.00289) Average precipation
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
B (-.00000461) Precipitation squared


B's controlled for:
- economic variables
  - GDP per capita
  - Annual economic growth
  - shortfall in income compared to previous high
  - unemployment rate
- cultural variables
  - % religious dominations (Bhudist, Christian, 
Hindu, Muslim) 
  - % religious orthodox
  - personal freedom
- demographic variables
  - life expectancy
  - population density
  - % over 65 aged
  - % under 15 aged 
- climatic variables
  - latitude
  - annual averaged temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyDiener (1995a): study ZZ 1946
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
SourceGrad, H.;et al;Eds.: "Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology", Swets & Zeitlinger, 1995, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 43 nations, 1946-1992
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelYearly hours of sun
Page in Source 10
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
The number of hours of sun a country receives during an 
average year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-ar=-.44 p < .05
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=-.40 ns
O-SLW---sq-*-11-ar=-.41 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelRegional sunshine
Page in Source 38
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
YEARLY AVERAGE in province of
a: daily cloud cover
b: daily sunshine (average duration)
c: daily sunshine (maximum duration)
Remarks
Data: European Climate Assessment Dataset

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.16
Daily cloud cover
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.05
Averare duration of daily sunshine
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.06
Maximum duration of daily sunshine

OLRCs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
  - number of children
  - gender
  - household size
  - age
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelArea of Residence
Page in Source 37
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
a. Sunbelt Resident
b. Not Sunbelt Resident

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=+ p < .05
% Very Happy
-Sunbelt        37%
-Not Sunbelt    32%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJorunal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelRain
Page in Source 873
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Indicator
Observed distributionRain 45%, Not rain 55%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.00 ns
b(-.0035) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Marital status
  - Children
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Pollution
  - Rain 
  - Temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate
Subject code: N04ab03

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJorunal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelTempertaure mean
Page in Source 873
Our classificationClimate, code N04ab03
Operationalization
Classification is not reported
Observed distributionMean=4.37, SD=1.42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.06 p < .01
Tempertaure mean
b(0.064)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.01 p < .05
Tempertaure squared
b(-.0063)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.01 ns
Tempertaure difference(daily maximum-minimum)
b(0.0092) 

b's controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Marital status
  - Children
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Pollution
  - Rain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Urbanization
Subject code: N04ab04

StudyVeenhoven (2004b): study ZZ 1995
TitleVeiligheid en Geluk. (Safety and Happiness).
SourceMuller, E.R.; Ed.: "Veiligheid Studies over Inhoud, Organisatie en Maatregelen", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 153 - 185
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8678
PublicAdults, general public, 65 nations, 1995 and 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelUrbanization
Page in Source 166
Our classificationUrbanization, code N04ab04
Operationalization
Percentage of the poulation that lives in an urban 
environment
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report, 1998, table 21

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.31
AVERAGE happiness by Urbanization in 60 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Urbanization
Subject code: N04ab04

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's label% Urban population
Page in Source 47
Our classificationUrbanization, code N04ab04
Operationalization
% Urban population taken from civil registration
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.57
Happy Life Years by % Urban population in 40 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.24
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Urbanization
Subject code: N04ab04

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelUrbanization
Page in Source 5
Our classificationUrbanization, code N04ab04
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-4.6 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by urbanization of one's 
nation
b(-4.6E) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Urbanization
Subject code: N04ab04

StudyVeenhoven (2005d): study ZZ EU 14 1970
TitleReturn of Inequality in Modern Society? Test by Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction across Time and Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 457 - 487
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7202
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-4
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 14 member states, 1973-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =374000

Correlate
Author's labelUrbanisation
Page in Source 478
Our classificationUrbanization, code N04ab04
Operationalization
Measured by % urban population
Remarks
Data: Human Development Report 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.30
INEQUALITY in happiness by urbanisation in 61 
nations

Inequality in happiness in nations measured using 
the standard deviation (average over the 1990s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyLuechinger (2007): study DE 1985
TitleValuing Air Quality Using the Life Satisfaction Approach.
SourcePaper, International Conference, Policies for Happiness, 2007, Siena, Italy.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/luechinger_s_2007A.pdf
Public20+ aged, general public, Germany, followed 19 years, 1985-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33864

Correlate
Author's labelPollution
Page in Source 38
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
CHANGE in SO2 (?g/m3) concentration in air in region 
due to mandatory installation of scrubbing in 
powerplants
0 regions affected by this new technology
1 regions not yet affected (most polluted)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 p < .001
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in airpollution
b(-.005) controlled for
- Household income (ln)
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Disabled
 - Marital status
 - Number of children
 - Citizenship
 - Employment status
 - Work property
 - Job tenure
 - Working hours
 - The time of interview
 - City size

Stronger negative among
- environmentally concerned people
- people at risk
- large households

Less negative among high income groups

Instrumental variable analysis suggest stronger 
negative effect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelSO2 air pollution
Page in Source 22,23,25
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
annual concentration (?g/m3)
Observed distributionMin=0.48; Max=27.17 Mean=5.37; SD=3.74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.02 p < .01
b(-.0174) controled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelEnvironment index
Page in Source 14,15,36
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Emission of air pollutants per capita, as year 2000=1 
(WDI World Bank)
Remarks
Emission averages per nation per year 1994-2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.01 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happines by NATIONAL environmental 
quality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.00 ns
beta=-.002

AVERAGE happines by NATIONAL environmental quality

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - unemployment
     - national unemployment rate
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national charactereristics
     - average perception of
     - income inequality in country
     - trustworthiness of people


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyWelsch (2002a): study ZZ 1991
TitlePreferences over Prosperity and Pollution: Environmental Valuation based on Happiness Surveys.
SourceKyklos, 2002, Vol. 55, 473 - 494
DOIDOI:10.1111/1467-6435.00198
PublicAdults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelEnvironmental quality
Page in Source 4, 8, 17
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Aggegrated index of:  
- air quality
  - urban SO2 concentration
  - urban NO2 concentration
  - urban particles (TSP) concentration
- water quality
  - dissolved oxygen concentration
  - phosphorus concentration
  - suspended solids
  - electrical conductivity river basins

Positive values correspond to high levels of 
environmental quality.
Observed distributionM=1,64 SD=0,61 Range=0-3,21, N=122
Remarks
Data air quality from Air Information System (World 
Health Organization), data water quality from Global 
Environmental Monitoring System (United Nations 
Environment Programme)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.28 s
Average happiness by environmental quality in 54 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.23 ns
B controled for:
- Gross National Product per head
- scientific rationality of nations
- product (interaction-term) Environmental Quality 
and Gross National Product
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+ s
B's of product (interaction-term) Environmental 
Quality and:
- Gross National Product positive and 
insignificant
- Dummy variable OECD country positive and 
significant

Environmental quality contributes more with 
happiness in OECD countries (compared to non-OECD 
countries) and in rich countries (compared to poor 
countries)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyWelsch (2002a): study ZZ 1991
TitlePreferences over Prosperity and Pollution: Environmental Valuation based on Happiness Surveys.
SourceKyklos, 2002, Vol. 55, 473 - 494
DOIDOI:10.1111/1467-6435.00198
PublicAdults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelAir quality
Page in Source 4, 9, 17
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Aggregate indicator of:
- urban SO2 concentration
- urban NO2 concentration
- urban particles (TSP) concentration

Positive values correspond to high levels of air 
quality.
Observed distributionM=2.59 SD=0,72 Range=0-4,20 N=122
Remarks
Data air quality from Air Information System (World 
Health Organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.25 s
Average happiness by air quality in 54 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-3.3 ns
B controled for:
- Gross National Product per head 
- scientific rationality of nations
- product (interaction-term) Air Quality and Gross 
National Product
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+ s
B's positive and significant for product 
(interaction-term) Air Quality and 
- Gross National Product
- Dummy variable OECD country 

Air quality contributes more with happiness in 
OECD countries (compared to non-OECD countries) 
and in rich countries (compared to poor countries)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyWelsch (2002a): study ZZ 1991
TitlePreferences over Prosperity and Pollution: Environmental Valuation based on Happiness Surveys.
SourceKyklos, 2002, Vol. 55, 473 - 494
DOIDOI:10.1111/1467-6435.00198
PublicAdults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelWater quality
Page in Source 4, 10, 17
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Aggregate indicator of:
- dissolved oxygen concentration
- phosphorus concentration
- suspended solids
- electrical conductivity river basins

Positive values correspond to high levels of water 
quality.
Observed distributionM=2.25 SD=0,70 Range=0-4,10 N=122
Remarks
Data water quality from Global Environmental Monitoring 
System (United Nations Environment Programme)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.23 s
Average happiness by water quality in 54 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.07 ns
B controled for:
- Gross National Product per head
- scientific rationality of nations
- product (interaction-term) Water Quality and 
Gross National Product
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+ s
B's of product (interaction-term) Water Quality 
and:
- Gross National Product positive and 
insignificant
- Dummy variable OECD country positive and 
significant

Water quality contributes more with happiness in 
OECD countries (compared to non-OECD countries) 
and in rich countries (compared to poor countries)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyWelsch (2002a): study ZZ 1990
TitlePreferences over Prosperity and Pollution: Environmental Valuation based on Happiness Surveys.
SourceKyklos, 2002, Vol. 55, 473 - 494
DOIDOI:10.1111/1467-6435.00198
PublicAdults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelAir pollutants
Page in Source 482, 483
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
In kilotons urban emissions: 
a Sulphur dioxide
b Nitrogen dioxide
c Particles (urban total suspended particular 
pollution)
Observed distributionMean= a:56,16 b:56,52 c:106,35 Median= a: 40,21 b: 56,46 c:84,76 SD= a:51,66 b:25,54 c:83,47 Range= a:1-209 b:0-130 c:9-320
Remarks
Data air quality from Air Information System (World 
Health Organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Average happiness by air pollutants in 54 nations.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
Sulphur dioxide (+.001)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 p < .05
Nitrogen dioxide (-.004)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
Particles (+.001)

B's are controled for:
- income per head
- number of scientist & engineers per thousand 
population

B's do not change when additionaly controled for:
- the other air pollutants
- water pollutants (phosphorus & solids)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-
When instead the logarithm of happiness is 
regressed on the logarithm of the urban emissions:
- all B's are negative
- B's of sulphur dioxide and particles are 
insignificant
- B of nitrogen dioxide is significant

B -.004 means one that one kiloton nitrogen 
emissions goes with .004 points lower average 
happiness on scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyWelsch (2002a): study ZZ 1990
TitlePreferences over Prosperity and Pollution: Environmental Valuation based on Happiness Surveys.
SourceKyklos, 2002, Vol. 55, 473 - 494
DOIDOI:10.1111/1467-6435.00198
PublicAdults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelWater pollutants
Page in Source 482,483
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
In Mg/liter water: 
a Phosphorus
b Solids (suspended solids in water bodies)
Observed distributionMean= a:0,322 b:4,079 Median= a:0,270 b:3,850 SD= a:0,325 b:1,586 Range= a:0,003-1,750 b:1,170-7,970
Remarks
Data water quality from Data water quality from Global 
Environmental Monitoring System (United Nations 
Environment Programme) (United Nations Environment 
Programme)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Average happiness by water pollutants in 54 
nations.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.06 ns
Phosphorus (-.062)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.01 ns
Solids (+.008)

B's are controled for:
- income per head
- number of scientist & engineers per thousand 
population

B's remain the same when additionaly controled 
for: 
- air pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen 
dioxide, particles)
- the other water pollutant
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=- ns
When instead the logarithm of happiness is 
regressed on the logarithm of the water pollutant:
- B's are negative
- B's are insignificant

Water pollutants do not significantly correlate 
with lower average happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelSO2
Page in Source 5
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Annual mean concentration of SO2 in ug/m3
Remarks
Data: European air quality database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .001
b = -0,001 in Ordinary Least Squares analysis 
(OLS)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .001
b = -0,002 in Instrumental variable analysis (IV)

b's controled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelSOx emissions
Page in Source 29
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Total sulphur oxide emissions (ie SO, SO2 and higher 
derivatives) in kilograms per capita
Remarks
Data:OECD Health Statistics. Values prior to 1980 for 
each country in the sample were interpolated using the 
1980 values.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.00 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by Sox emissions in the 
nation 
OPRC (-0.003) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Environmental quality
Subject code: N04ab05

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJorunal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelAir pollution
Page in Source 873
Our classificationEnvironmental quality, code N04ab05
Operationalization
Particulate Matter (PM10) daily (?g/m3)
Observed distributionMeans=30.4; SD=14.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.00 p < ..01
b(-.00136) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Marital status
  - Children
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Rain 
  - Temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ecological footprint
Subject code: N04ab06

StudyVeenhoven (2009b): study ZZ 2000
TitleWell-Being in Nations and Well-Being of Nations. Is There a Conflict Between Individual and Society?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 91, 5 - 21.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14878
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9323-7
PublicAdults, general public, 91 nations, early 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =140000

Correlate
Author's labelEnergy consumption
Page in Source 15
Our classificationEcological footprint, code N04ab06
Operationalization
In giga-joules p/c
Remarks
Source: Kurian 1992 table 131

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.50
Average Happy Life Years by Energy consumption in 
60 nations
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.24
rpc controlled for wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ecological footprint
Subject code: N04ab06

StudyVeenhoven (2009b): study ZZ 2000
TitleWell-Being in Nations and Well-Being of Nations. Is There a Conflict Between Individual and Society?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 91, 5 - 21.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14878
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9323-7
PublicAdults, general public, 91 nations, early 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =140000

Correlate
Author's labelEcological footprint
Page in Source 15
Our classificationEcological footprint, code N04ab06
Operationalization
Biologically productive space required to produce the 
food and wood people consume and to absorb the CO2 
omitted from burning fossile fuels.
Expressed in hectares per capita.
Remarks
Source: Living Planet Report 2000, table 2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.60
Average Happy Life Years by Ecological footprint 
in 77 nations
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.02
rpc controlled for wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyKim & Kim (2012): study ZZ 2000
TitleDoes Government Make People Happy?: Exploring New Research Directions for Government’s Roles in Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2012, Vol. 13, 875 - 899
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
Public15+ aged, general public, 131 nations, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price
Page in Source 898
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Price level of investment (mean of 2000-2008)
Remarks
Penn World Table

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=-.00 ns
AVERAGE happiness by investment price in nation
B controlled for:
-Social trust
-Economy
  -openness
  -log GDP
-Post communist
-Government
  -quantity of government
  -quality of government (Government 
Effectiveness; similar results when controlled for 
Regulatory Quality or Control of corruption)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita, 4 quartiles
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
GDP: Gross Domestic Product.
0: low GDP per capita
1:
2:
3: high GDP per capita
Observed distribution25%, 25%, 25%, 25%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.42 ns
Individual life-satisfaction by national GDP per 
capita; 1 (compared to 0).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.4 p < .05
Individual happiness by national GDP per capita; 2 
(compared to 0)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.4 p < .05
Individual happiness by national GDP per capita; 3 
(compared to 0).

B controlled for: 
-at individual level:
 -gender
 -employment status
 -marital status
 -age & age squared
 -social class
 -individual income.
-at country level:
 -income inequality
 -national growth in GDP.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price level
Page in Source 132,138,146
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Investment price level relative to US
(business climate)
Remarks
Source: Heston et. Al. (2002) 
        World Bank (2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=
Individual happiness (not average) by investment 
price level in one's nation.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.41 p < .01
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.46 p < .01
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.36 p < .01
females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.57 p < .01
left voters
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.37 p < .01
right voters
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.49 p < .01
low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.51 p < .01
middle income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.30 p < .05
high income

Beta's controlled for:
Area dummies and other economic variables:
- openness to trade
- average tariff rate
- income inequality
- GDP per capita
- government consumption
- inflation
- unemployment
- globalization index 1995
- compound growth, 5 years
- growth stability
- top marginal tax rate
- public debt in % GDP
- access to technology

Individual level variables:
- religion 
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyBjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997
TitleThe Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World.
SourcePublic Choice, 2007, Vol. 130, 267 - 292
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9081-5
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price
Page in Source 11
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Price level of investment and capital goods relative to 
the US-level.
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Mark 6.1 (Heston, Summers 
and Aten, 2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 p < .01
% very happy citizens by price level of investment 
and capital goods
 
B controlled for
-social trust
-openness
-log GDP per capita
-postcommunist
-government consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelDisparity in incomes
Page in Source 220
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Gini index: measures inequality over the entire 
distribution of income or consumption

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.05
Average happiness by disparity in incomes in 82 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.42
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelReal GNI
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
A:  Real GNI 
B: Real GNI squared
Remarks
Data are from World Development Indicators(several 
years) and Penn World Table 6.1(Heston,et al.2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .01
Real GNI

B (0.197) controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employment
  - education
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
- survey
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 p < .01
Real GNI squared

B (-0.03e-4) controlled for:
There are two control variables: Real GNI and Real 
GNI squared for the year 1997.
Data are from World Development Indicators(several 
years) and Penn World Table 6.1(Heston,et al.2002)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study ZZ EU 12 1992
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, EU 12 member states, 1975-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =104000

Correlate
Author's labelInequality
Page in Source 2027, 2029, 2032
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Income inequality in EU nations in Gini coefficients
Observed distributionN=69, M=0,309, SD=0,043, Range=0,229-430
Remarks
Data: Deiniger and Squire (1996)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
NATION inequality by INDIVIDUAL happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.8 ns
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-7.1 p < .05
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.6 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.5 p < .05
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.7 ns
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled for personal 
characteristics:
- employment satus
- gender
- age 
- educational level
- marital status
- number of children
- income 
- race
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.4 p < .05
Additionaly controled for unemployment rate and 
inflation rate in nation, all individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-6.3 p < .05
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.4 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-4.1 p < .05
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.4 ns
Rich individuals

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that the negative 
effect is larger among poor and political left 
individuals. Comparisons of OLRC's are only 
possible if the same control variables are used in 
the regressions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelIncome-inequality
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Dispersion in income statistics as measured with Gini
Remarks
Gini index: measures inequality over the entire 
distribution of income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.06
Average happiness by income-inequality in 88 
nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyOuweneel & Veenhoven (1994): study ZZ 1980
TitleNation Characteristics and Average Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper, Department of Sociology, Erasmus University, 1994, Rotterdam, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 27 nations, ±1980
Sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic status of nation
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Index of:
- per capita economic growth - per capita estimated 
income ($) - average annual rate of inflation - per 
capita food production index   (1970=100)

Source:Estes, R.J.-The social progress
       of nations (1984, N.Y., Praeger)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ar=+.58 p < .001
                Mt' Happiness   Economy score

Australia           7.75           16
Austria             6.68           15
Belgium             7.57           16
Brazil              7.22           15
Canada              7.76           16
Denmark             7.67           15
Finland             7.35           13
France              7.24           15
Germany             6.98           14
Greece              5.61           12
Great Britain       7.74           10
Italy               6.47            9
India               5.16            6
Ireland             7.82           11
Japan               6.94           14
Mexico              6.31            8
Netherlands         7.63           15
Norway              7.45           18
Philippines         6.47           12
Portugal            6.20           11
Singapore           7.24           13 
S.Africa            7.03            9
S.Korea             6.21           16
Spain               6.84           13
Sweden              7.62           16
Switzerland         6.99           14
United States       7.55           18
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.61 p < .001
                Mt' Life           Economy
                    Satisfaction   score

Australia           7.67           16  
Austria             7.10           15  
Belgium             7.07           16  
Brazil              7.03           15
Canada              7.60           16
Denmark             7.92           15
Finland             7.68           13
France              6.29           15
Germany             6.94           14
Greece              5.70           12
Great Britain       7.41           10
Italy               6.24            9
India               3.35            6
Ireland             7.58           11
Japan               6.20           14
Mexico              4.32            8
Netherlands         7.46           15
Norway              7.67           18
Philippines         6.60           12
Portugal            6.74           11
Singapore           7.12           13 
S.Africa            6.43            9
S.Korea             5.50           16
Spain               6.22           13
Sweden              7.80           16
Switzerland         8.60           14
United States       6.94           18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelAgricultural sector
Page in Source 5
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
& GDP earned in agricultural sector

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by size of agrarian sector in 
nation
b(0.017) controlled for
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelIndustrial sector
Page in Source 5
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
& GDP earned in industrial sector

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.02 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by size of industrial sector 
in nation
b(0.016) controlled for
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic condition of the nation
Subject code: N04ac

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ EU 27 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public15+ aged, 29 EU nations, 2007-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price
Page in Source 168, 174
Our classificationEconomic condition of the nation, code N04ac
Operationalization
Price level of capital goods relative to overall price 
levell.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
CHANGE average happiness  in 29 nations 2007-2010, 
by investment price.

B controled for:
- GDP growth rate
- legal quality
- social trust
- postcommunist
- openness
- government size
- recession
- interaction growth x recession

Random effect analysis
Fixed effect similar (B = +.12)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study XZ Germany West 1985 /1
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicEmployed females, Germany 1985-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage income in state
Page in Source 31
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Average personal income in state per years
Observed distributionN = 150: 15 years in 10 states

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by AVERAGE INCOME in 10 states 
over 15 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09
Among five states of Germany (Schleswig-Holstein, 
Lower Saxony, Bremen, Rhineland-Pfalz, Baden 
Wurttemberg)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11
Among five states of Germany (Berlin, Hessen, 
North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg, Bavaria)

B means point happiness on 1-10 scale per 1000 
Deutsche Mark.

B controlled for state variables (which are not 
reproted).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyDeaton (2008): study ZZ 2006
TitleIncome, Health and Wellbeing around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2008, Vol. 22, 53 - 72
DOIDOI:10.1257/jep.22.2.53
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =132000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 57-61, 64
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Logarithm of per capita Gross Domestic Product adjusted 
for purchasing power parities
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables version 6.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+
Life satisfaction is higher in countries with 
higher GDP per capita
Set Image size:   

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+
A doubling of GDP is associated with a constant 
increase in mean life satisfaction (middle broken 
line)

The upper line in figure 2 refers to young people 
(15 to 25) whereas the lower line refers to old 
people (60+):
- Old individuals are happier than young 
individuals in very rich countries
- Old individuals are less happy than young 
individuals in middle and low income countries
- Difference is stronger in middle income 
countries compared to low income countries
Set Image size:   

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.84 p < .00
All countries, N=123

B does not change when controled for:
- economic growth 2000-2003
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.87 p < .00
Without the countries of the former Sovjet-Union, 
N=111

B controled for:
- economic growth 1990-2000
- economic growth 2000-2003
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.92 p < .00
All countries, N=120

B controled for:
- economic growth 2000-2003
- life expectance 2005
- change in life expectancy 1990-2005
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.69 p < .00
All countries, N=123
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.6 p < .00
Among NOT POOR countries, income > $12.000, N=38
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.3 p < .00
Among NOT POOR countries, income > $12.000, N=37

B controled for:
- economic growth 2000-2003
- life expectancy 2005
- change in life expectancy 1990-2005
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.38 ns
Among RICH countries, income > $20.000, N=25

Insignificant due to low number of observation

B's similar across age groups

B (+.84) means that if income changes from $10.000 
to $20.000 the happiness score increases by 
((ln)20.000-(ln)10.000)*0,84 = 0,58 points due to 
the log scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyDownie & Koester (2008): study ZZ 2004
TitleWhy Faster, Higher, Stronger isn"t Necessarily Better.The Relations of Paralympian and Women's Soccer Teams' Performance to National Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 273 - 280
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1
PublicAdults, 90 countries, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelGrossDomesticProduct
Page in Source 275, 276
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Observed distributionGDP data of 173 nations was available for the year 2004
Remarks
data obtained from the World Bank's database (2006)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.21 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by GDP in 90 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyVeenhoven (2009b): study ZZ 2000
TitleWell-Being in Nations and Well-Being of Nations. Is There a Conflict Between Individual and Society?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 91, 5 - 21.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14878
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9323-7
PublicAdults, general public, 91 nations, early 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =140000

Correlate
Author's labelEnergy consumption
Page in Source 15
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
In giga-joules p/c
Remarks
Source: Kurian 1992 table 131

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.50
Average Happy Life Years by Energy consumption in 
60 nations
Y-LS-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.24
rpc controlled for wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2012): study ZZ EU 25 1996
TitleIncome and Well-Being Across European Provinces.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 371 - 392
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-011-9812-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelregional income AND regional disposable income
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
A: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current market 
prices, Purchasing Power Standard, euro per inhabitant.

B: Disposable income based on final consumption, 
Purchasing Power Standard based on final consumption 
per inhabitant.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .05
A, B: controlled for:
-person-level:
 -personal income
 -community size
 -unemployment
 -finished education at 15 or earlier
 -married
 -age
 -income
-national level:
 -national income
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2012): study ZZ EU 25 1996
TitleIncome and Well-Being Across European Provinces.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 371 - 392
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-011-9812-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelregional disposable income
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Disposable income based on final consumption, 
Purchasing Power Standard based on final consumption 
per inhabitant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .01
controlled for:
-person-level:
 -personal income
 -community size
 -unemployment
 -finished education at 15 or earlier
 -married
 -age
 -income
-national level:
 -national income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyVeenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleProgrès dans la Compréhension du Bonheur. (Progress in Understanding Happiness).
SourceRevue Québécoise de Psychologie, 1997, Vol. 18, 29 - 74
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16324
PublicAdults, general public, 13 nations of varying wealth, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelCorrelation happiness - income in nations
Page in Source 53
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Statistical relationship between personal happiness and 
personal income as assesses in 13 nations using 
comparable measures
Remarks
Correlations taken from this database, section income 
(I1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.55
Individual level CORRELATION of happiness and 
personal income by nation level average income per 
capita
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ 1980 /2
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 31 nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelReal national income
Page in Source 50
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Non-marked goods and services are taken into account 
and monetary differences are eliminated.
Remarks
Source: Summer and Heston, A new set of international 
comparison of real product and prices, 1950-1985, 
Vol.34, 1998, 125

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.70 p < .01
Averahe happiness by average income per head in 28 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyDiener (1995a): study ZZ 1946
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
SourceGrad, H.;et al;Eds.: "Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology", Swets & Zeitlinger, 1995, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 43 nations, 1946-1992
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 10
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
GPD per person

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-ar=+.65 p < .001
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.43 p < .05
O-SLW---sq-*-11-ar=+.57 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyMatlin (1966): study PR 1963
TitleThe Demography of Happiness.
SourceUniversity of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matlin_n_1966.pdf
Public20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1417

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic prosperity of the country
Page in Source 5
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Inhabitants of Puerto Rico vs inhabi- tants of highest 
income areas in the USA.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.44 p < . 01
Analysis on the basis of a comparison with data 
from Bradburn & Caplovitz (BRADB 1965)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyFischer (2008): study US 1972
TitleWhat Wealth-Happiness Paradox? A Short Note on the American Case.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 219 - 226
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9047-4
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =48000

Correlate
Author's labelMedian household income
Page in Source 3, 5
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Median in 2005 US$
Remarks
Data: DeNavas, Proctor & Lee (2006), table A1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE median house 
income:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.03
1972-2004
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.09
exclusion of 2002 because of depressive effects 6 
months after 9/11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.06
recommended exclusion of 1972 because it is first 
in the series
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.00
both excluded: 1972 & 2002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyFischer (2008): study US 1972
TitleWhat Wealth-Happiness Paradox? A Short Note on the American Case.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 219 - 226
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9047-4
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =48000

Correlate
Author's labelMedian male income
Page in Source 2, 3, 5
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Median in 2005 US$
Remarks
Data: Census historical tables, 
http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/histinc/p02.html, 
table P2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE median male 
income:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.21
1972-2004
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.29
exclusion of 2002 because of depressive effects 6 
months after 9/11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.30
recommended exclusion of 1972 because it is first 
in the series
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.40
both excluded: 1972 & 2002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyFischer (2008): study US 1972
TitleWhat Wealth-Happiness Paradox? A Short Note on the American Case.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 219 - 226
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9047-4
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =48000

Correlate
Author's labelMedian male earnings
Page in Source 3, 4, 5
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Remarks
Data from the current employment statistics 
(http://www.data.bls.gov/PDQ)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE median male 
earnings:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.20
1972-2004
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.26
exclusion of 2002 because of depressive effects 6 
months after 9/11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.19
recommended exclusion of 1972 because it is first 
in the series
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.26
both excluded: 1972 & 2002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence
Subject code: N04ac01

StudyFischer (2008): study US 1972
TitleWhat Wealth-Happiness Paradox? A Short Note on the American Case.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 219 - 226
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9047-4
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =48000

Correlate
Author's labelMean hourly wage
Page in Source 4, 5
Our classificationEconomic affluence, code N04ac01
Operationalization
Remarks
Data (1947-99): Historical Statistics of the United 
States, Millennial Edition, Online 
(http://www.hsus.cambridge.org/HSUSWeb/toc/hsusHome.do),
 table C Ba4440-4483
Data (2000-05): Bureau of Labor Statistics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE mean hourly 
wage:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.19
1972-2004
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.19
exclusion of 2002 because of depressive effects 6 
months after 9/11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.45
recommended exclusion of 1972 because it is first 
in the series
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.46
both excluded: 1972 & 2002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudySachs (2016): study ZZ 2015
TitleHappiness and Sustainable Development: Concepts and Evidence.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.1, 56 - 65 , New York, USA
URLhttp://worldhappiness.report/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/03/HR-V1Ch4_web.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 119 nations, 2015-2016
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =199000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP per capita
Page in Source 62
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.49 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita.

b controled for
- sustainable development goals index 
- global competitiveness index 2015-2016
- index of economic freedom 2016
- unemployment rate (IEF data set)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyCampbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleWell-Being and the labour Market from a Global View: It's not Just the Money
SourceGlatzer, W.; Camfield, L.; Moller, V.; Rojas, M.; Eds.: "Global Handbook of Quality of Life" , Springer Science+Buisiness Media, 2014, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 351 - 379
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-017-9178-6_15
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26723

Correlate
Author's labelNational income
Page in Source 360-361,377
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNI per capita
Remarks
Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 2011, World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+
AVREAGE happiness by Gross National Income in 27 
EU nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyMellander et al. (2011): study ZZ 2009
TitleThe Creative Class, Post-Industrialism and The Happiness of Nations.
SourceCambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2012, Vol. 5, 31 - 43
URLhttp://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/31.short
DOIdoi:10.1093/cjres/rsr006
Public15+ aged, 66 nations, 2009
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 36
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Observed distributionCutoff low-/high-income US $11.000; rich N = 23, poor N= 43.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDM=-
AVERAGE happiness in:

Low-income  countries M = 5.50 SD = 0.69
High-income countries M = 6.95 SD = 0.78
- difference             -1.45
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.80 p < .01
All countries
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.62 p < .01
Low-income countries
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.52 p < .05
High-income countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyWalsh (2012): study ZZ EU 27 2004 /1
TitleThe Influence of Macro-Economic Conditions and Institutional Quality on National Levels of Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking Paper 12/08, UCD Centre for Economic Research, 2012, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://researchrepository.ucd.ie/bitstream/handle/10197/3720/WP12_08.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 23 European nations, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 14, Table 2
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by institutional quality (GDP 
p/c) in 23 nations.

b (0,0069) controlled for:
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation
-Corruption
(with Turkey, 232 observations in 2004-2011)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .001
b (+0,0072) additionally controlled for:
-Income-inequality (Gini)
(without Turkey, 196 observations in 2004-2010)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 212
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.13 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GDP in nation of residence 


B controlled for: 
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.10 ns
B additionally controlled for country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- job satisfaction
- work-home interference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 51
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by 
midyear population.

2000 dollar is included as constant/baseline
Remarks
Derived from the World Development Index (WDI) of The 
World Bank (year unknown)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.00 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GDP per capita in country 
of residence.

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic prosperity
Page in Source 15
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Economic prosperity is measured by GDP per capita in 
2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyWelsch (2002): study ZZ World samples 2000
TitleFreedom and Rationality as Predictors of Cross-National Happiness. Patterns: The Role of Income as a Mediating Variable.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, vol. 4, 295 - 321
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026249123711
Public18+ aged, general public, 54 countries, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 303
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP per capita.
Observed distributionM=10,331 SD=7,420
Remarks
Source; World Development Report (2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.02 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE income in 54 
countries.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.03 p < .001
b controls for:
-political freedom
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.04 p < .001
b controls for:
-rationality (number of scientists and engineers 
per capita)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.04 p < .001
b controls for:
-political freedom
-rationality (number of scientists and engineers 
per capita)

Similar results are obtained when b additionally 
controls for:
-political freedom
-political freedom squared
-rationality
-rationality squared

Analysis using seemingly unrelated regressions 
yields similar results.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.02 ns
b controls for:
-income squared
-political freedom

Similar results are obtained when b controls for:
-rationality
-rationality squared
-political freedom squared
ADDITIONALLY and INSTEAD of political freedom.

Income squared is not significantly associated 
with happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudySamanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999
TitleQuality of Government Makes People Happy.
SourceQoG Working Paper Serie 2010:1, The Quality of Government Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Göteborg, 2010, Sweden
Public18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 6, 15
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Not reported.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: Gleditsch 2002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita in nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.41
All nations (N=90)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.58
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.14
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.65
All nations (N=90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.62
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.47
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=.00 ns
All nations (N=90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=.00 ns
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)

B's controlled for
-Government Effectiveness
-Healthy Life Expectancy
-Post-Materialism
-Importance of God
-Levels of Democracy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita, in dollars
Page in Source 63/65
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GDP per capita in US-dollars 1997.
Observed distributionRange: $ 2190 (Ukraine) - $30863 (Luxembourg) per capita.
Remarks
Source United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 1999.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.85
Average life-satisfaction by GDP per capita in 33 
nations (bivariate).
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.66 p < .00
Average happiness by GDP per capita in 33 nations, 
Beta controlled for annual GDP-growth rate 
1990-1999; R² = 0.90.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita, 4 quartiles
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GDP: Gross Domestic Product.
0: low GDP per capita
1:
2:
3: high GDP per capita
Observed distribution25%, 25%, 25%, 25%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.42 ns
Individual life-satisfaction by national GDP per 
capita; 1 (compared to 0).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.4 p < .05
Individual happiness by national GDP per capita; 2 
(compared to 0)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.4 p < .05
Individual happiness by national GDP per capita; 3 
(compared to 0).

B controlled for: 
-at individual level:
 -gender
 -employment status
 -marital status
 -age & age squared
 -social class
 -individual income.
-at country level:
 -income inequality
 -national growth in GDP.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyBjornskov (2005): study ZZ World samples 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction: Is There a Role for Policy?
SourcePolicy Paper No. VI/2005, European Enterprise Insitute, 2005, Brussels, Belgium
Public18+ aged, general public, 73 nations, 1997-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP per capita
Page in Source 10
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Observed distributionGDP per capita: M = 12,336 SD = 9,667

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-100-ab=+.05
AVERAGE happiness, by log GDP per capita in 73 
nations

B controlled for:
- social trust
- openness of the economy
- investment price level
- communist past
- government share of GDP


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyRuprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleDoes Owning Your Home Make You Happier? Impact Evidence from Latin America.
SourceWorking Paper OVE/WP-02-10, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://ideas.repec.org/p/idb/ovewps/0210.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =147446

Correlate
Author's labelln (GDP per capita)
Page in Source 8
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Constant USD PPP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.92 p < .05
OLRC controlled for:
- country
- year
- size of city
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - economic situation
- homeownership


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyDownie et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitlePolitical Support for Self-determination, Wealth, and National Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMotivation and Emotion, 2007 , Vol. 31, 174 - 181
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11031-007-9070-0#
DOIDOI::10.1007/s11031-007-9070-0
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations 1995-2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Page in Source 178
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=2,3 x 10^11 SD=1,0 x 10^12
Remarks
Source: World Bank (2006)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+.21 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by GDP in 90 nations.
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.22 p < .10
Beta controls for:
-population
-political self-determination
-interaction: GDP*political self-determination
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.20
Beta controls for:
-population
-value self-determination
-interaction: GDP*value-self determination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVitterso et al. (2002): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleThe Concept of Life Satisfaction Across Cultures: Exploring its Diverse Meaning and Relation to Economic Wealth.
SourceGullone, E.;Cummins, R.A.;Eds.: "The Universality of Subjective Wellbeing Indicators", Kluwer, 2002, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 81 - 103
PublicCollege students, 41 countries, 1995-96
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6949

Correlate
Author's labelGNPNational wealth
Page in Source 95
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-u-sq-n-7-ab=+.21 ns
O-SLC-u-sq-n-7-ab=+.36 p < .05
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-ab=+40 p < .001
C-RA-h-sq-n-7-ab=+.36 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelGNI per capita
Page in Source 529
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Natural logarithm of GNI per capita.
Observed distributionM=8,81 SD=1,02

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ar=+.46 ns
AVERAGE happiness by GNI per capita in 65 nations
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.35 p < .001
b controls for:
-GDP growth rate
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 ns
b additionally controls for:
-inflation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.66 ns
AVERAGE life satisfaction by GNI per capita in 76 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.55 p < .001
b controls for:
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of 
military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-openness
-years of openness (the number of years a country 
has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate 
relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly 
on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes 
Eastern Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyDiener et al. (1993): study ZZ World samples 1984
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079018
Public18+ aged students, 39 countries, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18032

Correlate
Author's labelGNP/person
Page in Source 214
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP/Capita
Remarks
Data International Financial Statistics Yearbook 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-hr=+.46 p < .01
Men only
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-hr=+.51 p < .01
Women only
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.42 p < .01
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.38 p < .05
Women only
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=
All
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyEasterlin & Angelescu McVey (2009): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleHappiness and Growth the World Over: Time Series Evidence on the Happiness-Income Paradox.
SourceDiscussion Paper IZA, No. 4060, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLHTTP://ftp.iza.org/dp4060.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World samples, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =195

Correlate
Author's labelPer capita GDP
Page in Source 17
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Gross domestic product per capita (absolute scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aRa²=.45
The relation is curvilinear, diminishing returns, 
see Fig.1.

When log GDP is used instead of GDP the result is 
a linear relationship:
Each doubling of GDP is associated with a  
constant increase in life satisfaction.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2006): study ZZ 1981
TitleHow's your Government? International Evidence linking Good Government and Well-Being.
SourceWorking Paper 11988, 2006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://www.nber.org/papers/w11988
Public15+ aged, general public, 72 nations, 1981-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =163000

Correlate
Author's labelincnat: Per capita income
Page in Source 27
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Remarks
WVS

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.67 ns
ALL nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+2.7 p < .05
POOR nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 ns
RICH nations

B's controlled for:
- govdo, average of:
  - government effectiveness
  - regulatory qualitiy
  - rule of law
  - controlof corruption
- govdem: average of:
  - voice & accountability
  - political stability
- General trust
- Importance of god

Rich: < half of US national income in 1995
Poor: > half of US national income in 1995


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyOuweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980
TitleSocial Security and Well-Being of the Unemployed in 42 Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 167 - 192
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1019619324661
PublicUnemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelnational wealth
Page in Source 188
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
Real GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.29 ns
25-36 nations in 1990
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=+.14 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.39 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-arpc=+.44 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.47 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.51 p < .01
rpc's are controlled for social security levels


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVeenhoven & Ouweneel (1989): study ZZ Developed nations 1980
TitleHet Rendement van de Verzorgingsstaat. (The Revenues of the Welfare State).
SourceEconomisch Statistische Berichten, 1989, 26 April, 419 - 420
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/veenhoven_r_1989.pdf
PublicAdults, general population, 19 first world nations, 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelaffluence: simple gnp
Page in Source 420
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP per capita around 1980 according to OECD national 
accounts 1987

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-vt-3-ar=+.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP per capita
Page in Source 5
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+3.7 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GNP p/c in the country
b(3.7E) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 member states, Western Europe, 1975
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12996

Correlate
Author's labelGNP per capita
Page in Source 150
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP data from the World Bank Atlas.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-3-ar=+.66 p < .05
                  M happiness    GNP per capita
Great Britain        1.95             3780
France               1.89             5450
W-Germany            1.89             6670
Italy                1.61             2810
Belgium              2.27             6270
The Netherlands      2.22             5750
Luxembourg           2.03             6020
Denmark              2.54             6810
Ireland              1.88             2390
O-SLV---sq-vt-3-ar=+.15 ns
                  Mt satisfaction  GNP per capita 
Great Britain        7.5              3780
France               6.7              5450
W-Germany            7.0              6670
Italy                6.3              2810
Belgium              7.8              6270
The Netherlands      7.5              5750
Luxembourg           7.7              6020
Denmark              8.3              6810
Ireland              8.2              2390


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVeenhoven (1989b): study ZZ 1974
TitleNational Wealth and Individual Happiness.
SourceGrunert, K.G.;Olander, F.;Eds.: "Understanding Economic Behavior", Kluwer Academic, 1989, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 9 - 32
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16143
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 parts of the world, (55 countries), 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8433

Correlate
Author's labelGNP per capital
Page in Source 17
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP data from the World Bank Atlas, 1977.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.85
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8433

Correlate
Author's labelGNP per capita
Page in Source 149
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP data from the World Bank Atlas, 1977.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.84 p < .01
                  Mt happiness   $ GNP per capita
Australia             7.0             5700
North America         6.7             7102
Western Europe        6.3             4731
Latin America         6.0             1048
Africa (South 
of the Sahara)        4.6              435
Asia (exc. Japan)     3.8              219
Japan                 5.8             4450


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 nations and regions, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelGNP per capital
Page in Source 149
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP data from the World bank Atlas, 1977.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.74 p < .001
                  Mt happiness    $ GNP p/c
Australia             7.0             5700
USA                   6.7             7120
Canada                7.0             6930
Great Britain         6.8             3780
France                5.8             5950
W-Germany             6.6             6670
Italy                 5.6             2810
Benelux               6.0             5968
Scandinavia           7.6             7003
Brasil                6.2             1030
Mexico                6.2             1050
Africa (South
of the Sahara)        4.6              435
India                 3.4              140
Japan                 5.8             4450


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelGross National Product
Page in Source 65
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
GNP per capita
Remarks
From the Georgas and Berry (1995) database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.69 p < .01
Average happiness by Gross National Product per 
capita in 24 countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1973
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, 16 EU countries, 1973-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1350000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 34
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization
a) trend GDP/capita (log)
b) cyclical GPD/capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20
a) trend GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+3.6
b) cyclical GDP/capita

b's controlled for:
- unemployment rate
- inflation rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gnp per capita (raw)
Subject code: N04ac01a

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 31 countries, 1973-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Our classificationGnp per capita (raw), code N04ac01a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study DE West Germany 1985
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany 1985-2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8649

Correlate
Author's labelnational income
Page in Source 33
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real Annual Income measured in 1995 Deutschmarks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
AVERAGE HAPPINESS and AVERAGE INCOME over 15 
years.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyOishi et al. (2012): study ZZ 2007
TitleProgressive Taxation and the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.
SourcePsychological Science, 2012, Vol. 23, 86 - 92
DOIDOI:10.1177/0956787611420882
Public15+ aged, general public, 54 nations, 2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =59634

Correlate
Author's labelLog-linear GDP per capita
Page in Source 87
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Non-adjusted GDP per capita
Observed distributionM=9.41 SD=1.27
Remarks
Data: 2007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.76 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita in 54 nations
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-pr=
Average negative affect r= -.23 (ns)
Average positive affect r= +.25 (ns)
No correlation with affect balance reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyRam (2009): study ZZ 2006 /1
TitleGovernment Spending and Happiness of the Population: Additional Evidence from Large Cross-Country Samples.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 483 - 490
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/40270884?origin=JSTOR-pdf
DOIDOI:10.1007/sl 1127-008-9372-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 87 nations, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =87000

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP per capita (in logs)
Page in Source 488
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
In purchasing power
Observed distributionM = 10,675, SD = 10,707 (N=143)
Remarks
Penn World Table 6.2, 2003.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.60 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP-per capita in 87 
nations.
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.57 p < .05
b's controlled for:
- Government consumption
- Investment price-level
- International openness of the economy
- Dummies for:
  - transition (former socialist) economies
  - OECD high income countries
  - African and Latin American countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 2006
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
PublicAdults, general public, 131 nations, 2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =131000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Gdp/capita (log) is at purchasing power parity in 
constant 2000 dollars

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.82 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/capita in 131 
nations
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.42 p < .01
All nations
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.0 p < .01
Rich nations only (> $ 15000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+0.3 p < .01
Poor nations only (< $ 15000)

b's controled for:
- age (squared)
- sexe
- interaction age/sexe
Set Image size:   

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyRam (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleGovernment Spending and Happiness of the Population: Additional Evidence from Large Cross-Country Samples.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 483 - 490
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/40270884?origin=JSTOR-pdf
DOIDOI:10.1007/sl 1127-008-9372-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 87 nations, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =87000

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP per capita (in logs)
Page in Source 484-488
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
In purchasing power
Observed distributionMean: 10,675 SD: 10,707 (N=143)
Remarks
 Penn World Table 6.2, 2003.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.60 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP-per capita in 87 
nations (Data Veenhoven 2006).
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.57 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP-per capita in 87 
nations (Data Inglehart 2008).
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.32 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP-per capita in 138 
nations (Data New Economic Foundation,Satis).

b' s controlled for:
-Government consumption
-Investment price-level
-International openness of the economy
-Dummies for:
 -transition (former socialist)economies,
 -OECD high income countries,
 -African and Latin American countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labelincome
Page in Source 10,11
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
buying power in Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) in 
nation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness, by Net Domestic Income, 
adjusted to purchasing power.
Slight positive correlation. Coefficient not 
reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyDiener et al. (2012a): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleRising Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012, Vol. 104, 267 - 276
URLhttps://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-104-2-267.pdf
Public15+ aged general public, 135 nation followed at least 3 years, 2005-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =806526

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source 270
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real gdp/capita at purchsing power (international 
dollars)
Remarks
Yearly data taken from International Monitary Fund (IMF 
2011)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.79 p < .01
CURRENT AVERAGE happiness by CURRENT real GDP in 
nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tr=+
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
positive given:
PA: r = +.29 (01)
NA: r = -.04 (ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+1.7 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE real GDP in 
nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tBeta=0
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
negible given:
PA: Beta = +.06 (ns)
NA: Beta = -.06 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 131 nations 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =291383

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GDP/capita (log)
Remarks
Data World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.36 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GNP per capita in nation
B without controls
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.38 p < .01
b controled for:
- age
- sexe
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.34 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by GDP pc in nation
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Gross domestic Product per capita (GDP per capita), 
adjusted for purchasing power parities and converted to 
USA dollars was obtained from the World Bank.
Observed distributionM=$13,040, Lowest 196 (Burundi), Highest 100,953 (Luxembourg)
Remarks
Data: World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.72 p < .01
Log real GDP income by AVERAGE happiness in 164 
nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 2002
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 44 countries, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32463

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GDP/capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta-f=+.28 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta-f=+.28 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Age squared
- Sexe
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.39 p < .01
Instrumental variable analysis
Country*education fixed effects used as intrument

All beta's reflect average standard deviation 
change in happiness associated with one unit 
change in income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per Capita
Page in Source 11, 12
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
GDP per capita in PPS with respect to EU27
Remarks
Data: Eurostat 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05 p < .001
1999; INDIVIDUAL Happiness by GDP in nation
B controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
-National characteristics:
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 p < .001
1999; additionally controlled for:
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits
    
  and not controlled for: Government expenditure
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 p < .001
2008; B controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
-National characteristics:
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment
  -Decentralization
  -Government expenditure
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.06 p < .001
2008; additionally controlled for:
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits
   and not controlled for Government expenditure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997
TitleThe Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World.
SourcePublic Choice, 2007, Vol. 130, 267 - 292
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9081-5
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labellog GDP per capita
Page in Source 11
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
log GDP per capita (purchasing power parity)
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Mark 6.1 (Heston, Summers 
and Aten, 2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.21 ns
% very happy citizens by log GDP per capita

B controlled for
-social trust
-openness
-investment price
-postcommunist
-government consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power per head
Page in Source 220
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.65
Average happiness by purchasing power per head in 
88 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2004b): study ZZ 1995
TitleVeiligheid en Geluk. (Safety and Happiness).
SourceMuller, E.R.; Ed.: "Veiligheid Studies over Inhoud, Organisatie en Maatregelen", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 153 - 185
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8678
PublicAdults, general public, 65 nations, 1995 and 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power
Page in Source 166
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
'Real' GNP (actual buying power) per capita
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report 1998, table 1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.64
AVERAGE happiness by purchasing power in 60 
nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
PublicAdults, general public, 42 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per capita
Page in Source 506
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
natural log of GDP per capita, local currency conversed 
in power parity dollars
Remarks
Data: World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=0,64 p < .01
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Only for Eastern Europe, Beta is significantly 
positive (p<0,1).

Divided in Eastern Europe, Latin America, Rich 
Industrial, Other
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2007e): study ZZ 1995
TitleLe Bonheur du plus grand Nombre comme But des Politiques Sociales. (The Greatest Happiness Principle: Happiness as an Public Policy).
SourceRevue Québécoise de Psychologie, 2007, Vol. 28, 35- 60
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12317
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =140000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic development
Page in Source 50
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Buying power per capita
Remarks
Data: Human development Report.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.66
Average happinbess by buying power per capita in 
88 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 8
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
GDP per capita in dollars
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 9,717 SD = 2,841
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by real income per head in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=-.05 ns
B (-0,054) controlled for
-income inequality
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

The higher the GDP per capita in a nation, the 
less difference in happiness between poor and rich 
(but not significant). This relationship is 
stronger (and significant) among rich and 
democratic nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power
Page in Source 16
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+
Average happiness by purchasing power p/c in 96 
nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelBuying power per capita
Page in Source 42
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
'Real' GNP (actual buying power) per capita
Remarks
Data: Human Development Report 1995, table 1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.78
Happy Life Years by Buying power per capita in 42 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per head:
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
'Real' GNP (actual buying power) per capita in 1989
Remarks
Souce: UN Human Development Report 1992, table, missing 
values estimated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.64
Average happiness by Income per head in 1989 in 43 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2005c): study ZZ 1990
TitleIs Life getting Better? How Long and Happily Do People live in Modern Society?
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 330 - 343
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7199
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power p/c
Page in Source 336
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
'Real' GNP (actual buying power) per capita
Remarks
Data: Human Development Report 2000, table 1 (UNDP)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.77
Happy life years by Purchasing power per head in 
90 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2001): study ZZ 1990
TitleAre the Russians as Unhappy as They Say They Are? Comparability of Self-Reports Across Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2001, Vol. 2, 111 - 136
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8772
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1011587828593
PublicAdults, general public, 41 nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50000

Correlate
Author's labelReal income per capita
Page in Source 122
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Purchasing power parities
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Average life-satisfaction by real income per 
capita in 1990 in 41 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudySchyns (1998): study ZZ 1990
TitleCrossnational Differences in Happiness: Economic and Cultural Factors Explored.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 43, 3 - 26
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006814424293
Public18+ aged, general public, 40 nations, early 1990s
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic prosperity
Page in Source 15-16
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
1990 real GDP (Real Gross Domastic Product per capita 
in US dollars) from the Human Development Report 1933

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.64 p < .001
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.39 p < .05
rpc controlled for 'culture component' (Index of: 
Political and civil right + Gender equality + 
Individualism)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.31 ns
Within poor countries (Real GDP < $8000, N=17)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.09 ns
Within poor countries (Real GDP < $8000, N=17) 
controlled for culture
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.40 ns
Within rich countries (Real GDP > $8000, N=23)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.11 ns
Within rich countries (Real GDP > $8000, N=23), 
controlled for culture
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.22 ns
Within culturally restricted countries (N=13,  The 
group was split between the Russian 
federation(culturally restricted) and 
Japan(culturally free) with the index of cultural 
component)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.12 ns
Within restricted countries (N=13), controlled for 
culture
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.63 p < .001
Within free countries (N=26)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.49 p < .05
-  Within free countries (N=26), controlling for 
culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power per head
Page in Source 432+436
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per capita in 1995
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report 1999, Table 1 (United 
Nations Development Program)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.66
LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by purchasing power per head in 
78 nations
Level of happiness measured with the average score
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=-.64
INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by purchasing power in 78 
nations
Inequality of happiness measured by the standard 
deviation
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.68
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by purchasing power 
per head in 78 nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using an 
index of average and standard deviation, as 
proposed by Kalmijn & Veenhoven (2005)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita (thousands)
Page in Source 7,17
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
GDP per capita (USD-thousands); averaged data for the 
1990s.
Observed distributionM = 10,98; SD = 8,48; Range: 0,94 - 34,47.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.02 p < .05
Average happiness by GDP in 68 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .05
Average life-satisfaction by GDP in 68 nations

B's controlled for:
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 30,31
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
GDP per capita in US dollars.
Observed distributionN = 81 M = 11789 Range: 481 to 44009 SD = 9551

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.35 ns
% happy by GDP per capita in 33 nations.

B controlled for variables at country-level:
-trade openness
-post communist
-inflation
-social norms in nation
-social trust in nation
-associational activity in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleApparent Quality-of-Life in Nations: How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 61 - 86
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7200
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8014-2
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelPurchasing power per head
Page in Source 83
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
'Real' GNP (actual buying power) per capita
Remarks
Data: Human Development Report 1999, table 1 (UNDP)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.73
Happy life years by Purchasing power per head in 
66 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven & Timmermans (1998): study ZZ 1990
TitleWelvaart en Geluk. ( Affluence and Happiness).
SourceEconomisch Statistische Berichten, 1998, Vol. 83, 628 - 631
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16329
Public18+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1990
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =45000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per head
Page in Source 630
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Purchasing power per head in nation
Data Human Development Report 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.66
Nations
19 West Europe
10 East Europe (former communist)
2  Anglo-America (Canada, USA)
4  Latin-America
   (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico)
2  Middle East (Turkey, Israel)
2  Africa (Nigeria, South-Africa0
5  Asia 
   (China, India, Japan, Philippines, S Korea)
1  Australia (Australia)

Relarionship: L-shaped, concave.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ World samples 1985
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicUniversity students, 39 nations around 1985
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18032

Correlate
Author's labelreal income per capita
Page in Source 54
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Remarks
Source: Summers, R. And A. Heston 1988: National Income 
and Wealth 34, pp 1-25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.55 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness (of students) by AVERGAE real 
income per capita in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyInglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981
TitleDevelopment, Freedom, and Rising Happiness.
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2008, Vol. 3, 264 - 285
Public18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72000

Correlate
Author's label(Change in) GDP per capita (in PPP/pc)
Page in Source 269, 271
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
GDP per capita corrected for purchasing power parity; 
assessed 5 years before assesment of happiness in last 
survey between 1995 and 2007.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: World Bank; World Development Indicators

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ar=+.62
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP 5 years earlier in 
88 nations in last survey. 

Non-linear relationship reflects pattern of 
diminishing returns
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in average happiness by T1-GDP in 41 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05 p < .05
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.06 p < .05
Change in happiness measured controling T2 
happiness for T1 happiness  
B's further controlled for:
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity
-T1 tolerance of outgroups

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally 
controlled for T1-level of national pride and 
T1-sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
T2-T1 CHANGE in average happiness by CHANGE in GDP 
p/c in the same T1-T2 period in 42 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 ns
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.18 ns
Change in happiness and GDP measured controling T2 
by T1
B's further controled for T1-T2 CHANGE in:
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- tolerance of outgroups
- sense of free choice

Data on happiness taken from World Values Surveys, 
52 nations involved in at least two waves between 
1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 YEARS APART.
Cases weighted for number of years between first 
and last survey; so countries for which the full 
26-year time series was available have 2,6 times 
the weight of countries with a 10-year series. T1 
= first survey and T2 = last survey in a 
particular nation between 1981-2007.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, 61 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita: Levels
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
GDP/capita (log) at purchasing power parity constant 
2000 international dollars

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.41 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/capita in 166 
nations/waves
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.23 p < .01
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb-fix=+.55 p < .01
Fixed effects of wave and country included
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab-fix=+.22 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cOPRC=+.39 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GPD/pc in nation
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.21 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cOPRC=+.58 p < .01
Fixed effects of wave and country included
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.26 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.50 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/capita
Wave 1: 1981-1984, 20 countries included
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.56 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/capita
Wave 2: 1989-1993, 42 countries included
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.46 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/capita
Wave 3: 1994-1999, 52 countries included
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.35 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/capita
Wave 4: 1999, 69 countries included
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+
Correlation with ABB not separated reported, but 
must be positive since positive affect tends to be 
higher in richer nations and negative affect tends 
to be lower
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyLeite Mota & Trigo Pereira (2008): study ZZ OECD member states 1981
TitleHappiness, Economic Well-Being, Social Capital and the Quality of Institutions.
SourceWorking Paper no 40, 2008, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon, Portugal
URLhttp://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~depeco/wp/wp402008.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states, 1981-2001.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31904

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Page in Source 14
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
logarithm of Gross Domestic Product per capita and at 
purchasing power parity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.3 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita in nation, no 
controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.98 p < .05
B controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -Unemployment
  -Inflation
  -Confidence in police
  -GovDo (governance quality; simple average of 4
   World Bank governance indicators: Government
   Effectiveness,Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law 
   and Control of Corruption.)
  -social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 79 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP
Page in Source Figure 8
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 79 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP/capita
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ 1980
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicAdults, general public, 32 countries, around 1980
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelreal income per capita
Page in Source 54
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Remarks
Source: Summers, R, and A. Hesron 1988: National Income 
and Wealth 34 pp 1-25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.69 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERGAE real income per 
capita in 28 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ 1980 /2
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 31 nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelReal national income
Page in Source 50
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Non-marked goods and services are taken into account 
and monetary differences are eliminated.
Remarks
Source: Summer and Heston, A new set of international 
comparison of real product and prices, 1950-1985, 
Vol.34, 1998, 125

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.70 p < .01
Averahe happiness by average income per head in 28 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study ZZ 1980
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
PublicAdults, general public, 30 nations, 1980
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30

Correlate
Author's labelReal income per capita
Page in Source 136
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
'Real' buying power per capita: non-marked goods and 
services taken into account
Remarks
Data drawn from Summers, R. and Heston, A., National 
Income and Wealth 34, pp 1-25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.70 p < .01
N (countries) = 27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven & Ouweneel (1989): study ZZ Developed nations 1980
TitleHet Rendement van de Verzorgingsstaat. (The Revenues of the Welfare State).
SourceEconomisch Statistische Berichten, 1989, 26 April, 419 - 420
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/veenhoven_r_1989.pdf
PublicAdults, general population, 19 first world nations, 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelaffluence: real gnp
Page in Source 420
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GDP around 1980 according to OECD national 
accounts 1987

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-vt-3-ar=+.56


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (1989b): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleNational Wealth and Individual Happiness.
SourceGrunert, K.G.;Olander, F.;Eds.: "Understanding Economic Behavior", Kluwer Academic, 1989, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 9 - 32
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16143
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 member states, Western Europe, 1975-1986
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12996

Correlate
Author's labelChange in GNP in %
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.56
Correlation between Change in happiness in % and 
change in GNP in % at one year interval in the 
period 1975 - 1986,
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP per capita
Page in Source 174
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Log GDP per capita, adjusted for differences in 
purchasing power
Observed distributionM = 9,752 SD = 0,566
Remarks
Data: national accounts data in the Penn World Tables

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.02 ns
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness in nations, by log GDP 
per capita.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative) 

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.02 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per Capita
Page in Source 29
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Log of Real GDP per capita at the price levels and 
exchange rates of 1990 in U.S. dollars (measured in 
thousands)
Remarks
Data: OECD National Accounts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.46 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GDP in the nation 
OPRC (+0.455) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1975
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 10, 10 nations, 1975
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 518, Table 1
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GDP per capita, purchasing power.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.00 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP per capita in 10 
nations. 

b (+0,00003) controlled for
-union density
-unemployment
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.00 ns
b (+0,00001) additionally controlled for
-welfare spending


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyBlanchflower (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 1973
TitleIs Unemployment more Costly than Inflation?
SourceNBER Working Paper no 13505, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/blanchflower_dg_2007a.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 1973
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =743397

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 23, table 3, column 3
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.22 ns
AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita in 25 
OECD-nations. 

Beta (+0,2230)controlled for
-inflation
-unemployment
-country
-year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, Europe, 1973-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1210000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita: level
Page in Source Table 4
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GDP/capita at purchasing power parity (2000 
international dollars)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.77 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by real GDP/capita in nations
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb-fix=+.45 ns
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb-fix=+.19 p < .05
Country/wave fixed effects included
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+1.3 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyHagerty (2000): study ZZ Developed nations 1972
TitleSocial Comparison of Incomes in One's Community: Evidence from National Surveys of Income and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, Vol. 78, 764 - 771
PublicGeneral public, 8 developed countries, 1972-1994
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelMean income
Page in Source 769
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.21 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by GDP/pc

Beta controlled for:
- Country specific effects
- Income distribution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyHagerty & Veenhoven (2003): study ZZ World samples 1972
TitleWealth and Happiness Revisited. Growing National Income Does Go with Greater Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 1 - 27
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8672
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1024790530822
PublicAdutl general population in 21 nations, 1972-1996
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =9300000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage happiness and GDP/capita
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Economic affluence: Mean GDP/capita per year

Happiness: Average per year
Remarks
Data: World Database of happiness, Collection Happiness 
in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
ALL countries: beta= + 0.08

country fixed effects included
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
low gdp/capita countries: beta= + 0.010
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
medium gdp/capita countries: beta= + 0.006
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=+.00
high gdp/capita countries: beta= + 0.004


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (2005d): study ZZ EU 14 1970
TitleReturn of Inequality in Modern Society? Test by Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction across Time and Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 457 - 487
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7202
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-4
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 14 member states, 1973-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =374000

Correlate
Author's label1997 purchasing power p/c
Page in Source 479
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per capita in 1997
Remarks
Source: Human Development Report 1998. (United Nations 
Development Program)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.68
INEQUALITY in happiness by purchasing power p/c in 
61 nations

Inequality in happiness in nations measured using 
the standard deviation (average over the 1990s
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (1989b): study ZZ 1965
TitleNational Wealth and Individual Happiness.
SourceGrunert, K.G.;Olander, F.;Eds.: "Understanding Economic Behavior", Kluwer Academic, 1989, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 9 - 32
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16143
PublicAdults, general public, 9 nations, 1965
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10781

Correlate
Author's labelReal GNP per head 1961
Page in Source 15
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per head 1961
Remarks
Data are from Rosenstein-Rodan, 1961, except those for 
Great Britain, France, West Germany and Italy. For 
these countries GNP was estimated to bear the same 
proportion to the United States figure as thst shown by 
the geometric mean estimates by Gilbert et al., 1958, 
p. 36 extrapolated from 1955 to 1961 bvy the per-capita 
volume indexes in OECD, 1970, p. 11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.59
Country       Happiness   Real GNP per
                          head USD 1961

Great Britain   7,50          1777
United States   7,30          2790
West Germay     7,85          1860
Thailand        5,05           202
Japan           4,60           613
Philippines     5,00           282
Malaysia        5,10           552
France          4,70          1663
Italy           3,90          1077


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyEasterlin (1974): study ZZ 1965
TitleDoes Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceDavid, P.A.;Melvin, W.R.;Eds.: "Nations and Households in Economic Growth", Academic Press, 1974, New York, USA, 89 - 125.
PublicGeneral public, 9 nations, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10781

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic development
Page in Source 107
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per head 1961
Remarks
Data are from Rosenstein-Rodan, 1961, except those for 
Great Britain, France, West Germany and Italy. For 
these countries GNP was estimated to bear the same 
proportion to the United States figure as thst shown by 
the geometric mean estimates by Gilbert et al., 1958, 
p. 36 extrapolated from 1955 to 1961 bvy the per-capita 
volume indexes in OECD, 1970, p. 11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Country       Happiness   Real GNP per
                          head USD 1961

Great Britain   7,50          1777
United States   7,30          2790
West Germay     7,85          1860
Thailand        5,05           202
Japan           4,60           613
Philippines     5,00           282
Malaysia        5,10           552
France          4,70          1663
Italy           3,90          1077


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyVeenhoven (1989b): study ZZ 1957
TitleNational Wealth and Individual Happiness.
SourceGrunert, K.G.;Olander, F.;Eds.: "Understanding Economic Behavior", Kluwer Academic, 1989, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 9 - 32
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16143
Public18+ aged, general public, 14 nations, 1957-1962
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelWealth
Page in Source 16
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per head 1961

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyEasterlin (1974): study ZZ 1957
TitleDoes Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceDavid, P.A.;Melvin, W.R.;Eds.: "Nations and Households in Economic Growth", Academic Press, 1974, New York, USA, 89 - 125.
PublicAdults, general public, 14 nations, 1957-1962
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic development
Page in Source 105
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
Real GNP per head 1961

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
Country         Happiness   GNP (USD)  

United States    6.6          2790
Cuba             6.4           516
Egypt            5.5           225
Israël           5.3          1027
West Germany     5.3          1860
Japan            5.2           613
Yugoslavia       5.0           489
Phillipines      4.9           282
Panama           4.8           371
Nigeria          4.8           134
Brazil           4.6           375
Poland           4.4           702
India            3.7           140
Dominican Rep.   1.6           313
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Subject code: N04ac01b

StudyEasterlin (1995): study US 1972
TitleWill Raising the Incomes of All Increase the Happiness of All?
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1995, Vol. 27, 35 - 47
DOIdoi:10.1016/0167-2681(95)00003-B
Public18+ aged general public, USA followed bi annually, 1972-1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source 38
Our classificationPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), code N04ac01b
Operationalization
% annual change GDP per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb= ns
CHANGE AVERAGE HAPPPINESS by CHANGE in GDP/capita 
in the nation
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Gross National Product
Subject code: N04ac01c

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Page in Source 259
Our classificationGross National Product, code N04ac01c
Operationalization
Per capita GDP in 1,000s of U.S. dollars
Remarks
Penn World Tables (Heston, Summers, and Aten 2009)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GDP per capita in nation

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gross National Product
Subject code: N04ac01c

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment expenditures/GDP
Page in Source 51, 52
Our classificationGross National Product, code N04ac01c
Operationalization
The sum of gross value added by all resident producers 
in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any 
subsidies not included in the value of the products.
Remarks
Derived from the World Development Index (WDI) of The 
World Bank (year unknown)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.01 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by government expenditures in 
country of residence.

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gross National Product
Subject code: N04ac01c

StudyKim & Kim (2012): study ZZ 2000
TitleDoes Government Make People Happy?: Exploring New Research Directions for Government’s Roles in Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2012, Vol. 13, 875 - 899
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
Public15+ aged, general public, 131 nations, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP
Page in Source 898
Our classificationGross National Product, code N04ac01c
Operationalization
Log of GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=-.07 ns
AVERAGE happiness by logged GDP of 131 nations
B controlled for:
-Social trust
-Economy
  -investment price
  -openness
-Post communist
-Government
  -quantity of government
  -quality of government (Government 
Effectiveness; similar results when controlled for 
Regulatory Quality or Control of corruption)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gross National Product
Subject code: N04ac01c

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 79 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Page in Source Figure 12
Our classificationGross National Product, code N04ac01c
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Gross National Product
Subject code: N04ac01c

StudyEasterlin (2005a): study US 1972
TitleFeeding the Illusion of Growth and Happiness: A Reply to Hagerty and Veenhoven.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 429 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-6170-z
Public18+ aged general public, USA, 1972-2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend happiness and GDP/capita
Page in Source 431
Our classificationGross National Product, code N04ac01c
Operationalization
Economic affluence: Yearly GDP/capita

Happiness: same question asked over the years in 30 
surveys
Remarks
Data on average happiness: World Database of happiness, 
Collection Happiness in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=-.00 ns
AVERAGE happiness by GDP/pc over the years
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelLog of average household income in census tract
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Log of average household income in census tract
Error Estimatess.e.=0.08

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.19 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log other family members' income
- Log of personal income
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.18 p < .05
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Real Household post-government income per year in 
German Marks
Observed distributionM = 60.971

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.23 p < .02
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
- Gender
  - males         Beta = +.28
  - females       Beta = +.17 
- political preference
  - left          Beta = +.28
  - right         Beta = +.21
- employment
  - employee      Beta = +.20
  - self employed Beta = +.52
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04 p < .02
CURRENT happiness by PAST income
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.07 p < .02
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.06 p < .02
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02 p < .02
4 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE income (one year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.05 ns
income rose
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.20 ns
income declined

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- status
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelAverage income in nation
Page in Source Figure 3
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Average real income in nation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyDiener et al. (2012a): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleRising Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012, Vol. 104, 267 - 276
URLhttps://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-104-2-267.pdf
Public15+ aged general public, 135 nation followed at least 3 years, 2005-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =806526

Correlate
Author's labelAverage household income in nation
Page in Source 270-272
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Self reported household income in local currency
Remarks
Transformed to international dollarscalculated from the 
World Bank purchasing power parities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.79 p < .01
CURRENT AVERAGE happiness by CURRENT AVERAGE 
household income in nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tr=+
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
positive given:
PA: r = +.26 (01)
NA: r = -.08 (ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb-fix=+.70 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE AVERAGE 
household income in nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb-fix=+
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
positive given:
PA: b-fix = +.06 (01)
NA: b-fix = -.05 (01)

Similar pattern among rich and poor nations

Linear pattern, no attetuation of the correlation 
over the years

Cross-lagged analysis suffests causal effect of 
income change on change in happiness

Correlations greatly reduced (but still 
significant) when controled for simultaneous 
CHANGE in
- satisfaction with standard of living
- posession of metarial goods
- optimism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP per capita
Page in Source 27
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=12978 SD=13526,97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.52 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by log GDP per capita in 157 
nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=836).
- Without country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.65 p < .05
- With country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.94 p < .10
Countries with high delivery quality (greater than 
0) (n=336)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.31 ns
Countries with low delivery quality (lower than 0) 
(n=500)

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- year fixed effects

Similar patterns are obtained when b additionally 
controls for:
- Log GDP
- Healthy life expectancy
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support
- Regional fixed effects

A similar result is also obtained when a 
regression is conducted for 2005-2012 averages at 
the country level.

In sum: GDP per capita has a significantly 
positive effect on life satisfaction.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.5 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE democratic quality in 
147 nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=734).

b controls for:
- Confidence in the national government (Gallup)
- Country fixed effects
- Year fixed effects

Similar results are obtained when b additionally 
controls for:
- Democratic quality
- Delivery quality
- Healthy life expectancy
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelAnnaul income
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Annual household income from GWP was converted from the 
local currency into international dollars based on the 
World Bank's individual comsuption purchasing power 
parity conversion factor so to compare national income 
across the countries.
Observed distributionM=$15,672, Lowest 1,080 (Burundi), Highest 60,928 (Luxembourg)
Remarks
Data: World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.75 p < .01
AVERAGE household income by AVERAGE happiness in 
164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 2002
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 44 countries, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32463

Correlate
Author's labelAverage selfreported household income
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Effect of permanent income (estimated): scale up of  
regular coefficients by 1/0.55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.51
Beta controlled for:
- Age squared
- Sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelLog GDP per capita
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=14.239,40 SD=12.233,40
Remarks
PPP adjusted US$ (constant 2005)
Source: World Development Indicators, World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.69 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by log GDP per capita
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.37 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.47 p < .01
b controls for: 
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.42 p < .01
b controls for: 
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of 
economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.40 p < .01
b controls for: 
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.40 p < .01
b controls for: 
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.44 p < .01
b controls for: 
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.59 p < .01
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies

Similar results are obtained when economic freedom 
is instrumented by:
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks 
English as a mother tongue

In sum: Higher levels of GDP per capita are 
associated with higher average life satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,15,36
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
What is your household income, before tax or other 
deductions, from all sources?
1  : Less than 18.000 $ per annum
2  : $18.001-$24.000     
3  : $24.001-$34.000
4  : $34.001-$43.500
5  : $43.501-$54.000
6  : $54.001-$64.000
7  : $64.001-$76.500
8  : $76.501-$92.000
9  : $92.001-$115.000
10: more than $115.000
Remarks
Log income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.20 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL income in 
nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.39 p < .05
Stronger in nations with lower GDP
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.23 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE income in nation

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
    - self rated health
    - employment status
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - divorced
    - number of children
  - national charactereristics
    - average perception of
    - income inequality in country
    - trustwortiness of people
    - unemployment rate
    - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelGDP
Page in Source 94
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.06 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.00 p < .001
GDP squared

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in nation
Subject code: N04ac01d

StudyGehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleWho Benefits from Economic Freedom? Unraveling the Effect of Economic Freedom on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceWorld Development, 2013, Vol. 50, 74 - 90
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X13001150
DOIDOI:10/1016/j.worlddev.2013.05.003
Public18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's label Log GDP per capita
Page in Source 79
Our classificationAverage income in nation, code N04ac01d
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=14,758 SD=10,904

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.33
AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita in 79 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.61
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.51 p < .01
b controls for:
- social trust
- belief in God
- investment price level
- government share (% of GDP)
- regional dummies
- period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.39 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
- economic freedom

b is for pooled OLS with robust SE. Similar 
coefficients are obtained for a random effects 
model, and an autoregressive (1) random effects 
model.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.38
b is for fixed effects model.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.59
% VERY HAPPY (top 3 life satisfaction) by GDP per 
capita in 79 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income of similar people
Subject code: N04ac01da

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelReference income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationAverage income of similar people, code N04ac01da
Operationalization
Average household-equivalent income among compatriots 
of same sex, similar age and education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 ns
LATER (T+1) social reference income by CURRENT 
happiness (T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.13 ns
CURRENT (T) social reference income by CURRENT 
happiness (T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.32 p < .05
PAST (T-1)social reference income by CURRENT 
happiness (T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.09 ns
PAST (T-1) social reference income by CURRENT 
happiness (T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.17 ns
PAST (T-3) social reference income by CURRENT 
happiness (T)

Controlled for:
- wealth
- actual working hours
- employment situation
- kind of job
- age
- years of education
- hospital stay (dummy)
- number of adults & children in the household
- marital situation
- living region
- type of household


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study JP 1958
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, Japan, 1958-2007
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelChange GDP/capita
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% yearly change in GDP/capita (log) at purchasing power 
parity (in 2000 international dollars)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.24 p < .05
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE GDP/capita

b controlled for:
- unemployment rate
- dummies for each different question
Set Image size:   

O-SLW---sq-nt-11-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyEasterlin (2005c): study JP 1958
TitleDiminishing Marginal Utility of Income? A Caveat.
SourceSocial Indicators Research; 70: 243-255
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/27522165
Public18+ aged general public, Japan, 1958-1987
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP/capita
Page in Source 249
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Real gdp/capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-7-ab=+.07 ns
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/pc in Japan

The figure below contrasts the cross-national 
pattern of wealth/happiness observed in the 1980's 
with the change in average happiness over time in 
Japan (which experiuende much economic growth over 
these years)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2006
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, 2006-2015
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 32
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Real GDP per capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+2.6 ns
AVERAGE happiness in years by real GDP per capita 
in years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudySlag (2017): study KR 1981 /1
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, 1981-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 32
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Change of real GDP per capita per year (ln)
Remarks
Year observations: 1981, 1990, 1996, 2001, 2005, 2010

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.54 ns
AVERAGE happiness in years by GDP in years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.17 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness in years by GDP in years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudySlag (2017): study KR 1981
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, 1981-2015
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 32
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Real GDP per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
X-X-X-X-1-ab=+.89 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness in year by real GDP (ln) in 
year, long differences (first + last observation 
of happiness measures only)
X-X-X-X-1-ab=+.00 p < .01
b = +0.00006
AVERAGE happiness in year by real GDP in year, 
long differences (first + last observation of 
happiness measures only)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyCampbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleWell-Being and the labour Market from a Global View: It's not Just the Money
SourceGlatzer, W.; Camfield, L.; Moller, V.; Rojas, M.; Eds.: "Global Handbook of Quality of Life" , Springer Science+Buisiness Media, 2014, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 351 - 379
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-017-9178-6_15
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26723

Correlate
Author's label% GDP Growth
Page in Source 358-359
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% GDP Growth
Remarks
Source: Inter-American Development Bank, 2011

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-
AVREAGE happiness by economic growth in 27 EU 
nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyDeaton (2008): study ZZ 2006
TitleIncome, Health and Wellbeing around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2008, Vol. 22, 53 - 72
DOIDOI:10.1257/jep.22.2.53
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =132000

Correlate
Author's labelGrowth rate of GDP 1990-2000
Page in Source 61, 64
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Growth rate of the logarithm of per capita Gross 
Domestic Product
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables version 6.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-2,7 ns
Without the countries of the former Sovjet Union, 
N=111

B controled for:
- growth rate income 2000-2003
- logatithm of income 2003

B similar across age groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyDeaton (2008): study ZZ 2006
TitleIncome, Health and Wellbeing around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2008, Vol. 22, 53 - 72
DOIDOI:10.1257/jep.22.2.53
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =132000

Correlate
Author's labelGrowth rate of GDP 2000-2003
Page in Source 61, 64
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Growth rate of the logarithm of per capita Gross 
Domestic Product
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables version 6.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-3.3 p < .05
ALL countries, N=123
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-1,9 ns
Without the countries of the former Sovjet Union, 
N=111

B additionaly controled for:
- economic growth 1990-2000
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-6.1 p < .00
ALL countries, N=120

B additionaly controled for:
- life expectance 2005
- change in life expectancy from 1990-2005
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-5,0 p < .01
Among POOR countries, income < $12.000, N=83

B additionaly controled for:
- life expectance 2005
- change in life expectancy from 1990-2005
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-8,5 ns
Among NOT POOR countries, income > $12.000, N=37

B additionaly controled for:
- life expectance 2005
- change in life expectancy from 1990-2000 

All B's controled for:
- logatithm of income 2003

Higher growth of income denotes lower life 
satisfaction

B's similar across age groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyDiener et al. (2012a): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleRising Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012, Vol. 104, 267 - 276
URLhttps://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-104-2-267.pdf
Public15+ aged general public, 135 nation followed at least 3 years, 2005-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =806526

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source 270
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Real gdp/capita at purchsing power (international 
dollars)
Remarks
Yearly data taken from International Monitary Fund (IMF 
2011)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.79 p < .01
CURRENT AVERAGE happiness by CURRENT real GDP in 
nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tr=+
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
positive given:
PA: r = +.29 (01)
NA: r = -.04 (ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+1.7 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE real GDP in 
nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tBeta=0
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
negible given:
PA: Beta = +.06 (ns)
NA: Beta = -.06 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyDiener et al. (2012a): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleRising Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012, Vol. 104, 267 - 276
URLhttps://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-104-2-267.pdf
Public15+ aged general public, 135 nation followed at least 3 years, 2005-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =806526

Correlate
Author's labelAverage household income in nation
Page in Source 270-272
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Self reported household income in local currency
Remarks
Transformed to international dollarscalculated from the 
World Bank purchasing power parities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.79 p < .01
CURRENT AVERAGE happiness by CURRENT AVERAGE 
household income in nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tr=+
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
positive given:
PA: r = +.26 (01)
NA: r = -.08 (ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb-fix=+.70 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE AVERAGE 
household income in nation
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb-fix=+
Correlation with ABS not reported but will be 
positive given:
PA: b-fix = +.06 (01)
NA: b-fix = -.05 (01)

Similar pattern among rich and poor nations

Linear pattern, no attetuation of the correlation 
over the years

Cross-lagged analysis suffests causal effect of 
income change on change in happiness

Correlations greatly reduced (but still 
significant) when controled for simultaneous 
CHANGE in
- satisfaction with standard of living
- posession of metarial goods
- optimism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelGDP growth per year
Page in Source 51
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices 
based on constant local currency.
Remarks
Derived from the World Development Index (WDI) of The 
World Bank (year unknown)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.01 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by growth rate in country of 
residence.

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual average GDP-growth rate 1990-1999
Page in Source 64/65/72
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Annual average GDP-growth rate in last 10 years.
Observed distributionRange: -10.8 %(Ukraine) to +7,9%(Rep. Ireland).
Remarks
Source: World Bank 2001, available for 29 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.66
Average life-satisfaction by annual GDP-growth 
rate 1990-1999 in 29 nations (bivariate).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.37 p < .00
Beta controlled for GDP per capita; R²=0,90.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12 p < .05
B controlled for: 
-at individual level:
 -gender
 -employment status
 -marital status
 -age
 -age squared
 -social class
 -income
-at country level:
 -GDP per capita
 -income inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 514
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
percentage growth per capita over the 5 preceding years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.33 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Employment status
  -Age
  -Children
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country variables
  -log of GDP pc
  -Hapiness in  the country (dummies for 
below/above average)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP growth rate
Page in Source 529
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=2,69 SD=4,46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ar=+.43
AVERAGE happiness by GDP growth rate in 65 nations
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .001
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.02 ns
b additionally controls for:
-inflation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.33
AVERAGE life satisfacton by GDP growth rate in 76 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05 p < .05
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-openness (closed=0)

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of 
military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-openness
-years of openness (the number of years a country 
has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate 
relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly 
on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes 
Eastern Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP growth
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
%GDP-growth per year, averaged data for the 1990s.
Observed distributionM = 1,02; SD = 3,14; Range: -9,38 - +8,47.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.02 p < .01
Average happiness by GDP-growth in 68 nations

B controlled for:(step 1)
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.01 ns
B addionally controlled for: (step 2)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.02 p < .10
B addionally controlled for: (step 3)
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 p < .01
Average life-satisfaction by GDP-growth in 68 
nations.

B controlled for:(step 1)
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.11 p < .01
B addionally controlled for: (step 2)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 p < .01
B addionally controlled for: (step 3)
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBartolini et al. (2009a): study ZZ 1986
TitleSociability predicts Happiness: World-wide Evidence from Time Series.
SourcePaper no. 579, University of Siena, Department of Economics, 2009, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/usi/wpaper/579.html
Public18+ aged, general public, 19 countries, 1986-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in GDP
Page in Source 4, 7
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Remarks
GDP data are drawn from World Development Indicators 
2008 and are expressed in constant 2000US$

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE in GDP in 19 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
All 19 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
14 developed nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
5 developing nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
All 19 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
14 developed nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
5 developing nations

similar results obtained in trivariate OLS 
regression analysis with extreme points of data 
and bivariate OLS regression analysis without 
taking social capital into account
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyDiener et al. (1993): study ZZ World samples 1984
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079018
Public18+ aged students, 39 countries, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18032

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 214
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Economic growth 1980-1985
Remarks
Data not available for Puerto Rico

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.08 ns
All countries
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=-.37 p < .01
Portugal ommitted
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-hr=-.24 ns
All countries
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-hr=-.45 p < .01
Portugal ommitted


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyEasterlin (2016): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleParadox Lost?
SourceIZA DP,2016, No. 9676, 1 - 36, California, USA
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9676.pdf
Public18+ aged general public in 58 nations, followed 1981-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400000

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual growth rate of GDP/capita
Page in Source 25-28
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% annual growth GDP percapita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 p < .01
CHANGE GDP per capita by CHANGE AVERAGE happiness 
in nations

All 58 countries (209 nation/year observations)
b = +.01070 (01) unadjusted
b = +.00685 (01) adjusted
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 p < .76
43 nations: 15 growth only countries left out 
b = +.00097 (adjusted)
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
21 developed countries only (104 nation/year 
observations)
b = +.00508 (ns) unadjusted
b = +.00205 (ns) adjusted
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
14 developing countries only (41 nation/year 
observations)
b = +.00185 (ns) unadjusted
b = +.00163 (ns) adjusted
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
8 transition countries only (41 nation/year 
observations)
b = +.00421 (ns) unadjusted
b = +.00143 (ns) adjusted
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
'Adjusted'' values based on corrections of average 
happiness for differnces in:
- labeling of scale extremes
- place of question in questionaire (after 
financial satisfaction or not)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyEasterlin & Angelescu McVey (2009): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleHappiness and Growth the World Over: Time Series Evidence on the Happiness-Income Paradox.
SourceDiscussion Paper IZA, No. 4060, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLHTTP://ftp.iza.org/dp4060.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World samples, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =195

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual growth of GDP
Page in Source 19-26
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Annual growth rate of GDP

A Long-term  (12-22 years;mean=15)
B Short-term  (mean=7.6 years)
Remarks
A 17 developed nations: Denmark, France, Italy, Canada, 
Germany, Belgium, Portugal, N.Ireland, Ireland, 
Luxemburg, Norway, Netherlands, Greece, Australia, 
United Kingdom
B   9 developing nations: South Africa, Brazil, 
Argentina, Mexico, Turkey Chili, S. Korea, Japan, China
C 11 transition nations: Russia, Lithuania, Letland, 
Estonia, Hungary, Bulgary, Czechia, Poland, Slovakia, 
East Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.01 ns
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by annual growth GDP 
in 19 developed nations R2=0.006
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.17 ns
A Long-term effect in 9 developing countries 
R2=0.168
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.23 ns
A Long-term effect in 11 transition nations 
R2=0.229
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.07 ns
A Long-term effect in all 47 nations R2=0.069
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.74 p < .05
B Short-term effect in 11 transition nations (GDP 
growth and decline separately)
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.63 p < .05
Short and longterm effect in all nations (in 
transition nations GDP growth and decline 
separarted)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, 61 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita: Long difference
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Change GDP over time; difference in first and last wave
Observed distribution49 within country differences
Remarks
The World Values Survey involved 5 waves between 
1981-2004. Not all countries participated in all waves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.31 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE GDP/pc in 
nations
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.11 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.56 p < .01
CHANGE INDIVIDUAL happiness by CHANGE in GDP/pc in 
nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-cb=+.31 p < .05
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 79 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source Table 2+ table 3
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
a) Change in Real GDP/capita (log)
b) Real GDP/capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab-fix=+.51 p < .01
a) CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE purchasing 
power in nation

All 79 countries (166 nation/year observations)
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab-fix=+.63 p < .05
a) CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE purchasing 
power in nation

10 transition countries only (31 nation/year 
observations)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab-fix=+.41 p < .01
a) CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE purchasing 
power in nation

66 non-transition countries only (135 nation/year 
observations)

Similar results when only the difference between 
the first and last observation is considered

b's controled for
- country fixed effects
- wave fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.37 p < .01
b) Real GDP/capita

Beta controlled for:
- Age squared
- Sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, 61 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in real GDP
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-14-a
Set Image size:   

O-Sum---mq-*-14-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyOuweneel (1987): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleGeluk volgt Welvaart. (Happiness Follows Welfare).
SourceEconomische Statistische Berichten, 1987, nr. 3622, 840 - 842
PublicAdults, general public, EU 9 member states, 1975-1986
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =9000

Correlate
Author's labelRelations between fluctuations in GNP and happiness
Page in Source 841, 842
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% Change GDP
a In same year
b Over last year
c Over last two years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=
% Change happiness by % change GDP in same year
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.30
Belgium
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.30
Denmark
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.29
West Germany
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.73
United Kingdom
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.13
France
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.06
Ireland
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.28
Italy
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.19
Luxemburg
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.12
The Netherlands
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.12
All 9 EC nations

No correlations between change in GDP and change 
in happinesss in same year
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b
% Change happiness by % change GDP over last  year
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bD%=
All 9 EC nations, 1979-1986

Increase/decrease in happiness comes one year 
after increase/decrease in wealth growth
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.88
Belgium
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.52
Denmark
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.04
West Germany
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.42
United Kingdom
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.47
France
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.34
Ireland
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.70
Italy
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.65
Luxemburg
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.40
The Netherlands
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.56
All 9 EC nations

Positive correlations between change in GDP over 
last year and change in happiness.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=
No correlations between:
- change in GDP two years earlier and change in 
happiness
- change in happiness and change in GDP one year 
later
- change in happiness and change in GDP two years 
later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ EU 27 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public15+ aged, 29 EU nations, 2007-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP growth rate
Page in Source 174
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Change in purchasing power p/c 2007-2010
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.34 p < .10
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE GDP the year 
before in 29 nations 2007-2010.

B controled for:
- legal quality
- social trust
- postcommunist
- government size
- investment price
- recession
- interaction growth x recession

Random effect analysis
Fixed effect similar (B = +.53)

Unaffected by crisis (negative growth compared to 
foregoing year).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ EU 27 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public15+ aged, 29 EU nations, 2007-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelCrisis
Page in Source 174
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Number of years that average income declined.
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 p < .05
CHANGE average happiness in 29 nations 2007-2010, 
by decline in average income in the previous year.

B controled for:
- GDP growth rate
- legal quality
- social trust
- postcommunist
- openness
- government size
- investment price
- interaction growth x recession

Random effect analysis
Fixed effect similar (B = -.03)

Unaffected by growth.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP growth rate
Page in Source 174
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Annual growth rate adjusted for differences in 
purchasing power
Observed distributionM = 0,022 SD = 0,043
Remarks
Data: national accounts data in the Penn World Tables

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.55 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by economic growth in 
nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.31 (.1)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.53 p < .01
B additionally controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.33 (.1)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.15 ns
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by interaction variable 
Growth*crisis in nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Growth rate
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelCrisis
Page in Source 174,176
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Crisis = episodes  in which the year-to-year change in 
purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita is negative
Remarks
Data: national accounts data in the Penn World Tables

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.04 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by economic crisis in 
nations.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations


Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.03 
(.05)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.03 
(.05)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 p < .01
No significant change, when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.20 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Legal quality
- Legal quality*crisis

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.19 
(.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Social trust
- Social trust*crisis

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.09 
(.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 ns
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Government size
- Government size*crisis

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.03 
(.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.18 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Regulations
- Regulations*crisis

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.15 (.1)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.04 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Government ideology
- Ideology*crisis

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.04 
(.05)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.15 ns
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by INTERACTION VARIABLES 


Growth*crisis in nations.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Growth rate
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis 

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.10 (ns)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.02 p < .01
Legal quality*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Legal quality
- Crisis 

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.021 
(.05)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.17 p < .01
Social trust*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Social trust
- Crisis 

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.166 
(.05)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 ns
Government size*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Government size
- Crisis 

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = -.04 (ns)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.02 p < .05
Regulations*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Crisis
- Regulations

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.018 
(.1)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 ns
Ideology*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Crisis
- Government ideology

Random effects model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelGDP Growth
Page in Source 29
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Year-to-year change in GDP per capita (=GDP per 
capita(t)- GDP per capita (t-1))

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+1.1 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by GDP growth in the nation 
OPRC (+1.098) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 65
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Average annual growth of the Gross Domestic 
Product(GDP)between 1980 and 1987
Remarks
Retrieved from the world Development Report 1989(World 
Bank, 1989)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.30 ns
Average happiness by economic growth in 23 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008b): study ZZ EU 15 1973
TitleAnalysing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973 - 2002.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 317 - 330
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9055-4
Public16+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1973-2002.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP-change in same period, absolute and relative
Page in Source 322-24
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Average GDP-change per capita (as %GDP) in 4-year 
periods
Observed distributionAverage GDP-change in 180 periods: +0,09%, SD 0,09 Average GDP-change in 173 periods relative to GDP-change in preceding periods: -0,08, SD 2,81
Remarks
Source: World Bank.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.09 ns
CHANGE in average happiness in 128 4-year periods 
by CHANGE in GDP in the same periods.

Beta controlled for:
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 2 
years before (2-year overlap)
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 4 
years before (no overlap)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.15 p < .10
Beta additionally controlled for GDP-change 
relative to change in preceding period (116 
4-year-periods).
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.29 p < .01
CHANGE in average happiness in 116 4-year-periods 
by CHANGE in GDP relative to GDP in preceding 
periods.

Beta controlled for:
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 2 
years before (2-year overlap)
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 4 
years before (no overlap)
-GDP-change in same period.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
CHANGE in average happiness in 115 4-year-periods 
by CHANGE in GDP relative to GDP in 
neighbour-nations in the same periods.

Beta controlled for:
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 2 
years before (2-year overlap)
-change in happiness in 4-year period starting 4 
years before (no overlap)
-GDP-change in same period.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudySacks et al. (2010): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleSubjective well-being, income, economic development and growth.
SourceWorking Paper 2010-28, FRBSF, 2010, San Francisco, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w16441
Public18+ aged general public, 31 countries, 1973-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% change real GDP/capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.17 p < .01
CHANGE average happiness in nations per decade by 
CHANGE GDP/pc over 35 years

Beta controlled for:
- country/wave fixed effects
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, Europe, 1973-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1210000

Correlate
Author's labelChange GPD/capita first differences
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% change GDP/pc in nation
Remarks
Data were averaged in 5-year periods: 1973-77, 1978-82, 
1983-87, 1988-92, 1993-97, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.58 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE GDP/pc
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.11 ns
Simmilar results when differences across decades 
are considered (1970's, 1980 ..etc)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyEasterlin et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1971
TitleThe Happiness-Income Paradox Revisited.
SourceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2010, Vol. 107, 22463 - 22468
DOIDOI:10.1073/pnas.1015962107/-DCSuplemental
Public18+ aged general public, 37 nations followed 12-34 years, 1971-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source 22463-22464
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% annual growth GDP
Observed distributionRange: -6% to +10%
Remarks
Range periods considered: 12 to 34 years, average 22 
yearss

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE GDP in 37 
nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyVeenhoven & Vergunst (2014): study ZZ World samples 1946
TitleThe Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with Greater Happiness.
SourceInt. Journal Happiness and Development, 2014, Vol. 1, 311 - 343
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub2010s/EasterlinIllusion11c.pdf
PublicAdult general population 67 nations followed 10 to 40 years 1946 to 2011
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source tabels 3 and 4
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
% annual change in GDP/capita
Remarks
Data World bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-aOR=2,14 p < .05
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE GDP p/c in 
nations: 

Ratio of: rise/decline happiness by strong/medium 
economic growth, as observed in 199 time series 
CI95[+1,29 to +4,18)
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ar=+.20 p < .05
All 199 time-series: CI95 [+.08 to +.34]
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00
b = +.0034
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ar=+.21
114 10-20 years time-series: CI95[+.05 to +.50]
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.01
b = +.0063
Set Image size:   

M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ar=+.21 p < .05
67 20-40 year time series. CI95 [+.05 to +.50]
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ar=+.20 ns
18 >40 years time-series: CI95[-.03 to +.61]
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00 p < .05
b = +.0048
Set Image size:   

M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.01
20 time series in lower middle income countries
b = +.0117
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00
56 time series in upper middel income countries
b = +,0034
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00
123 time series in high income countries
b = +.0029
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00
57 time series with smooth economic growth
b = +.0054
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00
80 time series with medium smotth economic growth
b = +.0032
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.00
62 time series with bumpy economic growth
b = +,0061

All b's reflect effect of 1% economic growth on 
gain in points happiness on scale 0-10

Similar patterns when change in particular nations 
is considered


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyFischer (2008): study US 1972
TitleWhat Wealth-Happiness Paradox? A Short Note on the American Case.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 219 - 226
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9047-4
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =48000

Correlate
Author's labelChange GDP per capita
Page in Source 2, 5
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Gross Domestic Product in 2000 US$
Remarks
Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
(http://www.bea.gov/bea/dn/home/gdp.htm), divided by 
annual population

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
CHANGE average happiness by CHANGE GDP:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.07
1972-2004
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.01
exclusion of 2002 because of depressive effects 6 
months after 9/11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.22
recommended exclusion of 1972 because it is first 
in the series
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.16
both excluded: 1972 & 2002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline
Subject code: N04ac02

StudyEasterlin (2005c): study US 1972
TitleDiminishing Marginal Utility of Income? A Caveat.
SourceSocial Indicators Research; 70: 243-255
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/27522165
Public18+ aged general public, USA, 1972-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =46000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source 251
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline, code N04ac02
Operationalization
Real GDP/capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.01 ns
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/pc in USA

The picture below contrasts the change in 
happiness expected on the basis of 
income/happiness correlational with the observed 
change in happiness over time
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE East Germany 1991
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, general public, East Germany, followed 1- 14 years, Germany, 1991-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48688

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 36 (appendix)
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Official price index measures for West Germany and East 
Germany of Statistisches Bundesamt (2007).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-2.0 p < .01
B not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /1
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, followed 1-21 years, Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205410

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 36(appendix)
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Official price index measures for West Germany and East 
Germany of Statistisches Bundesamt (2007).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+4.8 ns
B not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /2
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, Turkish immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15520

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 37 (appendix)
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Official price index measures for West Germany and East 
Germany of Statistisches Bundesamt (2007).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+4.0 ns
B not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, European immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =24930

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 37 (appendix)
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Official price index measures for West Germany and East 
Germany of Statistisches Bundesamt (2007).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=5.77 p < .10
B not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyWalsh (2012): study ZZ EU 27 2004 /1
TitleThe Influence of Macro-Economic Conditions and Institutional Quality on National Levels of Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking Paper 12/08, UCD Centre for Economic Research, 2012, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://researchrepository.ucd.ie/bitstream/handle/10197/3720/WP12_08.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 23 European nations, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 14, Table 2
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.02 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by institutional quality 
(inflation) in 23 nations.

b (-0,0177) controlled for:
-Unemployment rate
-Corruption
-GDP per capita
(with Turkey, 232 observations in 2004-2011)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.02 p < .01
b (-0,0226) additionally controlled for:
-Income-inequality (Gini)
(without Turkey, 196 observations in 2004-2010)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual CPI
Page in Source 51
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index
Remarks
Derived from the World Development Index (WDI) of The 
World Bank (year unknown)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.03 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by inflation rate in country 
of residence.

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 11, 12
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Remarks

Data: Eurostat

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.03 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by inflation in nation
1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.05 p < .001
2008

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
-National characteristics:
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Unemployment 
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits
2008 includes additional control: decentralization

Slightly different results when different 
variables were controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 60
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Annual percentage increase in consumer price index 
(CPI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.03 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by inflation rate in 17 
nations

OPRC (-0.3158) controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
-Individual Level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - maximum inflation rate experienced(age 18+)
  
Trade-off with unemployment 
(unemployment/inflation):7.2 (B with inflation 
-0.32)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelSound money
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
A: Money growth
B: Standard deviation of inflation
C: Inflation: most recent year
D: Freedom to own foreign currency bank accounts

Ranges from 1 (least free) to 10 (most free).
Remarks
Part of Economic Freedom Index  (Fraser Institute: 
Gwartney, Hall, & Lawson, 2011).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by sound money
In 87 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .01
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 ns
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)
b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-regional dummies
-period dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study ZZ EU 12 1992
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, EU 12 member states, 1975-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =104000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 2027, 2029, 2032
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Inflation rate
Observed distributionN=69, M=0,080, SD=0,058, Range=-0,007-0,245

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Inflation rate in NATION by INDIVIDUAl happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.0 p < .05
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.7 ns
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.3 p < .05
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.7 p < .05
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.4 p < .05
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled for:
- personal characteristics
  - employment satus
  - gender
  - age 
  - educational level
  - marital status
  - number of children
  - income 
  - race
- inequality of incomes in nation
- unemployment rate in nation

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that the negative 
effect is larger among rich and political right 
individuals.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 530
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.21 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by inflation in 65 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.10 p < . ns
b additionally controls for:
-Militarism index
-Lation America dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.19 p < .001
AVERAGE life satisfaction by inflation in 76 
nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.40 ns
b additionally controls for:
-Eastern Europe dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of 
military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-openness
-years of openness (the number of years a country 
has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern European dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate 
relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly 
on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes 
Eastern Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyHessami (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1990
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 2009, University of Konstanz, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hessami_z_2009.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153268

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 18+15, 2x model 5
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Growth rate of Consumer Price Index
Remarks
OECD Key Economic Indicators

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 p < .01
Individual happiness by national inflation rate

Beta controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - sexe
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - marital status
  - education
  - employment status
  - number of children
- national level
  - unemployment rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures
  - public health expenditures

Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,012


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 7,17
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
% cumulation in the 1990s.
Observed distributionM = 84,22; SD = 200,21; Range: 1,21 - 876,06.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
Average happiness by Inflation in 68 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
Average life-satisfaction by Inflation in 68 
nations.

B's controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate

Unaffected by additional control for:
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 31
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Inflation, % per year (period?)
Observed distributionN = 75 M = 15,03 Range -0,09 to 242,31 SD = 33,28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.23 ns
% happy by inflation in 33 nations.

B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-trade openness
-post communist
-associational activity in nation
-social norms in nation
-social trust in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyLeite Mota & Trigo Pereira (2008): study ZZ OECD member states 1981
TitleHappiness, Economic Well-Being, Social Capital and the Quality of Institutions.
SourceWorking Paper no 40, 2008, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon, Portugal
URLhttp://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~depeco/wp/wp402008.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states, 1981-2001.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31904

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 14
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
AVERAGE happiness by inflation rate in nation, no 
controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.03 ns
B controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP
  -Unemployment
  -Confidence in police
  -GovDo (governance quality; Simple average of 4
   World Bank governance indicators: Government 
   Effectiveness,Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law 
   and Control of Corruption.)
  -social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelInflation rate
Page in Source 29
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Rate of change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Remarks
Data: OECD Historical Statistics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.76 p < .10
INDIVIDUAL happiness by inflation rate in the 
nation 
OPRC (-0.755) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 member states, Western Europe, 1975
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12996

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 154
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Rate of inflation per country over 5 years (1970-1975).
Data drawn from Kurian (1979:89).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-3-ar=+.10 ns
                  M happiness    Inflation index
Great Britain        1.95             215 
France               1.89             168
W-Germany            1.89             141
Italy                1.61             200
Belgium              2.27             163
The Netherlands      2.22             165
Luxembourg           2.03             156
Denmark              2.54             170
Ireland              1.88             220


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 nations and regions, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 154
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
Rate of inflation per country over 5 years (1970-1975). 

Data drawn from Kurian (1979:89).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=-.08 ns
                  Mt happiness     Inflation
Australia             7.0             185
USA                   6.7             147
Canada                7.0             153
Great Britain         6.8             215
France                5.8             168
W-Germany             6.6             141
Italy                 5.6             200
Benelux               6.0             164
Scandinavia           7.6             173
Brasil                6.2             254
Mexico                6.2             204
Africa (South
of the Sahara)        4.6             217
India                 3.4             161
Japan                 5.8             188


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyBlanchflower (2007): study ZZ EU 20 1973
TitleIs Unemployment more Costly than Inflation?
SourceNBER Working Paper no 13505, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/blanchflower_dg_2007a.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 20, Multiple nations, 1973
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =680000

Correlate
Author's labelNational inflation rate
Page in Source 27, t5, col4; Page 29, t6, col1,2
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization
National inflation rate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL Happiness by inflation;

All 20 NATIONS; 
N = 743.397
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.04 p < .05
13 RICH NATIONS Average GDP: 28,777$
N = 597,246
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.04 p < .05
7 POOR NATIONS Average GDP: 9,947$
N = 143,157


Beta' s controlled for:
-unemployment
-age
-age squared
-gender
-schoolling
-marital status
-labour force status
-year
-country trends.

Similar results with OLRC.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inflation
Subject code: N04ac03

StudyBlanchflower (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 1973
TitleIs Unemployment more Costly than Inflation?
SourceNBER Working Paper no 13505, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/blanchflower_dg_2007a.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 1973
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =743397

Correlate
Author's labelInflation
Page in Source 23, table 3, column 3
Our classificationInflation, code N04ac03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by inflation in 25 OECD nations. 


Beta (-0,0062) controlled for
-unemployment
-GDP per capita
-country
-year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study XZ Germany West 1985 /1
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicEmployed females, Germany 1985-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 31
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
% unemployment rate of the working force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by UNEMPLOYMENT RATE in 10 
states over 15 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03
Among five states of Germany (Berlin, Hessen, 
North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg, Bavaria)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04
Among five states of Germany (Schleswig-Holstein, 
Lower Saxony, Bremen, Rhineland-Pfalz, Baden 
Wurttemberg)

B controlled for individual variables (which ar 
enot reported)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2007): study DE 1992
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/61949/diw_sp0032.pdf
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =152411

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 9
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Unemployment
Remarks
Data unemployment rate: German Federal Labor office
Unemployment rate 2005 is adjusted for one-off 
statistical effects associated with merging different 
welfare programs

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Average happiness in nation by unemployment over 
the years

Life satisfaction and the unemployment rate 
generally move in opposite directions
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE East Germany 1991
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, general public, East Germany, followed 1- 14 years, Germany, 1991-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48688

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate East-Germany
Page in Source 436, 36 (appendix)
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Proportion of respondents in the labor force who were 
not employed.
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR), which was reunited in 
1990 with the BRD (former West-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+2.4 p < .10
B not controlled
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.20 ns
B controlled for:
- household income
- satisfaction with income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyGalatzer-Levy et al. (2010): study DE 1984
TitleFrom Marianthal to Latent Growth Mixture Modeling: A Return to the Exploration of Individual Differences in Response to Unemployment.
SourceJournal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2010, Vol. 3, 116 - 125
DOIDOI: 10.1037/a0020077
Public21-60 aged unemployed, before and after jobloss, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response30-40%
Respondents N =774

Correlate
Author's labelNational unemployment rate
Page in Source 121
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Unemployment rate around jobloss in:
a: nation (Germany)
b: region (Land in Germany)
Error EstimatesSame year: national s.e.= .05; regional s.e.= .03 Unemployment rate year before unemployment: national: s.e.=.02; regional s.e.=.02

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.05 p < .05
NATIONAL unemployment rate
- in year before jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.05 ns
- in year of jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.06 p < .05
REGIONAL umemployment rate
- in year before jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.03 ns
REGIONAL umemployment rate
-in year of jobloss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /1
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, followed 1-21 years, Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205410

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate West-Germany
Page in Source 437, 36(appendix)
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Proportion of respondents in the labor force who are 
not currently employed.
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-7.0 p < .01
B not controlled
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-2.2 ns
B controlled for:
- Household income
- Satisfaction with income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /2
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, Turkish immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15520

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate in West-Germany
Page in Source 441, 37 (appendix)
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Proportion of respondents in the labor force who are 
not currently employed.
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-2.6 p < .01
B not controlled
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.98 ns
B controlled for:
- Satisfaction with income
- Household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, European immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =24930

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment in West-Germany
Page in Source 442, 37 (appendix)
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Proportion of respondents in the labor force who are 
not currently employed
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-2.0 p < .10
B not controlled
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.23 ns
B controlled for:
- Household income
- Satisfaction with income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudySachs (2016): study ZZ 2015
TitleHappiness and Sustainable Development: Concepts and Evidence.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.1, 56 - 65 , New York, USA
URLhttp://worldhappiness.report/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/03/HR-V1Ch4_web.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 119 nations, 2015-2016
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =199000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 62
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
From IEF dataset.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.04 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by unemployment rate.

b controled for
- sustainable development goals index 
- global competitiveness index 2015-2016
- index of economic freedom 2016
- GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyCampbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleWell-Being and the labour Market from a Global View: It's not Just the Money
SourceGlatzer, W.; Camfield, L.; Moller, V.; Rojas, M.; Eds.: "Global Handbook of Quality of Life" , Springer Science+Buisiness Media, 2014, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 351 - 379
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-017-9178-6_15
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26723

Correlate
Author's labelNational unemployment rates
Page in Source 354,363-64,366
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Unemployment rates
Remarks
Source: ILO global employment trends,2011

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.35
AVREAGE happiness by unemployment rate in 27 EU 
nations
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.07
Beta controlled for:
- Income inequality
- Gender inequality
- Collective bargaining coverage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyMutz (2015): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006
TitleChristmas and Subjective Well-Being: a Research Note.
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2015, Published Online, 1 - 26
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-015-9441-8
Public15+ aged, general public, 11 EU nations, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2057

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 24,25
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
1 = yes
0 = no
Observed distributionyes = 7,0 % no = 92,9 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1,2 p < .01
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hb=-.29 p < .01
b's controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- children at home
- subjective health
- time of interview

Unaffected by  additional control for
- christian denomination
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate in nation
Page in Source 9,10
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Data: OECD

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-
AVERAGE happiness, by unemployment rate.
Correlation coeffcient not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment rate of older
Page in Source 12,13
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Data: OECD

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness, by employment rate of older.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 259
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Remarks
Data: OECD (2011)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.04 p < .10
INDIVIDUAL happiness by unemployment rate in 
nation

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyWalsh (2012): study ZZ EU 27 2004 /1
TitleThe Influence of Macro-Economic Conditions and Institutional Quality on National Levels of Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking Paper 12/08, UCD Centre for Economic Research, 2012, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://researchrepository.ucd.ie/bitstream/handle/10197/3720/WP12_08.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 23 European nations, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 14, Table 2
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .001
AVERAGE happiness by institutional quality 
(unemployment) in 23 nations.

b (-0,0146)controlled for:
-Corruption
-Inflation
-GDP per capita
(with Turkey, 232 observations in 2004-2011)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .05
b (-0,0125) additionally controlled for:
-Income-inequality (Gini)
(without Turkey, 196 observations in 2004-2010)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 51, 52
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
The share of the labor force that is without work but 
available for and seeking employment.
Remarks
Derived from the World Development Index (WDI) of The 
World Bank (year unknown)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.01 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by unemploymenr tate in 
country of residence.

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year

Interaction unemployment rate*France: B:+.16(001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 11, 12
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
 End of year unemployment level
Remarks
Data: Eurostat

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.10 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by unemployment rate in 
nation
1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 ns
2008

B's controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
-National characteristics:
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits
2008 additionally controlled for:
  -Health
  -Decentralization

Slightly different results when different 
variables were controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelMaximum inflation experienced
Page in Source 60
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Highest annual inflation experienced by an individual 
during his adult life (age 18+)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.00 p < .10
OPRC (-0.0005) controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
-Individual level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - employment status
  - marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 60
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Open unemployment rate (Same definition of OECD 
countries)
Remarks
119 country-year observations
World Development Indicators (WDI) 1960-2008 World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-2.2 p < .10
INDIVIDUAL happiness by unemployment rate in 17 
nations

OPRC (-2.2626) controlled for:
-Country level:
  - inflation rate
-Individual Level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - maximum inflation rate experienced(age 18+)
  
Trade-off with inflation:7.2
(B with inflation -0.32)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=9,27 SD=6,48
Remarks
Unemployment rate as a share of total labour force
Source: World Development Indicators, World Bank

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by unemployment rate
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 p < .05
b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
b controls for: 
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
b controls for: 
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of 
economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
b controls for: 
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
b controls for: 
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
b controls for: 
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.


b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies

Similar results are obtained when economic freedom 
is instrumented by:
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks 
English as a mother tongue

In sum: When significant, unemployment is 
negatively associated with average life 
satisfaction in nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 14,15,36
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
A INDIVIDUAL unemployment status:
1 : Unemployed
0 : Not unemployed

B AVERAGE unemployment:
    unemplyment rates in nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.32 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.58 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.06 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by NATIONAL unemployment 
RATES
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by NATIONAL unemployment rates

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - education
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national charactereristics
     - average perception of
     - income inequality in country
     - trustwortiness of people
     - unemployment rate
     - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study ZZ EU 12 1992
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, EU 12 member states, 1975-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =104000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 2027, 2029, 2032
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Unemployment rates in EU nation
Observed distributionN=69, M=0,083, SD=0,042, Range=0,002-0,220
Remarks
Data: CEP OECD Data-set

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Unemployment rate in NATION by INDIVIDUAL 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-.18 ns
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=+1.8 ns
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-.01 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-.50 ns
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=+.66 ns
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled for:
- personal characteristics
  - employment satus
  - gender
  - age 
  - educational level
  - marital status
  - number of children
  - income 
  - race
- inequality of incomes in nation
- inflation rate in nation

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyHessami (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1990
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 2009, University of Konstanz, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hessami_z_2009.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153268

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 18+15, 2x model 5
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Standardized unemployment rate
Remarks
Source: OECD Economic Outlook no 84.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 p < .01
Individual happiness by national unemployment rate

Beta controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - sexe
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - marital status
  - education
  - employment status
  - number of children
- national level
  - inflation rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures
  - public health expenditures

Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,025


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 46
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Unemployment as registered in Labour registration 
surveys
Remarks
ILO (1995) Yearbook of Labor Statisitics, 54th issue, 
Geneva

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.40
Happy Life Years by Unemployment in 42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.47
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 7,17
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
% unemployd in the workforce, averaged data for the 
1990s.
Observed distributionM = 8,38; SD = 4,48; Range: 0,72 - 23,60.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
Average happiness by Unemployment in 68 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
Average life-satisfaction by Unemployment in 68 
nations.

B's controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Inflation rate

Unaffected by additional control for:
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study ZZ EU 13 1989
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees, public and private sector, 13 European nations, 1989-1994
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50262

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment in nation
Page in Source 31
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
National rates of unemployment (%)
Remarks
Source: OECD

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b
HAPPINESS (in year) BY UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN 13 
NATIONS.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 ns
In private and public sector
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 p < .05
In private sector
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 ns
In public sector

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-income
-marital status
-education
-living area
-year and country (dummies)

Happiness in private sector more affected by 
unemployment than in public sector.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study ZZ EU 13 1989
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees, public and private sector, 13 European nations, 1989-1994
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50262

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment public sector (vs private sector)
Page in Source 31
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
National rates of unemployment (%)
Remarks
Source: OECD

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .05
Happiness in public sector (vs happiness in 
private sectors) by national unemployment rate.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .05
Interaction-effect unemployment rate x working in 
public sector (compared to working in private 
sector).

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-income
-marital status
-education
-living area
-year and country (dummies)

Unemployment has more (negative) impact on 
happiness of employees in private sector.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment rate
Page in Source 94
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.02 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE employment rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.00 p < .001
In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyBjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981
TitleFormal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence.
SourceEuropean Journal of Political Economy, 2010, Vol. 26, 419 -430
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2010.03.001
Public18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 11, 30, 32
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM=8,001 SD= 4,651

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by unemployment rate in nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
All nations (N=55)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
Rich nations (GDP per capita => 8000 USD, N=34)

B's controlled for
-average membership of voluntary organizations
-social trust
-belief in god
-divorce rate
-honest and efficient government
-post-communism
-openness to trade
-investment price level
-regional and period dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyLeite Mota & Trigo Pereira (2008): study ZZ OECD member states 1981
TitleHappiness, Economic Well-Being, Social Capital and the Quality of Institutions.
SourceWorking Paper no 40, 2008, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon, Portugal
URLhttp://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~depeco/wp/wp402008.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states, 1981-2001.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31904

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 14
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.07 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by unemployment rate in nation, 
no controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.08 p < .05
B controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GSP
  -Inflation
  -Confidence in police
  -GovDo (governance quality; simple average of 4 
   World Bank governance indicators: Government 
   Effectiveness,Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law 
   and Control of Corruption.)
  -social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 5
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by national employment rate
b(-0.013) controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 29
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Remarks
Data: OECD Employment Outlook

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-2.8 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by unemployment rate in the 
nation 
OPRC (-2.797) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1975
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 10, 10 nations, 1975
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 518, Table 1
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Rate of unemployment, percentage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by unemployment at national 
level in 10 nations.

b (-.01105) controlled for:
-union density
-real gdp per capita
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .01
b (-.01447) additionally controlled for
-welfare spending


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 member states, Western Europe, 1975
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12996

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 156
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Percentage of people per country who are unemployed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-3-ar=+.17 ns
                  M happiness    % Unemployed
Great Britain        1.95             3.8
France               1.89             3.9
W-Germany            1.89             4.2
Italy                1.61             5.3
Belgium              2.27             5.3
The Netherlands      2.22             4.0
Luxembourg           2.03             0.2
Denmark              2.54             4.6
Ireland              1.88             8.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 66
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Percentage of unemployment in 1987.
Remarks
United Nations(1993)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.02 ns
Average happiness by percentage unemployment in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyBlanchflower (2007): study ZZ EU 20 1973
TitleIs Unemployment more Costly than Inflation?
SourceNBER Working Paper no 13505, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/blanchflower_dg_2007a.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 20, Multiple nations, 1973
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =680000

Correlate
Author's labelNational unemployment rate
Page in Source 27, t5, col4; Page 29, t6, col1,2
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
National unemployment rate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.02 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL Happiness by unemployment rate in

ALL 20 NATIONS
N = 743.397
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.02 ns
13 RICH NATIONS. Average GDP: 28,777$
N = 597,246
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.05 p < .05
7 POOR NATIONS. Average GDP: 9,947$
N = 143,157.


Beta and OLRC controlled for:
-inflation
-age
-age squared
-gender
-schoolling
-marital status
-labour force status
-year
-country trends

Similar results with OLRC.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyBlanchflower (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 1973
TitleIs Unemployment more Costly than Inflation?
SourceNBER Working Paper no 13505, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/blanchflower_dg_2007a.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 1973
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =743397

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployement
Page in Source 23, table 3, column 3
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by unemployment in 25 
OECD-nations. 

Beta (-0,0118) controlled for
-inflation
-GDP per capita
-country
-year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment
Subject code: N04ac04

StudyArora (2003): study US 2000
TitleHappiness and the Jobless Recovery.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 17 June 2003, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/http://www.gallup.com/poll/8644/happiness-jobless-recovery.aspx
Public18+aged, employed, USA, 2000-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 1
Our classificationUnemployment, code N04ac04
Operationalization
Unemployment rate in %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-g-sq-v-2-bD%=- p < .05
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Working hours
Subject code: N04ac05

StudyRudolf & Cho (2011): study KR 1998
TitleThe Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea.
SourceCourant Research Centre, Discussion Papers no. 77, 2011, Göttingen, Germany
URLhttp://www.uni-goettingen.de/crc-peg
PublicWorking aged, South-Korea, followed 10 years 1998-2008
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25461

Correlate
Author's labelWorking hours
Page in Source 19
Our classificationWorking hours, code N04ac05
Operationalization
1 hours 0
2 hours 1-30
3 hours 31-40
4 hours 41-50
5 hours 51-60
6 hours 60+
Remarks
0 hours females = home maker

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=-
hours 0    males    females  difference
           M = 2.68 M = 3.23 M = -.55
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=-
hours 1-30 M = 2.99 M = 3.13 M = -.14
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
hours 31-40 M = 3.34 M = 3.27 M = +.07
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
hours 41-50 M = 3.36 M = 3.27 M = +.09
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
hours 51-60 M = 3.24 M = 3.09 M = +.15
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
hours 60+   M = 3.14 M = 2.98 M = +.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working hours
Subject code: N04ac05

StudyRudolf & Cho (2011): study KR 1998
TitleThe Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea.
SourceCourant Research Centre, Discussion Papers no. 77, 2011, Göttingen, Germany
URLhttp://www.uni-goettingen.de/crc-peg
PublicWorking aged, South-Korea, followed 10 years 1998-2008
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25461

Correlate
Author's labelWive's working hours
Page in Source 21
Our classificationWorking hours, code N04ac05
Operationalization
1 hours 1-30
2 hours 31-40
3 hours 41-50
4 hours 51-60
5 hours 60+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-e
WIVES (themselves)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.03 ns
Wive's working hours 1-30
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.02 ns
Wive's working hours 31-40
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.02 ns
Wive's working hours 41-50
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.03 p < .10
Wive's working hours 51-60
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.01 ns
Wive's working hours 60+
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-e
HUSBANDS
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.04 p < .10
Wive's working hours 1-30
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.01 ns
Wive's working hours 31-40
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.01 ns
Wive's working hours 41-50
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.00 ns
Wive's working hours 51-60
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=-.04 p < .05
Wive's working hours 60+

b-fix controled for:
- household head
- spouse
- year of survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working hours
Subject code: N04ac05

StudyRudolf & Cho (2011): study KR 1998
TitleThe Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea.
SourceCourant Research Centre, Discussion Papers no. 77, 2011, Göttingen, Germany
URLhttp://www.uni-goettingen.de/crc-peg
PublicWorking aged, South-Korea, followed 10 years 1998-2008
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25461

Correlate
Author's labelHusband's working hours
Page in Source 21
Our classificationWorking hours, code N04ac05
Operationalization
1 hours 1-30
2 hours 31-40
3 hours 41-50
4 hours 51-60
5 hours 60+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-e
WIVES
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.15 p < .01
Husband's working hours 1-30
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.20 p < .01
Husband's working hours 31-40
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.22 p < .01
Husband's working hours 41-50
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.20 p < .01
Husband's working hours 51-60
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.22 p < .01
Husband's working hours 60+
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-e
HUSBANDS (themselves)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.18 p < .01
Husband's working hours 1-30
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.26 p < .01
Husband's working hours 31-40
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.28 p < .01
Husband's working hours 41-50
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.26 p < .01
Husband's working hours 51-60
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.27 p < .01
Husband's working hours 60+

b-fix controled for:
- household head
- spouse
- year of survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working hours
Subject code: N04ac05

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelHours worked (ILO)
Page in Source 51
Our classificationWorking hours, code N04ac05
Operationalization
Exact measure not reported
Remarks
Derived from the International Labour Organization 
(ILO)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.00 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by working hours in country 
of residence.

B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working hours
Subject code: N04ac05

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2011a): study ZZ 1996
TitleEuropeans Work To Live and Americans To Work.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 225 - 243
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9188-8
Public15+ aged, general public, the U.S. and Western Europe, 1996-2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11630

Correlate
Author's labelworking hours
Page in Source 228, 229, 232
Our classificationWorking hours, code N04ac05
Operationalization
U.S. GSS: Self-report on a single question: How many 
hours did you work last week, at all jobs?

EB98/EB01: Self-report on single question: How many 
hours do you usually work a week in your job, including 
overtime? Please do not include meal breaks. If it 
varies, take the average over the last 4 weeks.

The variable of interest is an interaction of working 
hours and a dummy variable for Europe.
Observed distribution<17: 5% 17-34: 15% 35-39: 17% 40:27% 41-49: 15% 50-59: 11% 60-160: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOR=.99 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working hours
Subject code: N04ac05

StudyAlesina et al. (2005): study ZZ Europe 1992
TitleWork and leisure in the U.S. and Europe: Why so Different?
SourceWorking Paper no 11278, NBER Working Paper Series, 2005, Cambridge, USA.
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w11278.pdf?new_window=1
Public15-64 aged, employed heads of household, 10 EU countries, 1972-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual hours worked per person
Page in Source 60
Our classificationWorking hours, code N04ac05
Operationalization
Remarks
T1: 1972  T2: 1995

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .05
T1 Average happiness by AVERAGE working hours in 
10 nations
B=-.00128
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
T2 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE working hours in 
10 nations 
B=-.00126

B's controlled for collectively agreed vacation 
days
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
T1-T2 CHANGE average happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
working hours
B=-.00054


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyRam (2009): study ZZ 2006 /1
TitleGovernment Spending and Happiness of the Population: Additional Evidence from Large Cross-Country Samples.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 483 - 490
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/40270884?origin=JSTOR-pdf
DOIDOI:10.1007/sl 1127-008-9372-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 87 nations, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =87000

Correlate
Author's label(international) Openness
Page in Source 485, 488
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Exports + imports as percentage of GDP, 2003.
Observed distributionM = 87.0, SD = 53.1, N = 143
Remarks
Penn World Table 6.2, 2003.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.00 ns
AVERAGE happiness by openness of economy in 87 
nations.
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.00 ns
b's controlled for:
- Real GDP per capita
- Government consumption
- Investment price-level
- Dummies for:
  - transition (former socialist) economies
  - OECD high income countries
  - African and Latin American countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyKim & Kim (2012): study ZZ 2000
TitleDoes Government Make People Happy?: Exploring New Research Directions for Government’s Roles in Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2012, Vol. 13, 875 - 899
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
Public15+ aged, general public, 131 nations, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 898
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Openness to trade summed the percentage of each 
country's import and export ratio among GDP
Remarks
Data source: World Development Indicator

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=-.01 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by openness of economy
B controlled for:
-Social trust
-Economy
  -investment price
  -log GDP
-Post communist
-Government
  -quantity of government
  -quality of government

 -quality of government (Government Effectiveness; 
similar results when controlled for Regulatory 
Quality or Control of corruption)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov (2005): study ZZ World samples 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction: Is There a Role for Policy?
SourcePolicy Paper No. VI/2005, European Enterprise Insitute, 2005, Brussels, Belgium
Public18+ aged, general public, 73 nations, 1997-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 10
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionM = 89,05, SD = 57,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-100-ab=+.09
AVERAGE happiness, by level of openness of the 
economy in 73 nations

B controlled for:
- social trust
- government share of GDP
- investment price level
- communist past
- log GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997
TitleThe Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World.
SourcePublic Choice, 2007, Vol. 130, 267 - 292
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9081-5
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 11
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Sum of exports and imports as % of GDP.
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Mark 6.1 (Heston, Summers 
and Aten, 2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .01
% very happy citizens by opnenness of economy in 
74 nations

B controlled for
-social trust
-investment price
-log gdp per capita
-postcommunist
-government consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labeltrade openness, globalization
Page in Source 131,137,146
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Sum of exports and imports as % of GDP
Remarks
Source: World Bank (2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Individual happiness (not average) by openness of 
economy in one's nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .01
All            (B = +.001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .01
males          (B = +.001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .01
females        (B = +.001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .05
left voters    (B = +.001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .05
right voters   (B = +.001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .01
low income     (B = +.002)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.00 p < .01
middle income  (B = +.001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 p < .05
high income     (B = +.001)

Beta's controlled for:

Area-dummies and other economic variables:
- investment price level
- average tariff rate
- income inequality
- GDP per capita
- government consumption
- inflation
- unemployment
- globalization index 1995
- compound growth, 5 years
- growth stability
- top marginal tax rate
- public debt in % GDP
- access to technology

Individual level variables:
- religion 
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic openness
Page in Source 8
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Openness of economy; exports and imports as % of GDP.
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 77,16 SD = 53,23
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by openness of the economy in 67 nations. 


'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.00 ns
B (+0,000) controlled for:
-income inequality
-GDP per capita
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

No relation between economic openness and the 
difference in happiness between poor and rich.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 530
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
1: Open
0: Closed

A country is classified as open if it displays ALL of 
the following characteristics:
(1) average tariff rates of 40% of more
(2) nontariff barriers covering 40% or more of trade
(3) a black market exchange rate that is depreciated by 
20% or more relative to official exchange rate
(4) a state monopoly on major exports
(5) a socialist economic system.
Remarks
Source: Wacziarg and Welch (2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.21 ns
AVERAGE happiness by openness in 64 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.27 ns
AVERAGE life satisfaction by openness in 74 
nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy

Results are similar when sample excludes Eastern 
Europe.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.71 p < .05
b additionally controls for:
-interaction: Eastern Europe*openness
(b interaction=-.85, p<.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelYears of openness
Page in Source 529
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Number of years a country is classified as 'open'.

A country is classified as open if it displays ALL of 
the following characteristics:
(1) average tariff rates of 40% of more
(2) nontariff barriers covering 40% or more of trade
(3) a black market exchange rate that is depreciated by 
20% or more relative to official exchange rate
(4) a state monopoly on major exports
(5) a socialist economic system.
Observed distributionM=18,43 SD=17,30
Remarks
Source: Wacziarg and Welch (2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ar=+.57
AVERAGE happiness by years of openness in 64 
nations
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.02 p < .05
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.02 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-Latin america dummy*years of openness

(b interaction=-.08, p<.05)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
EXCLUDING EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.62
AVERAGE life satisfaction by years of openness in 
74 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 ns
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy

Results are similar when sample excludes Eastern 
Europe.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in openness dummy
Page in Source 530
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
0: Always closed economy
1: Other
   a: Closed to open economy
   b: Always open economy

A country is classified as open if it displays ALL of 
the following characteristics:
(1) average tariff rates of 40% of more
(2) nontariff barriers covering 40% or more of trade
(3) a black market exchange rate that is depreciated by 
20% or more relative to official exchange rate
(4) a state monopoly on major exports
(5) a socialist economic system.
Remarks
Source: Wacziarg and Welch (2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 ns
AVERAGE happiness by change in openness in 64 
nations

CLOSED TO OPEN ECONOMY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.05 ns
AVERAGE life satisfaction by change in openness in 
74 nations
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=+.28 ns
ALWAYS OPEN ECONOMY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.62 p < .01
b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage tariff
Page in Source 536
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Higher values indicate higher average tariff rates in a 
nation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
AVERAGE happiness by average tariff in 57 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 p < .10
AVERAGE life satisfaction by average tariff in 66 
nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelExport marketing board
Page in Source 536
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Higher values indicate a greater state monopoly on 
exports.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.63 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by export marketing board in 64 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.51 ns
AVERAGE life satisfaction by export marketing 
board in 74 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelExport
Page in Source 7
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Export in % GDP; averaged data for the 1990s.
Observed distributionM = 33,90; SD = 19,49; Range: 8,79 - 112,36.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.00 ns
Average happiness by Export in 68 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 ns
Average life-satisfaction by Export in 68 nations.

B's controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelImport
Page in Source 7
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Import in % GDP, averaged data for the 1990s.
Observed distributionM = 36,15; SD = 19,97; Range: 8,30 - 102,01.
Remarks
Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 
(WDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.00 ns
Average happiness by Import in 68 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
Average life-satisfaction by Import in 68 nations.

B's controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
-Asia (dummy)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
-GDP per capita of neighbors
-Export
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelTrade openness
Page in Source 27,31
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Trade-volume as % of GDP
Observed distributionN = 81 M = 87,2 Range: 18,2 to 326,2 SD = 55,86
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.04 ns
% happy by trade openness in 33 nations.

B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-associational activity in nation
-post communist
-inflation
-social norms in nation
-social trust in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981
TitleFormal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence.
SourceEuropean Journal of Political Economy, 2010, Vol. 26, 419 -430
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2010.03.001
Public18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness to trade
Page in Source 30, 32
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM=63,652 SD=47,804
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Mark 6.1 (Heston et al., 
2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by openness to trade in nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 p < .05
All nations (N=55)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.00 p < .05
Rich nations (GDP per capita => 8000 USD, N=34)

B's controlled for
-average membership of voluntary organizations
-social trust
-belief in god
-divorce rate
-unemployment rate
-post-communism
-honest and efficient government
-investment price level
-regional and period dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelFDI flows
Page in Source 5
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Foreign direct investment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+4.7 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by openness of the economy in 
one's nation
b(4.7E) controlled for
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ EU 27 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public15+ aged, 29 EU nations, 2007-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 174
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Openess to trade.
Remarks
Data: Fraser Institute.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .01
CHANGE average happiness by openness of the 
economy in 29 nations 2007-2010.

B controled for:
- GDP growth rate
- legal quality
- social trust
- postcommunist
- government size
- investment price
- recession
- interaction growth x recession

Random effect analysis
Fixed effect similar ( B = -.03)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 174
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM = 0,889 SD = 0,471
Remarks
Data: Bjornskov et al. 2008b; Dolan et al. 2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by economic openness in 
nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Random effects model. Fixed effects: B = -.02 (ns)

Random effects model: B = +0,037 (.01)
Fixed effects model:  B = -0,016 (ns)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .01
No significant change, when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness of economy
Subject code: N04ac06

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness
Page in Source 29
Our classificationOpenness of economy, code N04ac06
Operationalization
Logarithm of the sum of exports and imports as a 
proportion of GDP
Remarks
Data: OECD National Accounts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.19 p < .10
INDIVIDUAL happiness by openness in the nation 
OPRC (-0.186) controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Informal economy, black market
Subject code: N04ac07

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labelShadow economy
Page in Source 12,13
Our classificationInformal economy, black market, code N04ac07
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Data: Schneider and Klinglmair (2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-
AVERAGE happiness, by the proportion of shadow 
economy in GDP.
Coefficient not reported
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Informal economy, black market
Subject code: N04ac07

StudyTsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80000

Correlate
Author's labelBlack market premium
Page in Source 536
Our classificationInformal economy, black market, code N04ac07
Operationalization
Higher values indicate that the black market exchange 
rate is higher relative to the official exchange rate.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-ab=-.07 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by black market premium in 63 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.06 p < .10
AVERAGE life satisfaction by black market premium 
in 73 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Investment price level
Subject code: N04ac08

StudyRam (2009): study ZZ 2006 /1
TitleGovernment Spending and Happiness of the Population: Additional Evidence from Large Cross-Country Samples.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 483 - 490
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/40270884?origin=JSTOR-pdf
DOIDOI:10.1007/sl 1127-008-9372-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 87 nations, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =87000

Correlate
Author's labelPrice level for investment (PI)
Page in Source 485,488
Our classificationInvestment price level, code N04ac08
Operationalization
Price level investment for 2003.
Observed distributionM = 78.1, SD = 39.9, N = 143
Remarks
Penn World Table 6.2, 2003.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.01 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by investment price level in 87 
nations.
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.01 p < .05
b's controlled for:
- Real GDP per capita
- Government consumption
- International openness of the economy
- Dummies for:
  - transition (former socialist) economies
  - OECD high income countries
  - African and Latin American countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Investment price level
Subject code: N04ac08

StudyBjornskov (2005): study ZZ World samples 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction: Is There a Role for Policy?
SourcePolicy Paper No. VI/2005, European Enterprise Insitute, 2005, Brussels, Belgium
Public18+ aged, general public, 73 nations, 1997-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price level
Page in Source 10
Our classificationInvestment price level, code N04ac08
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionM = ,869 SD = ,36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-100-ab=+16
AVERAGE happiness, by Investment price level in 73 
nations

B controlled for:
- social trust
- openness of the economy
- government share of GDP
- communist past
- log GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Investment price level
Subject code: N04ac08

StudyGehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleWho Benefits from Economic Freedom? Unraveling the Effect of Economic Freedom on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceWorld Development, 2013, Vol. 50, 74 - 90
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X13001150
DOIDOI:10/1016/j.worlddev.2013.05.003
Public18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price level
Page in Source 79
Our classificationInvestment price level, code N04ac08
Operationalization
Investment price level in the country relative to the 
US investment price level.
Observed distributionM=66,521 SD=26,964

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.48
AVERAGE happiness by investment price level in 79 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.45
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .01
b controls for:
- social trust
- belief in God
- log GDP per capita
- government share (% of GDP)
- regional dummies
- period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .05
b additionally controls for:
- economic freedom

b is for pooled OLS with robust SE. Similar 
coefficients with different levels of statistical 
significance are obtained for a fixed effects 
model, random effects model, and an autoregressive 
(1) random effects model.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.49
% VERY HAPPY (top 3 life satisfaction) by 
investment price level in 79 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Investment price level
Subject code: N04ac08

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price level
Page in Source 174
Our classificationInvestment price level, code N04ac08
Operationalization
The price of capital goods relative to the overall 
price level
Observed distributionM = 1,001 SD = 0,208
Remarks
Data: Bjornskov et al. 2008b; Dolan et al. 2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.15 p < .05
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by investment price 
level in nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.007 
(ns)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.12 p < .1
B additionally controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)

Fixed effects model. Random effects:  B = -.04 
(ns)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.12 p < .1
No significant change, when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions
Subject code: N04ac09

StudyCampbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleWell-Being and the labour Market from a Global View: It's not Just the Money
SourceGlatzer, W.; Camfield, L.; Moller, V.; Rojas, M.; Eds.: "Global Handbook of Quality of Life" , Springer Science+Buisiness Media, 2014, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 351 - 379
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-017-9178-6_15
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26723

Correlate
Author's labelDecent work index
Page in Source 364,365
Our classificationWork conditions, code N04ac09
Operationalization
Decent work index:
a - Income inequality (Gini)
b - Gender inequality
c - Collective bargaining coverage
d - Unemployment rate

The ranks of each nation in the nationset on each of 
the 4 items of the index were summed, equally weighted 
and divided by 4, producing a 'decent work' ranking.
Remarks
Due to missing values the original 27 EU nationset was 
limited to 20 nations in this analysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+
AVREAGE happiness by decent work in 20 EU nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Global competitiveness
Subject code: N04ac10

StudySachs (2016): study ZZ 2015
TitleHappiness and Sustainable Development: Concepts and Evidence.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.1, 56 - 65 , New York, USA
URLhttp://worldhappiness.report/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/03/HR-V1Ch4_web.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 119 nations, 2015-2016
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =199000

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal Competitiveness Index
Page in Source 62
Our classificationGlobal competitiveness, code N04ac10
Operationalization
Index of:
a.	Institutions
b.	Infrastructure
c.	Macroeconomic environment
d.	Innovation
e.	Business sophistication
f.	Market size
g.	Health & primary education
h.	Higher education and training
i.	Good markets efficiency
j.	Technological readiness
k.	Financial market development
l.	Labor market efficiency
Remarks
Annuallly produced by the World Economic Forum.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.3 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by GCI index.

No controls
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.12 ns
b controled for
- sustainable development goals index 
- global competitiveness index 2015-2016
- index of economic freedom 2016
- GDP per capita
- unemployment rate (IEF data set)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cRa²=.60


Correlational finding on Happiness and Standard of living in the nation
Subject code: N04ad

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-rated standard of living: high
Page in Source 216,222
Our classificationStandard of living in the nation, code N04ad
Operationalization
Self-rated standard of living:
1 high
0 otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.30 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.20 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.21 p < .05
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Standard of living in the nation
Subject code: N04ad

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelRich countries ( vs poor)
Page in Source 265
Our classificationStandard of living in the nation, code N04ad
Operationalization
Index of:
A: average household income of all respondents within 
the same nation.
B: The GDP ( Purchasing Power Parity) data of each 
nation, obtained from the World Bank.
C: Percentage of people in a nation who possesses 
modern conviences.
D: Percentage of people in a nation who could not meet 
their basic needs.
E: Life expectancy at birth.

Splitt up into
1 poor nations
2 rich nations
Remarks
Wealth of nation is measured by the survey itself and 
an independent source.
The per capita GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) data of 
each nation was obtained from the World Bank.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=+
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE standard of living in 
121 nations

Rich countries M = 6.71
Poor countries M = 4.64
- difference=     +2.07
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=+


Correlational finding on Happiness and Standard of living in the nation
Subject code: N04ad

StudyBjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981
TitleFormal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence.
SourceEuropean Journal of Political Economy, 2010, Vol. 26, 419 -430
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2010.03.001
Public18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment price level
Page in Source 12, 30, 32
Our classificationStandard of living in the nation, code N04ad
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM=0,864 SD=0,294

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by investment price level in 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.69 p < .05
All nations (N=55)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .01
Rich nations (GDP per capita => 8000 USD, N=34)

B's controlled for
-average membership of voluntary organizations
-social trust
-belief in god
-divorce rate
-unemployment rate
-post-communism
-openness to trade
-honest and efficient government
-regional and period dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power of average citizen
Subject code: N04ad01

StudyDiener et al. (2010a): study ZZ 2005
TitleWealth and Happiness across the World: Material Prosperity predicts Life Evaluation, Whereas Psychosocial Prosperity predicts Positive Feeling.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, Vol. 99, 52 - 61
DOIDOI:10.1037/a0018066
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =136839

Correlate
Author's labelNationalwealth
Page in Source 54-57
Our classificationPurchasing power of average citizen, code N04ad01
Operationalization
Real GDP per capita 2005-2007, based on purchasing 
power parity in nation in constant $ 2000 international 
dollars.
Remarks
Data World Bank.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.44 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+.22 p < .001
  Beta controled for:
- Basic needs unmet
- Psychological needs met.
- Luxury conveniences
- Satisfaction with standard of living
- Relative income
- Log household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Purchasing power of average citizen
Subject code: N04ad01

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study US 1975
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per Capita
Our classificationPurchasing power of average citizen, code N04ad01
Operationalization
Real GDP per Capita measured in 1990 U.S. Dollars

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=0 ns
AVERAGE HAPPINESS and AVERAGE INCOME over 20 
years.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality\quantity of facilities in nation
Subject code: N04ad02

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelHave electricity
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationQuality\quantity of facilities in nation, code N04ad02
Operationalization
Self reported on a single question.
Does your home have Electricity?
1-Yes
0- No
Observed distributionM=0.83, Range from 0.03 (Burundi) to 1.0 (51 nations)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.62 p < .01
% Electricity by AVERAGE happiness in 164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality\quantity of facilities in nation
Subject code: N04ad02

StudyDiener (1995a): study ZZ 1946
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
SourceGrad, H.;et al;Eds.: "Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology", Swets & Zeitlinger, 1995, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 43 nations, 1946-1992
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelThe fulfilment of basic needs
Page in Source 10
Our classificationQuality\quantity of facilities in nation, code N04ad02
Operationalization
Mean of five standardized variables:
a longevity
b infant mortality(reverse scored)
c available food calories
d percent with sanitary facilities
e percent with clean drinking water

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-ar=+.55 p < .001
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.37 p < .05
O-SLW---sq-*-11-ar=+.60 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Housing
Subject code: N04ad02b

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's label% houses with electricity
Page in Source 42
Our classificationHousing, code N04ad02b
Operationalization
% houses with electricity as found in housing 
statistics
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 185

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.34
Happy Life Years by % with electricity in 36 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.27
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Housing
Subject code: N04ad02b

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of rooms per house
Page in Source 42
Our classificationHousing, code N04ad02b
Operationalization
Number of rooms per house as found in housing 
statistics
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 183

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.46
Happy Life Years by number of rooms per house in 
42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.04
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schools
Subject code: N04ad02d

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSchool enrolment ratio
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSchools, code N04ad02d
Operationalization
Remarks
Source: World Bank, World Development Report 1995, 
table 3.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.51
Average happiness by % school enrolment ratio in 
36 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.26
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schools
Subject code: N04ad02d

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ World samples 1985
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicUniversity students, 39 nations around 1985
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18032

Correlate
Author's labeleducation
Page in Source 54
Our classificationSchools, code N04ad02d
Operationalization
Remarks
Source: Estes, R,J.: 1984, The social Progress of 
Nations. Pp 169, 183/4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.50 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE education in 34 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schools
Subject code: N04ad02d

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ 1980
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicAdults, general public, 32 countries, around 1980
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labeleducation
Page in Source 54
Our classificationSchools, code N04ad02d
Operationalization
Remarks
Source: Estes, R,J.: 1984, The social Progress of 
Nations. Pp 169, 183/4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.69 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERGAE education in 28 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Access to clean water
Subject code: N04ad02e

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's label% inhabitants without clean water
Page in Source 42
Our classificationAccess to clean water, code N04ad02e
Operationalization
% of inhabitants without acces to clean water as found 
in census and surveys
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 194

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.65
Happy Life Years by % without clean water in 39 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.13
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Homelessness
Subject code: N04ad03a

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelNo shelter
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationHomelessness, code N04ad03a
Operationalization
Self reported on a single question.
Have there been times in the past 12 months when you 
did not have enough money to provide adequate shelter 
or housing for you and your family?
1- Yes
0- No
Observed distributionM=0.22, Range from 0.64 (Azerbaijan) to 0.02 (Singapore)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.63 p < .01
% Homeless by AVERAGE happiness in 164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyPelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleEating well and Life Satisfaction; a Global View.
SourceThe Gallup Company, 2009, Washington DC, USQA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/113827/eating-well-life-satisfaction-global-view.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelHunger
Page in Source 2
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on single question: "Have there been times 
in the past 12 months when you or your family have gone 
hungry?" 
0= no
1= yes
Observed distribution% yes: Africa: 56%, Americas: 16%, Asia: 9%, Europe: 3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
Africa
0 = no hunger, M = 4,7 
1 = hunger,    M = 3,9
      Difference =-0,8

The Americas
0 = no hunger, M = 6,1 
1 = hunger,    M = 4,6
      Difference =-1,5
Asia
0 = no hunger, M = 5,4
1 = hunger,    M = 4,1
      Difference =-1,3

Europe
0 = no hunger, M = 5,9 
1 = hunger,    M = 4,1
      Difference =-1,8
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelHungry
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Self reported on a single question.
Have there been times in the past 12 months when you or 
your family have gone hungry?
1-Yes
0-No
Observed distributionM=0.19, Range from 0.80 (Liberia) to 0.00 (Austria)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.58 p < .01
% Hungry by AVERAGE happiness to 164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelNo food
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Self reported on a single question.
Have there been times in the past twelve months when 
you did not have enough money to buy food that you or 
your family needed?
1-Yes
0- No
Observed distributionM=0.32, Range from 0.82 (Central African Republic) to 0.03 (Singapore)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.72 p < .01
% No engough food by AVERAGE happiness of 164 
nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's label% inhabitants undernourished
Page in Source 42
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
%  inhabitants with nourishment below 2500 cal per day
Remarks
Data: Kurian's New book of world rankings (1992), New 
York, Table 192

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.41
Happy Life Years by % undernourished in 42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.07
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelmalnutrition
Page in Source 22
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
% with caloric intake less than 2500 calories
Remarks
Source Kurian 1992, table 192

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.16
Average happiness by malnutrition in 42 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.12
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ World samples 1985
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicUniversity students, 39 nations around 1985
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18032

Correlate
Author's labelNutrition
Page in Source 54
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Caloric intake
Remarks
Data: UNDP 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.16
AVERAGE happiness (of students) by AVERGAE 
nutrition in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ 1980 /2
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 31 nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNutrition
Page in Source 50
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Daily calory supply per capita as a percentage of 
requirement.
Remarks
Source: World Development Report 1984:264/5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=-.28 p < .01
Average happiness by average calory intake in  28 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyVeenhoven & Ehrhardt (1995): study ZZ 1980
TitleThe Cross-National Pattern of Happiness.Test of Predictions Implied in Three Theories of Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 33 - 68
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16197
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078967
PublicAdults, general public, 32 countries, around 1980
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelNutrition
Page in Source 54
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Caloric intake
Remarks
Data: UNDP 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.28
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by AVERAGE NUTRITION in 28 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Malnutrition
Subject code: N04ad03b

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8433

Correlate
Author's labelMalnutrition
Page in Source 150
Our classificationMalnutrition, code N04ad03b
Operationalization
Frequency of malnutrition per country. Average 
sufficiency of food consumption in calories per day 
based on estimates about what is biologically required 
in the climatic conditions in the various nations. 
Data derived from Kurian (1979:307)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=-.64 p < .01
                  Mt happiness   Malnutrition in
                                 calories
Australia             7.0             126
North America         6.7             133
Western Europe        6.3             132
Latin America         6.0             107
Africa (South 
of the Sahara)        4.6              94
Asia (exc. Japan)     3.8              92
Japan                 5.8             121


Correlational finding on Happiness and Poverty
Subject code: N04ad03c

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, München, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelRegional poverty
Page in Source Table & Table 2
Our classificationPoverty, code N04ad03c
Operationalization
Share of the population that lives in households whose 
income is below the poverty threshold defined by the 
National Bureau of Statistics
Remarks
Data: Istat, 2008b

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.01 p < .01
B controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Gender
 -Marital status
 -Age
 -Health condition
 -Education 
-Income position
 -Ownership of the house of residence
 -Household income
 -Mortgage loan 
 -Work status
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Poverty
Subject code: N04ad03c

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Dete